I throw a challenge to this group :-)
Today, I added very brief profiles of the settlements in New Netherland that actually developed as cities: New York and Albany. In fact, both places were incorporated as cities (New Amsterdam and Beverwyck, respectively) within our timeframe (1609-1674). I'm not sure if incorporation is the right criterium.
So, my challenge to you is to find other places :-) New Haarlem? Kingston? Bergen?
I don't know. Did they become formal cities in the 17th century? Perhaps we need another criterium?
What I find particularly interesting, is if we can give numbers for the homes/people in those places in the 17th century - simply because it gives us some perspective. Plus, for both NY and Albany I found lists of the families living there (admittedly, Albany quite late in the century - but it certainly helps).