1. Reuben Gold Thwaites, The Colonies: 1492-1750, Epochs of American History series, (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902), 17.
2. James M. Crawford, The Mobilain Trade Language (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1978), 76; Charles Hudson, The Southeastern Indians (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982), 25; Kennith York, "Mobilian: The Indian Lingua Franca of Colonial Louisiana," in Patricia K. Galloway, ed., LaSalle and His Legacy: Frenchmen and Indians in the Lower Mississippi Valley (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1983), 139-45.
3. John R. Swanton, Indians of the Southeastern United States, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 43, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1911), 73.
4. Dunbar Rowland, A. G. Sanders, & Patricia Kay Galloway, Mississippi Provincial Archives: French Dominion, 1729-1748, 5 vols., Baton Rouge: (Louisiana State University Press, 1984), Perier to Maurepas, April 1, 1730, 4:31 (hereafter cited as FPA).
5 FPA, Perier to Ory, Dec 18, 1730, 4:39.
6. Richard Hofstadter, America at 1750: A Social Portrait (New York: Vintage Books, 1973), 153.
7. James Adair, History of the American Indians, Samuel Cole Williams, ed. (New York: Promontory Press, 1984, reprint of 1775 ed.), 122.
8. FPA, Vaudereuil to Rouille', June 24, 1750, 5:47.
9. Abiezier C. Ramsey, The Autobiography of A. C. Ramsey, Jean Strickland, ed., mimeographed annotated edition of WPA typescript of original 1879 manuscript, Department of Archives and History, Montgomery, Alabama, published by the editor, Moss Point, MS., p. 8.
10. Horatio B. Cushman, History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians, Angie Debo, ed. (New York: Russell & Russell, 1962, reprint of 1899 edition), 396-97.
11 Benjamin Hawkins, A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the Years 1798 and 1799 and Letters of Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1806, (Spartanburg: Reprint Company Publishers, 1982, combination reprint edition of 1848 and 1916 editions), 318-19.
12. James Adair, History of the American Indians, 151.
13. In reference to Bartram's July 1776 trip to Mobile. William Bartram, Travels of William Bartram, mark Van Doren, ed., (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1955, reprint of 1928 edition), 323.
14. Mobile was used to attract Choctaws as a policy decision by the Spanish officials there.
15. Bartram, Travels, 350-51.
17. Ibid., p. 341. Compare to Terry L.. Carpenter, "Richard Carpenter (1729-1788) Pioneer Merchant of British West Florida and the Natchez District of Spanish West Florida," National Genealogical Society Quarterly, 72 (March 1984), 1: 51-2. Panton, Leslie & Company out of Pensacola and Mobile was the most influential southeastern trading house after the American Revolution. Romans briefly discusses Choctaw Trade, while the best account of the Chickasaw trade is in Adair. No doubt the major powers, including the United States after the Revolution, all vied for Indian trade as a means not only of profit but also as a way to pacify the Indians' strong reactions to white desires to acquire Indian land for various money making schemes.
18. George S. Gaines, "Reminiscences," originally appeared as a series in the Mobile Press Register, 1872, Mobile, Alabama, clippings from Mississippi Department of Archives and History (MDAH), Z 431f and Z 239, Box 12, folder 8; a later, second series of reminiscences also occurs in MDAH 431f
19. W. David Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws, Civilization of the Indians Series, 116, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972), 51.
20. American State Papers: Documents, legislative and Executive of the Congress of the United States, Indian Affairs, 2 vols., (Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1832-34), 1:50 (Hereafter sited as ASP IA). Thus John Pitchlynn would have entered the Choctaw nation with his father, Isaac round the age of eighteen, that he would have been fifty when Peter Pitchlynn was born in 1806, and approaching seventy when he journeyed to Washington in 1820 with the Choctaw treaty delegation. The fact that the rigors of the journey (among other factors) resulted in the deaths of two Choctaw chiefs underscores Pitchlynn's robust and healthy constitution.
21. Bernard Romans, A Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, (New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Company, 1961, edited reprint of the 1775 edition), 207.
22. T-500; Records of the Choctaw Trading House, 1803-24, Record Group 75, National Archives, microfilm T-500 (hereafter RCTH, T-500), also see Jean Strickland, "Records of the Choctaw Trading Post," 1984, mimeographed typescript of selected Choctaw Trading post records, pp. 28-95, passim, for extensive use of factory by James family.
23. Cushman, History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw and Natchez Indians, 331.
24. Ibid., 349.
25. Ibid., 326.
26. Ibid., 326-7.
28. FPA:V, 301n5.
29. There was also a Favre who settled on the lower Pearl River in present-day Hancock County, Mississippi, who probably entertained the famous botanist, William Bartram around 1777. William Bartram, Travels of William Bartram, ed., Mark Van Doren (New York: Dover Publications, 1955), 334; Charles L. Sullivan, The Mississippi Gulf Coast: Portrait of a People (Northridge, California: Windsor Publications, 1985), 34, 36, 43. This family has many descendents in the same area today.
30. Peter J. Hamilton, Colonial Mobile, ed., Charles G. Summershell (University, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1976), 323.
31. As early as 1708 French officials were complaining of Canadians living too freely among the Indians, stating in a census report, "Plus 60 Canadians qui sont dans les villages sauvages cituez le long du fleuve de Mississipy sans permissions d'aucun gouverneur, qui detruisent par leur mauvaise vie libertine avec les sauvages tout ce que Mrs des Missions Estrangeres et autre leur enseignent sur les divins mistai la Religion Chrestiene." Hamilton, Colonial Mobile, 529; for a translation see Albert James Pickett, History of Alabama, and Incidentally of Georgia and Mississippi, (Tuscaloosa: Willo Publishing Company, 1962, reprint of the 1878 edition), 179-80.