Hello all. As you can see, I posted a first draft.
I try to focus on the 'points of entry'. Hence, it's not an inventory of all colonies (nor their capitals), but an inventory of 'primary' destinations for European immigrants in colonial times.
A few notes...
* Britain: there are many more Caribbean islands, of course, but they seem to me as 'secondary' destinations after initial entry (to be tuned)
* Spain: there was a major settlement move into California etc, but this again looks secondary; the question may be, what was the primary entry point for this: was it Veracruz in Mexico, or any of the 'Spanish Main' ports? To be discussed.
* France: there are many interesting settlements from tthe North southwards, from Detroit over St Louis, Memphis etc. Here, again, I would assume these were secondary destinations, with original settlers arriving mostly thorugh Quebec City and (later) New Orleans (to be discussed)
I think the Dutch, Swedish and Portuguese colonies are pretty straightforward.
Please keep in mind that this is not trying to map all the nationalities that arrived in the Americas. The Danish, Germans, Italians, etc... arrived through the colonization efforts of the main colonizers - and hence they left Europe through the ports of those colonizers.