II. András - Andrew II of Hungary ÁRPÁD(házi), King (c.1176 - c.1235) MP

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Nicknames: "Andrew II King of Hungary", "Jeruzsálemi Endre", "Andrés II "El Hierosolimitano" de Hungría", "King Andras II of Hungary/", "the Jerosolitan", "le HiΘrosolymitain", "Андраш II", "ÁRPÁD(házi) II. András - Andrew II", "King of Hungary D. March 7", "or Sept. 21/25 1235 ("
Birthplace: Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom 1176/77, Hungary
Death: Died in Csanád county (March 7, or Sept. 21/25 1235)
Occupation: magyar király / King of Hungary, Kung i Ungern 1205-1235, King of Hungary, Rey de Hungría ()
Managed by: FARKAS Mihály László
Last Updated:

About II. András - Andrew II of Hungary ÁRPÁD(házi), King

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_II_of_Hungary

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Bull_of_1222

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http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_Toc146273222

HUNGARY KINGS

Chapter 5.

C. PRINCES of HUNGARY 955-1000, KINGS of HUNGARY 1000-1301.

ANDRÁS II 1205-1235, ANDRÁS III 1290-1301


ANDRÁS, son of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1176-21 Sep 1235, bur Egrecz, Cistercian Abbey). The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysæ"[804]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" and his wife Agnes[805]. After the accession of his brother, András demanded Croatia and Dalmatia as an appanage but this was refused. He revolted, and by 1198 obtained his demands and became Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia[806]. He and subsequent dukes acted as the king of Hungary's deputy in the kingdom of Croatia. "Andreas, tertii Belæ regis filius…Dalmatiæ, Croatiæ, Ramæ, Culmæque dux" appointed "Pharensi episcopum" by charter dated 1198, witnessed by "Andrea Bano, comite Macharia, comite Ioseph, comite Marco, comite Andronico filio Bani camerario ducis Wenceslao…"[807]. He conquered western Hum (Herzegovina) down to the river Neretva in 1198[808]. The Continuatio Admuntensis records that he was arrested in 1203, suspected of plotting to take over the kingdom, and imprisoned "in palacio Strigoniensi quod alio nomine Gran vocatur"[809]. He ousted his nephew in 1205 and succeeded as ANDRÁS II King of Hungary. He played an active part in the dismemberment of Galich-Volynia after the death of Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich in 1205, Hungary and Poland eventually agreeing the division of the territories between them under the treaty of Spisz in 1214, although Hungary expelled Poland from Peremyshl and Lyubachev in 1215/1216[810]. In 1211, King András hired the Order of Teutonic Knights, who had been expelled back to Europe from Palestine, to defend the eastern frontier of Transylvania against the Kumans[811], but they attempted to establish their autonomy there under the protection of the Pope. King András expelled the Teutonic Knights in 1225[812] on the pretext of their having disobeyed his orders. King András set sail from Split for Palestine on crusade in Oct 1217, but left Acre in early 1218 having achieved little besides acquiring a small collection of religious relics[813]. He returned by the land route, via Constantinople, but at the end of 1218 he was seized in Bulgarian territory and released only after agreeing the marriage of his daughter to Ivan Asen II Tsar of Bulgaria[814]. He threatened war with Serbia after Grand Župan Stefan was crowned King of Serbia by the papal legate in 1217, claiming that he alone had the right to this title, but did not carry out the threat[815]. King András's abuses caused the Hungarian nobles to rebel in 1222 and forced him to issue the Golden Bull, a charter defining the rights of the nobility and restricting the king's right to appoint foreigners to office without the consent of the Council[816], a reform forced by the rebellion of the lower nobility in Croatia according to Goldstein[817]. In 1227, Bortz Khan of the Kumans swore allegiance to the king of Hungary after ordering the baptism of his people, rex Cumaniæ being added to the titles of the Hungarian king soon after[818]. King András attacked north-west Bulgaria in 1232 and recaptured Beograd and Braničevo which he had been forced to cede as part of the dowry of his daughter Maria. He crossed the Danube into Wallachia where the Hungarians created a Banate in the Severin region[819]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death in 1235 of "Andreas filius Bele" and his burial "in monasterio de Egrus"[820]. The Chronicon Zagrabiense records the death "XI Kal Oct" in 1235 of "rex Andreas filius regis Belæ III" and his burial "in monasterio suo Egres"[821]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1235 of "Andreas rex Hungarie" and his burial "in civitate Waradino"[822].

m firstly (before 1203) GERTRUD von Andechs-Merano, daughter of BERTHOLD III Duke of Merano, Marchese of Istria, Graf von Andechs & his wife Agnes von Wettin (-murdered 8 Sep 1213). The Continuatio Admuntensis refers to "filiam Perhtoldi ducis Meranie" as wife of "Andream fratrem suum [=rex Heinricus Ungarorum]", recording that she was deprived of all her goods and sent back home when her husband was arrested in 1203, but recalled after the death of King Imre in 1204[823]. She was killed by a conspiracy of nobles shocked by the life of luxury she led and favouritism she showed to her German relatives, recounted in Józsel Katona's historical drama Bánk bán[824]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Gerdrudis de Alamana" wife of "Andreas filius Bele" was killed by "Bankbanus de genere Bor oriundus" and buried "in monasterio griseorum monachorum de Pelys"[825]. The Continuatio Prædictorum Vindobonensium records that "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie" was killed "campestri tentorio IV Kal Oct 1213, eo quot fratri suo carnali patriarche Aquilegensi uxorem Bantzi procaverat, qui teutonice Prenger vocatur"[826]. The necrology of Diessen records the death "IV Kal Oct" of "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie ab hominibus illius terre interfecta…filia Berhtoldi ducis Meranie"[827]. The De Fundatoribus Monasterii Diessenses records that "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie…filia Pertoldi quondam ducis Meranie" was killed "IV Kal Oct" in 1200, although the year is incorrect[828].

m secondly (Feb 1215) YOLANDE de Courtenay, daughter of PIERRE II de Courtenay Seigneur de Courtenay, Comte de Nevers, d’Auxerre et de Tonnerre, Marquis de Namur [later Latin Emperor of Constantinople] & his wife Yolande de Flandre ([1200]-1233, bur Egrecz Abbey). William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the queen of Hungary (unnamed) was the sister of the Latin Emperor of Constantinople[829]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "unam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri] Hyolenz" as the wife of "Andreas rex Ungarie"[830]. Her marriage was arranged by her uncle, Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople, to obtain Hungarian support for his new ally Boril Tsar of Bulgaria[831]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1233 of "regina Hoilanz de Hungaria" and her burial "in abbatia de Egis"[832].

m thirdly (Székesfehérvár 14 May 1234) BEATRICE d'Este, daughter of ALDOBRANDINO I d'Este Marchese di Ancona & his wife --- (1215-1245 before 8 May, bur Gemmola). Her origin is deduced from the Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam which refers to "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" as "nepos marchionis Hestensis"[833]. The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino records the marriage in 1235 of "dompna Beatrix olim filia marchionis Aldrevandini" and "regem Ungarie"[834]. The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Beatrix filia quondam Aldrevandini marchionis Estensis" married "Andree regi Ungarie" in 1235, despite opposition from "filiis regis Bele…et Colomanno"[835]. A later passage in the same source records that Beatrix left Hungary "gravida" after her husband died, later gave birth "in Alemaniam" to "filium…Stephanum", and then returned with her child "ad paternam domum"[836].

King András II & his first wife had five children:

1. MÁRIA ([1204]-Trnovo Autumn 1237). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the first wife of "Alsannus rex" as "soror Bele regis Hungarie et…sancta Elizabeth" but does not name her[837]. Ephræmius names "Maria de genus de populo Pæoanum" as the wife of "Asanes"[838]. Her father was forced to agree her marriage to effect his release from Bulgaria, where he had been captured on his return from Crusade in late 1218. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that András II King of Hungary was detained in Bulgaria by "Oxano Bulgarorum rege" until he agreed the marriage of "suam filiam"[839]. Her dowry included the cities of Beograd and Braničevo[840]. She converted to Roman Catholicism[841]. Georgius Akropolites records the death of "Asano…uxorem Ungaram" at "citissime Trinobum" while her husband was besieging "Tzuruli castrum"[842]. m (Jan 1221) as his second wife, IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of IVAN ASEN I "Stari/the Old" or "Belgun/the Bulgar" Tsar of the Bulgarians & his [first or second wife] --- ([1190]-Jun 1241).

2. BÉLA (Nov 1206-3 May 1270). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[843]. The Gesta Hungarorum names "Bela filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father[844]. He succeeded his father in 1235 as BÉLA IV King of Hungary.

- see below.

3. ELISABETH (Bratislava 1207-Marburg 10 Nov 1231, bur Marburg Elisabethenkirche). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[845]. The Altahenses Annales record that "Bela rex Ungarie" was brother of "sancte Elisabeth"[846]. She fell under the strong influence of her confessor, the Papal inquisitor Konrad von Marburg, and completely rejected secular life. After her husband's death, she was apparently evicted from Wartburg Castle by her brother-in-law. She settled in Marburg where she founded a Franciscan hospital for the poor and sick. She embraced a regime of extreme fasting, dressed in a grey penitential tunic supposedly sent to her by St Francis of Assisi. Konrad von Marburg built a finger-shaped church around her grave in her hospital chapel. Her cult became the object of intense political rivalry between the Teutonic Knights, allied with the Landgraf of Thuringia, and the Archbishop of Mainz. This resulted in her rapid canonisation by Pope Gregory IX in 1235[847]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in "XIII Kal Dec 1232" of "Elizabeth domna sancta…Ludovici Thuringie lantgravii" and her burial "apud hospitale de Maerbuch quod ipsa construxit"[848]. Her feast-day is 19 Nov[849]. m (1221) LUDWIG IV "der Heilige" Landgraf of Thuringia, son of HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia, Pfalzgraf von Sachsen & his second wife Sophie of Bavaria [Wittelsbach] (28 Oct 1200-Otranto 11 Sep 1227).

4. KÁLMÁN (1208-killed in battle Sajó River 11 Apr 1241, bur Dominican church of St Mary Magdalene Čazma). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[850]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "Colomannus filius Andree regis, dux Sclavonie" came to Dalmatia but "was…still quite young and nor did he do anything which would be thought worth recording", dated to [1229] from the context[851]. His father installed him as Prince of Galich after the 1214 treaty of Spisz under which Hungary and Poland split Galich between them. He was arrested in 1216 and sent back to Hungary by Mstislav Mstislavich Prince of Novgorod. He re-established himself in Galich in 1219 after expelling Mstislav, but the latter expelled him again in 1221[852]. Kálmán was the Hungarian commander of the crusading forces in Bosnia in 1235. Duke of Slavonia, as shown by the charter dated 20 Jul 1244 (after Kálmán´s death) under which his brother Béla IV King of Hungary confirmed the donation by "fratris sui Colomani ducis Slavoniæ" to the church in Bosnia[853]. He was defeated and killed by the Mongols at the battle of Sajó River[854]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records the death of "Colomannus rex" and his burial "in loco fratrum predicatorum apud Cesnam" in a hidden crypt to prevent his body being desecrated by the Tatars[855]. m (1214) SALOMEA of Poland, daughter of LESZKO I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Gremislava Ingvarovna of Luck and Dorogobuz [Rurikid] ([1211/12]-10 Nov 1268). The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death "1269 IV Id Nov" of "Salomea regina relicta Colomanni regis Hungarorum, germana princeps Bolezlai ducis Cracovie et Sandomirie"[856]. The Annales Cracovienses Compilati clarify that she was "Salomena regina Galicie" and "soror ordinis Minorem"[857]. She became a nun after the death of her husband. "Bolezlaus…Dux Cracovie et Sudomirie" renewed the privileges of Busk monastery granted by "Principis domini Lestkonis quondam…Polonorum Ducis, patris nostri", at the request of "germane nostre…sororis Salomee, quondam Regine et consortis…Hungarorum Regis Colommani", by charter dated 1252[858]. "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", at the request of "germane nostre sororis…Salomee, quondam Galacie regine", by charter dated 18 May 1255[859].

5. ANDRÁS ([1210/12]-1234). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[860]. He replaced his father-in-law as Prince of Galich in 1226, until 1234. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1234 of "dux Andreas…regis Andree filius"[861]. Betrothed ([27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217], contract broken 1219) to ZABEL of Armenia, daughter of LEO I King of Armenia [Rupenid] & his second wife Sibylle of Cyprus ([1216]-Ked 23 Jan 1252, bur Trazarg). Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the king of Hungary Andre…gave his son as a son-in-law to King Lewon and [this son] would inherit Lewon's throne", during a visit to Tarsus in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][862]. It is not certain that András was the son who was betrothed to Zabel. However, the Hungarian king is unlikely to have betrothed his oldest son to this rather remote princess, especially with the prospect of his inheriting both thrones, while King András's second son Kálmán was already married at that date (assuming his marriage date is correct as stated above). Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the son of the Hungarian king was in the vicinity and came to become [Lewon's] son-in-law" while the king was dying, and that King Lewon "ordered his princes to implement the oaths they had sworn to him", in [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220][863], but the proposed marriage must have been abandoned as soon as the king died as there no further mention of it in the Chronicle. m (1221) IELENA Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloi" ex-Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Galich & his wife --- Pss of the Kumans. Baumgarten names the wife of András and gives her origin citing sources in support[864]. Prince András & his wife had [one child]:

a) [ERSZEBET (-[1295/96]). She and her husband are named in Europäische Stammtafeln[865], but the source on which this is based has not been identified. According to another table in Europäische Stammtafeln[866], the wife of Moys de Dáró was Ielisaveta Rostislavna of Galich, widow firstly of Mihail II Asen Tsar of the Bulgarians and secondly of Koloman II Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of Rostislav Mikhailovich ex-Grand Prince of Kiev, ex-Prince of Galich, Ban of Mačva & his wife Anna of Hungary. She became a nun as SABINA. m MOYS de Dáró, Judge of the Kumans (-end 1280). Palatine of Hungary, Gespan of Sopron.]

i) ERSZEBET de Dáró. m as his second wife, MIKLOS Medgyesi, Voivoide of Transylvania, son of MÓRICZ Medgyesi (-before 1331).

King András II & his second wife had one child:

6. IOLANDA ([1215]-Huesca 12 Oct 1251). The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña records the second marriage of Jaime I King of Aragon and "la filla del Rey de Vngria…Ardeura la qual depues huuo nombre Violant nieta del Emperador de Constantin noble"[867]. She was known as VIOLANT in Catalonia. The Anales Toledanos record the death “IV Non Oct” in 1251 of “Dña Yoles, Regina Aragonum”[868]. The Chronicle of the Hôtel de Ville de Montpellier records the death in 1251 "D. Yoles regina Aragoniæ"[869]. The Thalamus de Montpellier records the death in Sep 1251 at Lérida of "la dona Yoles regina dAragon molher del rei Jacme"[870]. m (Barcelona 8 Sep 1235) as his second wife, don JAIME I "el Conquistador" King of Aragon, Conde de Barcelona, son of don PEDRO II King of Aragon & his wife Marie de Montpellier (Montpellier 1 Feb 1208-Valencia 27 Jul 1276, bur Poblet, monastery of Nuestra Señora).

King András II & his third wife had one child:

7. ISTVÁN (posthumously Swabia 1236-Venice 1271 shortly after 10 Apr). The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Beatrix regina" left Hungary "gravida" after her husband died and later gave birth "in Alemaniam" to "filium…Stephanum"[871]. He was brought up in Italy. Duke of Slavonia. Patrician of Venice. The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records that "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" went to Venice after the death of her first wife and lived and died there "in altissima paupertate et summa miseria"[872]. m firstly (1263) as her second husband, ELISABETTA [Caterina] Traversari, widow of TOMASO de Foliano, legitimated daughter of PAOLO Traversari Patrician of Ravenna & his mistress --- (-[1264], bur Ravenna St Vitalis). The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record the marriage in 1262 of "Stephanus…Andree regis Ungarie et nobilis regine Beatricis generosa propago" and "Traversarium filiam Guielmi filii Pauli Traversarii, civis Ravennatis nobilissimi"[873]. Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Andreæ Regi Hungariæ…filium…Stephanum" married "neptem Pauli Traversarii de Ravenna"[874]. The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to "Paulus Traversarius…filium habuit…filia non legitime nata", her legitimation by Pope Innocent IV, her first marriage to "domno Thomasio de Foliano…de Regio", her second marriage to "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie", and her death and burial in "ecclesia sancti Vitalis in Urtien apud Ravennam"[875]. The primary source which confirms her name has not so far been identified. m secondly TOMASINA Morosini, daughter of MICHELE Sbarra Morosini Patrician of Venice & his wife --- (-end 1300). The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Stephanus" fled Ravenna for Venice where he married "vir quidam civis Venetensis civitatis…filiam"[876]. Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Andreæ Regi Hungariæ…filium…Stephanum" married secondly "Thomaxinam sororem Albertini Moresini"[877]. Duke István & his first wife had one child:

a) [ISTVÁN] (1264-young). The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to, but does not name, the son of "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" & his first wife who died young[878].

Duke István & his second wife had one child:

b) ANDRÁS (Venice [1265/70]-Ofen 14 Jan 1301, bur Ofen Minoritenkirche). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Andream" as the son of "Stephanus" and his wife "vir quidam civis Venetensis civitatis…filiam"[879]. He was brought up in Venice. On the death of King László IV in 1290, András was smuggled out of Venice disguised as a friar by Ladomer Archbishop of Esztergom and brought to Hungary[880]. He was elected to succeed in 1290 by the Hungarian nobles as ANDRÁS III "the Venetian" King of Hungary, crowned by the Archbishop. The Pope favoured the rival candidacy of Charles Martel d'Anjou, nephew of the previous monarch, claiming the right to name the Hungarian monarch for himself, on the basis that the first king István I had received his crown from the Pope[881]. Opposition to King András was mainly centred in Croatia, although he was generally accepted as monarch after the death in 1295 of Charles Martel. He was able to restore some control over the Hungarian nobility, who had asserted their authority during the preceding reign, but also introduced constitutional reforms including a permanent Council whose consent was required for major decisions, although this was not implemented in practice[882]. He named his maternal uncle heir in 1299, triggering another revolt, but was succeeded by Charles Robert d'Anjou, son of Charles Martel[883]. Betrothed (6 Jun 1286) to CLARA EUPHEMIA von Görz, daughter of ALBRECHT [II] Graf von Görz & his first wife Euphemia von Glogau [Piast]. The marriage contract between "Dominum Albertum comitem Goricie…filiam suam dominam Claram" and "domino Andrea…duce Sclavonie nepote olim…domini Andree regis Hungarie" is dated 6 Jun 1286, and names "dominum Albertinum Mauroceno de Venecia…avunculus eiusdem domini ducis"[884]. m firstly ([19 Aug/24 Sep] 1290) FENENNA of Kujavia, daughter of ZIEMOMYSŁ Prince of Kujavia [Piast] & his wife Salome von Pommerellen ([1276]-[1295]). The primary source which confirms her name, parentage and marriage has not so far been identified. m secondly (Vienna 13 Feb 1296) AGNES von Habsburg, daughter of ALBRECHT I Duke of Austria [later King of Germany] & his wife Elisabeth von Görz-Tirol (18 May 1281-Königsfelden 10 Jun 1364, bur Königsfelden). Her parentage is confirmed by the necrology of Königsfelden which records the death "XIX Kal Feb" of "Andreas rex Ungarie…conthoralis domine Agnetis, Alberti regis Romanorum filia et domine Elizabeth…"[885]. After the death of her husband, she returned to Austria. She founded Kloster Königsfelden with her mother, in memory of her murdered father, and lived there[886]. The mid-14th century Königsfelden chronicle depicts Agnes as a humble and pious individual. On the other hand, according to the 16th century Chronicon helveticum of Aegidius Tschudi, she avenged her father's murder by ordering the execution and expulsion of 1000 people (families and followers of his murderers), but it appears this was to a large extent based on Swiss anti-Habsburg propaganda[887]. It appears that Agnes acted as adviser to her brothers the Dukes of Austria and was politically active, in particular settling a conflict between Duke Albrecht II and the Swiss confederation[888]. The necrology of Feldbach records the death "IV Id Jun" of "Agnes regina Ungario"[889]. The necrology of Wettingen records the death "IV Id 1364" of "Agnes quondam regina Ungarie, fundatrix monasterii in Campo Regis, inclite mater pauperum et religiosorum, celebratur in Künigsfelden"[890]. King András III & his first wife had one child:

i) ELISABETH (1292-1336). She was taken to Austria by her stepmother after the death of her father. Honemann refers to her betrothal to Wenzel of Bohemia[891]. She became a nun at the Dominican convent of Töß near Winterthur in 1308. The Tösser Schwesterbuch (lives of the nuns at Töß) suggests that Elisabeth was mistreated by her stepmother but this is not corroborated by other sources[892]. Her gravestone records her death in 1336 and that she lived in Töß for twenty-eight years[893]. According to the chronicle of Töß, she died 6 May 1338[894]. Betrothed to WENZEL of Bohemia, son of WENZEL II King of Bohemia & his first wife Guta of Austria [Habsburg] (6 Oct 1289-murdered Olmütz 4 Aug 1306, bur Olmütz, transferred to Prague Königsaal). He was chosen as King of Hungary in 1301 by part of the Hungarian nobility and crowned LÁSZLÓ V King of Hungary. He succeeded his father in 1305 as WENZEL III King of Bohemia.

István Duke of Slavonia had two illegitimate children, shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[895] although the source on which this is based has not so far been identified:

c) son. 1271.

d) son. 1271.

-------------------

Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary (1)

M, #104649, b. 1176, d. 7 March 1235

Last Edited=19 Nov 2009

    Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary was born in 1176. (3) He was the son of Béla III Arpád, King of Hungary and Agnes de Châtillon. (2) He married, secondly, Yolande de Courtney, daughter of Peter de Courtenay, Emperor of Constantinople and Yolande de Hainaut, before 29 January 1216. (4) He married, thirdly, Beatrice d'Este, daughter of Aldobrandino I, Marchese d'Este, in 1234. (3) He married, fourthly, Gertrud of Meran, daughter of Berthold II of Meran , Duke of Meran. (3) 

He died on 7 March 1235.

    Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary gained the title of King Andreas II of Hungary in 1205. (2)

Child of Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary and Yolande de Courtney

-1. Yolante Arpád+ (1) d. c Oct 1251

Children of Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary and Gertrud of Meran

-1. Andrew Arpád (3) d. 1234

-2. Marie Arpád+ (3) d. 1237

-3. Béla IV Arpád, King of Hungary+ (3) b. 1206, d. 1270

-4. Elisabeth 'the Saint' Arpád (3) b. 1207, d. 1231

-5. Koloman, Duke of Croatia (3) b. 1208, d. 1241

Child of Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary and Beatrice d'Este

-1. Stephen Arpád, Duke of Slavonia+ (3) b. 1235, d. 1272

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10465.htm#i104649

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II. András [szerkesztés]

2010. január 10.

A Wikipédiából, a szabad enciklopédiából.

II. András

Uralkodása 1205-1235

Megkoronázása 1205

Született 1177

Elhunyt 1235

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Estei Beatrix grófnő (1234)


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Édesapja III. Béla

Édesanyja Châtillon Anna

II. András (névváltozata Endre, Jeruzsálemi, Katolikus vagy Lovag András ragadványnevekkel is ismert) (1176 vagy 1177 – 1235. szeptember 21.) Magyarország uralkodója volt 1205-1235 között. Ő volt a 18. Árpád-házi uralkodó. Regnálása a magyar történelem egyik legnevezetesebb időszaka. Nemcsak azért, mert András igen energikus külpolitikában az egész Balkán-félszigetet behálózta, és több szomszédos területet is meghódított, hanem mert a belpolitikában olyan bullát adott ki, amely kisebb-nagyobb változtatásokkal egészen 1848-ig fennmaradhatott.

Tartalomjegyzék [elrejtés]

1 Imre árnyékában

2 Esküvő és kormányzóság

3 András király

4 Az Aranybulla

5 András és utódjai

6 Címei

7 Lásd még

8 Szépirodalom, dráma

9 Források


Imre árnyékában [szerkesztés]

III. Béla és Châtillon Anna gyermekeként született 1177-ben. Másodszülött fiúként nem András kapta a magyar trónt, de atyja 1188-ban Halics trónjára segítette. 1190-ben azonban elűzték a trónról, és a herceg újra a magyar udvarban élt. Apja halála után Imre lett Magyarország királya, akire 1197-ben a hatalomból kimaradt herceg rátámadt a szlavóniai Macsek városánál, és a hatalom megosztását követelte Imrétől. A király így átengedte testvérének a dalmát-horvát hercegi címet. 1198. március 31-én a támadó szerbeket visszaverte András, és ellentámadásba ment át. Elfoglalta Ráma és Hum vidékét, és felvette a Hum és Ráma hercege címet is. Területein úgy uralkodott, mint bátyja az egész országon. Adót szedett, pénzt veretett, és ebbe annyira beleélte magát, hogy ismét megtámadta Imrét, azonban a rádi csatában ezúttal alulmaradt, és így VI. Lipót osztrák és stájer herceghez menekült. 1200-ban kibékült testvérével, és visszatért Magyarországra. Visszakapta korábbi hercegi címeit, de jelentősen korlátozták hatalmát.

Esküvő és kormányzóság [szerkesztés]

András feleség keresésével töltötte idejét. Így vette el Gertrúd hercegnőt, VI. Bertold isztriai és krajnai őrgróf illetve merániai herceg leányát. Frigyükből öt gyermek született: Mária, Béla, Erzsébet, a későbbi szent, Kálmán és András. A herceg nyugtalan természetét megelőzendő Imre 1203-ban foglyul ejtette Andrást, és bezáratta Keve várába, Gertrúdot pedig hazaküldte apja udvarába. Imre ugyanis tudatában volt annak, hogy újszülött gyermekének András nem fogja engedni, hogy elfoglalja a trónt, és érezte, hogy saját élete lassan a végéhez közeledik. Azonban András magyarországi hívei 1204-ben kiszabadították a herceget. Imre ekkor már betegeskedett, és csak azt a kiutat látta, ha Andrást kinevezi kiskorú fia gyámjává és kormányzóvá. 1204 szeptemberében Imre meghalt. Andrásnak nem is kellett más, III. Lászlót elüldözte az országból, és amikor váratlanul meghalt Ausztriában a gyermek király, András 1205. május 29.-én megkoronáztatta magát.

András király [szerkesztés]

Az új király helyett inkább az új királyné keltett nagy visszhangot az országban. Gertrúd ugyanis merániai rokonai közötti nagylelkű adományokat osztott ki. 1208-ban a Novae Institutiones, azaz az új berendezkedés keretei között egész vármegyék kerültek eladományozásra. Ez haragot szült az országban, hiszen ezeket az adományokat a királyné idegen származású rokonai kapták meg. 1213. szeptember 28.-án a pilisi erdőkön áthajtató királyné hintóját megtámadta Péter ispán, valamint a Kacsics nembeli Simon megölték Gertrúdot. II. Andrásnak azonban a ránehezedő országos nyomás miatt nem volt lehetősége a büntetésre, és csak Péter ispánt végeztette ki.

András egyébként igen aktív külpolitikát folytatott. A kunok elleni védekezés miatt 1211-ben a Barcaságba behívta a Német Lovagrendet, azonban amikor azok függetlenedni akarva a pápának hűbérbirtokul ajánlották fel a területet, András 1225-ben kiűzte őket. Másik külpolitikai célja volt, hogy gyermekkori uralmának emlékére Halicsot megszerezze. 1214-ben Kálmán nevű gyermekét, majd 1219-ben András nevű fiát ültette a halicsi trónra, de 1234-ben András herceget is elűzték a halicsi trónról, és ezzel befejeződött a magyar királyok halicsi trónfoglalása.


Az Aranybulla

András könnyelmű életvitele, határtalan költekezése felbőszítette a rendeket, és 1222. május 29.-én az Aranybulla kiadására bírták rá a királyt. Ez a 31 cikkelyt tartalmazó alaptörvénykönyv főleg azért láthatott napvilágot, mert a nagyurak több földet és nagyobb hatalmat akartak, a szerviensek és várjobbágyok pedig csökkenő állami terheket. A nemesek alapvető jogait több évszázadon keresztül ez a bulla határozta meg. 1224-ben kibékült Bélával, és 1226-ban neki adta Erdélyt, Szlavóniát pedig Kálmán fiának biztosította. 1229-ben András orosz menekült bojároknak adott menedéket, akik tájékoztatták őt a készülő mongol veszélyről.

1230-ban Béla már az ország kormányzója lett, András pedig a nagykirály címet vette fel. 1231-ben az Aranybulla módosítására kényszerült az egyház nyomására, és sok engedményt adva az egyháznak, majd 1233-ban a beregi egyezményben szintén meg kellett változtatni a bulla szövegét. 1224-ben II. András adta ki az Andreanumot, az erdélyi szászság privilégiumlevelét. 1233-ban meghalt András második felesége, Jolánta. Így még 1234-ben harmadszor is megnősült, és I. Aldobrandino őrgróf leányát, Estei Beatrixot vette feleségül. Tőle született István nevű gyermeke, aki már András halála után látott napvilágot. Egres ciszterci monostorában helyezték örök nyugalomra.

András keresztes hadjáratot vezetett a Szentföldre 1217-1218-ban, amely az Keresztes háborúk néven lett ismert. 1215-ben III. Ince pápa hirdette meg, és II. András 1217-ben kelt útra VI. Lipót osztrák főherceg társaságában. Akkráig el is jutottak, de a király nem akart sokáig távol maradni az országtól, így 1218-ban hazaindult Magyarországra. Bár nem vette be Jeruzsálemet, ennek ellenére II. András címei között szerepelt a Jeruzsálem királya cím is.

András és utódjai [szerkesztés]

1. házassága, 1201: Gertrúd merániai hercegnő.

Gyermekeik:

Mária, 1203-ban született, 1221-ben II. Iván Aszen bolgár cárhoz ment feleségül.

Béla, 1206-ban született, András után IV. Béla néven magyar király. 1220-ban feleségül vette Laszkarisz Mária nikaiai hercegnőt.

Erzsébet, 1207-ben született, később szentté avatták. 1221-ben feleségül ment IV. Lajos türingiai tartománygrófhoz.

Kálmán, 1208-ban született, Szlavónia hercege és Halics címzetes királya (a muhi csatában szerzett sebei miatt halt meg).

András, 1210-ben született, Galícia királya.

2. házassága, 1215: Courtenay Jolán konstantinápolyi latin császári hercegnő.

Gyermekeik:

Jolán, 1219-ben született, feleségül ment I. Jakab aragón királyhoz.

3. házassága, 1234: Estei Beatrix estei grófnő.

Gyermekeik:

Utószülött István, 1235 körül született.

Címei [szerkesztés]

Magyarország, Dalmácia, Horvátország, Ráma, Szerbia, Galicia és Lodoméria királya

Source / Forrás:

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/II._Andr%C3%A1s_magyar_kir%C3%A1ly

-----------------------------------

English:

Andrew II of Hungary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King of Hungary

Reign 7 May 1205 – 21 September 1235

Coronation 29 May 1205 in Székesfehérvár

Predecessor Ladislaus III

Successor Béla IV


Spouse Gertrude of Merania

Yolanda de Courtenay

Beatrice D'Este

Issue

Maria, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria

Béla IV of Hungary

Saint Elisabeth

Coloman of Halych

Andrew II of Halych

Yolanda, Queen of Aragon

Stephen

Father Béla III of Hungary

Mother Agnes of Antioch

Born c. 1177


Died 21 September 1235[aged 58]


Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian: Andrija II. Arpadovic Slovak: Ondrej, Serbian: Андрија II) (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235), King of Hungary[1](1205-1235). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych.

...

Marriages and children

  1. 1. around 1200: Gertrude of Merania (1185 – 8 September 1213), a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania and his wife, Agnes of Wettin

-1. Anna Maria of Hungary (c. 1204 – 1237), wife of Tzar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria

-2. King Béla IV of Hungary (1206 – 3 May 1270)

-3. Saint Elisabeth of Hungary (1207 – 10 November 1231), wife of Landgraf Louis IV of Thuringia

-4. King Coloman of Halych (1208 – after 11 April 1241)

-5. Prince Andrew II of Halych (c. 1210 – 1234)

  1. 2. February 1215: Yolanda de Courtenay (c. 1200 – 1233), daughter of Peter I, Emperor of the Latin Empire and his second wife, Yolanda I, Empress of the Latin Empire

-1. Violant of Hungary or Yolanda (c. 1215 – 12 October 1251), wife of King James I of Aragon

  1. 3. 14 May 1234: Beatrice D'Este (c. 1215 – before 8 May 1245), daughter of Aldobrandino I D'Este and his wife

-1. Stephen (1236 – 10 April 1271)

Forrás / Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_II_of_Hungary

-------------------------------

ANDRÁS II 1205-1235, ANDRÁS III 1290-1301

ANDRÁS, son of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1176-21 Sep 1235, bur Egrecz, Cistercian Abbey). The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysæ"[804]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" and his wife Agnes[805]. After the accession of his brother, András demanded Croatia and Dalmatia as an appanage but this was refused. He revolted, and by 1198 obtained his demands and became Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia[806]. He and subsequent dukes acted as the king of Hungary's deputy in the kingdom of Croatia. "Andreas, tertii Belæ regis filius…Dalmatiæ, Croatiæ, Ramæ, Culmæque dux" appointed "Pharensi episcopum" by charter dated 1198, witnessed by "Andrea Bano, comite Macharia, comite Ioseph, comite Marco, comite Andronico filio Bani camerario ducis Wenceslao…"[807]. He conquered western Hum (Herzegovina) down to the river Neretva in 1198[808]. The Continuatio Admuntensis records that he was arrested in 1203, suspected of plotting to take over the kingdom, and imprisoned "in palacio Strigoniensi quod alio nomine Gran vocatur"[809]. He ousted his nephew in 1205 and succeeded as ANDRÁS II King of Hungary. He played an active part in the dismemberment of Galich-Volynia after the death of Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich in 1205, Hungary and Poland eventually agreeing the division of the territories between them under the treaty of Spisz in 1214, although Hungary expelled Poland from Peremyshl and Lyubachev in 1215/1216[810]. In 1211, King András hired the Order of Teutonic Knights, who had been expelled back to Europe from Palestine, to defend the eastern frontier of Transylvania against the Kumans[811], but they attempted to establish their autonomy there under the protection of the Pope. King András expelled the Teutonic Knights in 1225[812] on the pretext of their having disobeyed his orders. King András set sail from Split for Palestine on crusade in Oct 1217, but left Acre in early 1218 having achieved little besides acquiring a small collection of religious relics[813]. He returned by the land route, via Constantinople, but at the end of 1218 he was seized in Bulgarian territory and released only after agreeing the marriage of his daughter to Ivan Asen II Tsar of Bulgaria[814]. He threatened war with Serbia after Grand Župan Stefan was crowned King of Serbia by the papal legate in 1217, claiming that he alone had the right to this title, but did not carry out the threat[815]. King András's abuses caused the Hungarian nobles to rebel in 1222 and forced him to issue the Golden Bull, a charter defining the rights of the nobility and restricting the king's right to appoint foreigners to office without the consent of the Council[816], a reform forced by the rebellion of the lower nobility in Croatia according to Goldstein[817]. In 1227, Bortz Khan of the Kumans swore allegiance to the king of Hungary after ordering the baptism of his people, rex Cumaniæ being added to the titles of the Hungarian king soon after[818]. King András attacked north-west Bulgaria in 1232 and recaptured Beograd and Braničevo which he had been forced to cede as part of the dowry of his daughter Maria. He crossed the Danube into Wallachia where the Hungarians created a Banate in the Severin region[819]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death in 1235 of "Andreas filius Bele" and his burial "in monasterio de Egrus"[820]. The Chronicon Zagrabiense records the death "XI Kal Oct" in 1235 of "rex Andreas filius regis Belæ III" and his burial "in monasterio suo Egres"[821]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1235 of "Andreas rex Hungarie" and his burial "in civitate Waradino"[822].

m firstly (before 1203) GERTRUD von Andechs-Merano, daughter of BERTHOLD III Duke of Merano, Marchese of Istria, Graf von Andechs & his wife Agnes von Wettin (-murdered 8 Sep 1213). The Continuatio Admuntensis refers to "filiam Perhtoldi ducis Meranie" as wife of "Andream fratrem suum [=rex Heinricus Ungarorum]", recording that she was deprived of all her goods and sent back home when her husband was arrested in 1203, but recalled after the death of King Imre in 1204[823]. She was killed by a conspiracy of nobles shocked by the life of luxury she led and favouritism she showed to her German relatives, recounted in Józsel Katona's historical drama Bánk bán[824]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Gerdrudis de Alamana" wife of "Andreas filius Bele" was killed by "Bankbanus de genere Bor oriundus" and buried "in monasterio griseorum monachorum de Pelys"[825]. The Continuatio Prædictorum Vindobonensium records that "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie" was killed "campestri tentorio IV Kal Oct 1213, eo quot fratri suo carnali patriarche Aquilegensi uxorem Bantzi procaverat, qui teutonice Prenger vocatur"[826]. The necrology of Diessen records the death "IV Kal Oct" of "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie ab hominibus illius terre interfecta…filia Berhtoldi ducis Meranie"[827]. The De Fundatoribus Monasterii Diessenses records that "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie…filia Pertoldi quondam ducis Meranie" was killed "IV Kal Oct" in 1200, although the year is incorrect[828].

m secondly (Feb 1215) YOLANDE de Courtenay, daughter of PIERRE II de Courtenay Seigneur de Courtenay, Comte de Nevers, d’Auxerre et de Tonnerre, Marquis de Namur [later Latin Emperor of Constantinople] & his wife Yolande de Flandre ([1200]-1233, bur Egrecz Abbey). William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the queen of Hungary (unnamed) was the sister of the Latin Emperor of Constantinople[829]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "unam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri] Hyolenz" as the wife of "Andreas rex Ungarie"[830]. Her marriage was arranged by her uncle, Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople, to obtain Hungarian support for his new ally Boril Tsar of Bulgaria[831]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1233 of "regina Hoilanz de Hungaria" and her burial "in abbatia de Egis"[832].

m thirdly (Székesfehérvár 14 May 1234) BEATRICE d'Este, daughter of ALDOBRANDINO I d'Este Marchese di Ancona & his wife --- (1215-1245 before 8 May, bur Gemmola). Her origin is deduced from the Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam which refers to "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" as "nepos marchionis Hestensis"[833]. The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino records the marriage in 1235 of "dompna Beatrix olim filia marchionis Aldrevandini" and "regem Ungarie"[834]. The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Beatrix filia quondam Aldrevandini marchionis Estensis" married "Andree regi Ungarie" in 1235, despite opposition from "filiis regis Bele…et Colomanno"[835]. A later passage in the same source records that Beatrix left Hungary "gravida" after her husband died, later gave birth "in Alemaniam" to "filium…Stephanum", and then returned with her child "ad paternam domum"[836].

King András II & his first wife had five children:

1. MÁRIA ([1204]-Trnovo Autumn 1237). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the first wife of "Alsannus rex" as "soror Bele regis Hungarie et…sancta Elizabeth" but does not name her[837]. Ephræmius names "Maria de genus de populo Pæoanum" as the wife of "Asanes"[838]. Her father was forced to agree her marriage to effect his release from Bulgaria, where he had been captured on his return from Crusade in late 1218. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that András II King of Hungary was detained in Bulgaria by "Oxano Bulgarorum rege" until he agreed the marriage of "suam filiam"[839]. Her dowry included the cities of Beograd and Braničevo[840]. She converted to Roman Catholicism[841]. Georgius Akropolites records the death of "Asano…uxorem Ungaram" at "citissime Trinobum" while her husband was besieging "Tzuruli castrum"[842]. m (Jan 1221) as his second wife, IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of IVAN ASEN I "Stari/the Old" or "Belgun/the Bulgar" Tsar of the Bulgarians & his [first or second wife] --- ([1190]-Jun 1241).

2. BÉLA (Nov 1206-3 May 1270). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[843]. The Gesta Hungarorum names "Bela filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father[844]. He succeeded his father in 1235 as BÉLA IV King of Hungary.

- see below.

3. ELISABETH (Bratislava 1207-Marburg 10 Nov 1231, bur Marburg Elisabethenkirche). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[845]. The Altahenses Annales record that "Bela rex Ungarie" was brother of "sancte Elisabeth"[846]. She fell under the strong influence of her confessor, the Papal inquisitor Konrad von Marburg, and completely rejected secular life. After her husband's death, she was apparently evicted from Wartburg Castle by her brother-in-law. She settled in Marburg where she founded a Franciscan hospital for the poor and sick. She embraced a regime of extreme fasting, dressed in a grey penitential tunic supposedly sent to her by St Francis of Assisi. Konrad von Marburg built a finger-shaped church around her grave in her hospital chapel. Her cult became the object of intense political rivalry between the Teutonic Knights, allied with the Landgraf of Thuringia, and the Archbishop of Mainz. This resulted in her rapid canonisation by Pope Gregory IX in 1235[847]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in "XIII Kal Dec 1232" of "Elizabeth domna sancta…Ludovici Thuringie lantgravii" and her burial "apud hospitale de Maerbuch quod ipsa construxit"[848]. Her feast-day is 19 Nov[849]. m (1221) LUDWIG IV "der Heilige" Landgraf of Thuringia, son of HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia, Pfalzgraf von Sachsen & his second wife Sophie of Bavaria [Wittelsbach] (28 Oct 1200-Otranto 11 Sep 1227).

4. KÁLMÁN (1208-killed in battle Sajó River 11 Apr 1241, bur Dominican church of St Mary Magdalene Čazma). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[850]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "Colomannus filius Andree regis, dux Sclavonie" came to Dalmatia but "was…still quite young and nor did he do anything which would be thought worth recording", dated to [1229] from the context[851]. His father installed him as Prince of Galich after the 1214 treaty of Spisz under which Hungary and Poland split Galich between them. He was arrested in 1216 and sent back to Hungary by Mstislav Mstislavich Prince of Novgorod. He re-established himself in Galich in 1219 after expelling Mstislav, but the latter expelled him again in 1221[852]. Kálmán was the Hungarian commander of the crusading forces in Bosnia in 1235. Duke of Slavonia, as shown by the charter dated 20 Jul 1244 (after Kálmán´s death) under which his brother Béla IV King of Hungary confirmed the donation by "fratris sui Colomani ducis Slavoniæ" to the church in Bosnia[853]. He was defeated and killed by the Mongols at the battle of Sajó River[854]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records the death of "Colomannus rex" and his burial "in loco fratrum predicatorum apud Cesnam" in a hidden crypt to prevent his body being desecrated by the Tatars[855]. m (1214) SALOMEA of Poland, daughter of LESZKO I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Gremislava Ingvarovna of Luck and Dorogobuz [Rurikid] ([1211/12]-10 Nov 1268). The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death "1269 IV Id Nov" of "Salomea regina relicta Colomanni regis Hungarorum, germana princeps Bolezlai ducis Cracovie et Sandomirie"[856]. The Annales Cracovienses Compilati clarify that she was "Salomena regina Galicie" and "soror ordinis Minorem"[857]. She became a nun after the death of her husband. "Bolezlaus…Dux Cracovie et Sudomirie" renewed the privileges of Busk monastery granted by "Principis domini Lestkonis quondam…Polonorum Ducis, patris nostri", at the request of "germane nostre…sororis Salomee, quondam Regine et consortis…Hungarorum Regis Colommani", by charter dated 1252[858]. "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", at the request of "germane nostre sororis…Salomee, quondam Galacie regine", by charter dated 18 May 1255[859].

5. ANDRÁS ([1210/12]-1234). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[860]. He replaced his father-in-law as Prince of Galich in 1226, until 1234. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1234 of "dux Andreas…regis Andree filius"[861]. Betrothed ([27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217], contract broken 1219) to ZABEL of Armenia, daughter of LEO I King of Armenia [Rupenid] & his second wife Sibylle of Cyprus ([1216]-Ked 23 Jan 1252, bur Trazarg). Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the king of Hungary Andre…gave his son as a son-in-law to King Lewon and [this son] would inherit Lewon's throne", during a visit to Tarsus in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][862]. It is not certain that András was the son who was betrothed to Zabel. However, the Hungarian king is unlikely to have betrothed his oldest son to this rather remote princess, especially with the prospect of his inheriting both thrones, while King András's second son Kálmán was already married at that date (assuming his marriage date is correct as stated above). Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the son of the Hungarian king was in the vicinity and came to become [Lewon's] son-in-law" while the king was dying, and that King Lewon "ordered his princes to implement the oaths they had sworn to him", in [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220][863], but the proposed marriage must have been abandoned as soon as the king died as there no further mention of it in the Chronicle. m (1221) IELENA Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloi" ex-Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Galich & his wife --- Pss of the Kumans. Baumgarten names the wife of András and gives her origin citing sources in support[864]. Prince András & his wife had [one child]:

a) [ERSZEBET (-[1295/96]). She and her husband are named in Europäische Stammtafeln[865], but the source on which this is based has not been identified. According to another table in Europäische Stammtafeln[866], the wife of Moys de Dáró was Ielisaveta Rostislavna of Galich, widow firstly of Mihail II Asen Tsar of the Bulgarians and secondly of Koloman II Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of Rostislav Mikhailovich ex-Grand Prince of Kiev, ex-Prince of Galich, Ban of Mačva & his wife Anna of Hungary. She became a nun as SABINA. m MOYS de Dáró, Judge of the Kumans (-end 1280). Palatine of Hungary, Gespan of Sopron.]

i) ERSZEBET de Dáró. m as his second wife, MIKLOS Medgyesi, Voivoide of Transylvania, son of MÓRICZ Medgyesi (-before 1331).

King András II & his second wife had one child:

6. IOLANDA ([1215]-Huesca 12 Oct 1251). The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña records the second marriage of Jaime I King of Aragon and "la filla del Rey de Vngria…Ardeura la qual depues huuo nombre Violant nieta del Emperador de Constantin noble"[867]. She was known as VIOLANT in Catalonia. The Anales Toledanos record the death “IV Non Oct” in 1251 of “Dña Yoles, Regina Aragonum”[868]. The Chronicle of the Hôtel de Ville de Montpellier records the death in 1251 "D. Yoles regina Aragoniæ"[869]. The Thalamus de Montpellier records the death in Sep 1251 at Lérida of "la dona Yoles regina dAragon molher del rei Jacme"[870]. m (Barcelona 8 Sep 1235) as his second wife, don JAIME I "el Conquistador" King of Aragon, Conde de Barcelona, son of don PEDRO II King of Aragon & his wife Marie de Montpellier (Montpellier 1 Feb 1208-Valencia 27 Jul 1276, bur Poblet, monastery of Nuestra Señora).

King András II & his third wife had one child:

7. ISTVÁN (posthumously Swabia 1236-Venice 1271 shortly after 10 Apr). The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Beatrix regina" left Hungary "gravida" after her husband died and later gave birth "in Alemaniam" to "filium…Stephanum"[871]. He was brought up in Italy. Duke of Slavonia. Patrician of Venice. The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records that "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" went to Venice after the death of her first wife and lived and died there "in altissima paupertate et summa miseria"[872]. m firstly (1263) as her second husband, ELISABETTA [Caterina] Traversari, widow of TOMASO de Foliano, legitimated daughter of PAOLO Traversari Patrician of Ravenna & his mistress --- (-[1264], bur Ravenna St Vitalis). The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record the marriage in 1262 of "Stephanus…Andree regis Ungarie et nobilis regine Beatricis generosa propago" and "Traversarium filiam Guielmi filii Pauli Traversarii, civis Ravennatis nobilissimi"[873]. Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Andreæ Regi Hungariæ…filium…Stephanum" married "neptem Pauli Traversarii de Ravenna"[874]. The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to "Paulus Traversarius…filium habuit…filia non legitime nata", her legitimation by Pope Innocent IV, her first marriage to "domno Thomasio de Foliano…de Regio", her second marriage to "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie", and her death and burial in "ecclesia sancti Vitalis in Urtien apud Ravennam"[875]. The primary source which confirms her name has not so far been identified. m secondly TOMASINA Morosini, daughter of MICHELE Sbarra Morosini Patrician of Venice & his wife --- (-end 1300). The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Stephanus" fled Ravenna for Venice where he married "vir quidam civis Venetensis civitatis…filiam"[876]. Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Andreæ Regi Hungariæ…filium…Stephanum" married secondly "Thomaxinam sororem Albertini Moresini"[877]. Duke István & his first wife had one child:

a) [ISTVÁN] (1264-young). The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to, but does not name, the son of "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" & his first wife who died young[878].

Duke István & his second wife had one child:

b) ANDRÁS (Venice [1265/70]-Ofen 14 Jan 1301, bur Ofen Minoritenkirche). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Andream" as the son of "Stephanus" and his wife "vir quidam civis Venetensis civitatis…filiam"[879]. He was brought up in Venice. On the death of King László IV in 1290, András was smuggled out of Venice disguised as a friar by Ladomer Archbishop of Esztergom and brought to Hungary[880]. He was elected to succeed in 1290 by the Hungarian nobles as ANDRÁS III "the Venetian" King of Hungary, crowned by the Archbishop. The Pope favoured the rival candidacy of Charles Martel d'Anjou, nephew of the previous monarch, claiming the right to name the Hungarian monarch for himself, on the basis that the first king István I had received his crown from the Pope[881]. Opposition to King András was mainly centred in Croatia, although he was generally accepted as monarch after the death in 1295 of Charles Martel. He was able to restore some control over the Hungarian nobility, who had asserted their authority during the preceding reign, but also introduced constitutional reforms including a permanent Council whose consent was required for major decisions, although this was not implemented in practice[882]. He named his maternal uncle heir in 1299, triggering another revolt, but was succeeded by Charles Robert d'Anjou, son of Charles Martel[883]. Betrothed (6 Jun 1286) to CLARA EUPHEMIA von Görz, daughter of ALBRECHT [II] Graf von Görz & his first wife Euphemia von Glogau [Piast]. The marriage contract between "Dominum Albertum comitem Goricie…filiam suam dominam Claram" and "domino Andrea…duce Sclavonie nepote olim…domini Andree regis Hungarie" is dated 6 Jun 1286, and names "dominum Albertinum Mauroceno de Venecia…avunculus eiusdem domini ducis"[884]. m firstly ([19 Aug/24 Sep] 1290) FENENNA of Kujavia, daughter of ZIEMOMYSŁ Prince of Kujavia [Piast] & his wife Salome von Pommerellen ([1276]-[1295]). The primary source which confirms her name, parentage and marriage has not so far been identified. m secondly (Vienna 13 Feb 1296) AGNES von Habsburg, daughter of ALBRECHT I Duke of Austria [later King of Germany] & his wife Elisabeth von Görz-Tirol (18 May 1281-Königsfelden 10 Jun 1364, bur Königsfelden). Her parentage is confirmed by the necrology of Königsfelden which records the death "XIX Kal Feb" of "Andreas rex Ungarie…conthoralis domine Agnetis, Alberti regis Romanorum filia et domine Elizabeth…"[885]. After the death of her husband, she returned to Austria. She founded Kloster Königsfelden with her mother, in memory of her murdered father, and lived there[886]. The mid-14th century Königsfelden chronicle depicts Agnes as a humble and pious individual. On the other hand, according to the 16th century Chronicon helveticum of Aegidius Tschudi, she avenged her father's murder by ordering the execution and expulsion of 1000 people (families and followers of his murderers), but it appears this was to a large extent based on Swiss anti-Habsburg propaganda[887]. It appears that Agnes acted as adviser to her brothers the Dukes of Austria and was politically active, in particular settling a conflict between Duke Albrecht II and the Swiss confederation[888]. The necrology of Feldbach records the death "IV Id Jun" of "Agnes regina Ungario"[889]. The necrology of Wettingen records the death "IV Id 1364" of "Agnes quondam regina Ungarie, fundatrix monasterii in Campo Regis, inclite mater pauperum et religiosorum, celebratur in Künigsfelden"[890]. King András III & his first wife had one child:

i) ELISABETH (1292-1336). She was taken to Austria by her stepmother after the death of her father. Honemann refers to her betrothal to Wenzel of Bohemia[891]. She became a nun at the Dominican convent of Töß near Winterthur in 1308. The Tösser Schwesterbuch (lives of the nuns at Töß) suggests that Elisabeth was mistreated by her stepmother but this is not corroborated by other sources[892]. Her gravestone records her death in 1336 and that she lived in Töß for twenty-eight years[893]. According to the chronicle of Töß, she died 6 May 1338[894]. Betrothed to WENZEL of Bohemia, son of WENZEL II King of Bohemia & his first wife Guta of Austria [Habsburg] (6 Oct 1289-murdered Olmütz 4 Aug 1306, bur Olmütz, transferred to Prague Königsaal). He was chosen as King of Hungary in 1301 by part of the Hungarian nobility and crowned LÁSZLÓ V King of Hungary. He succeeded his father in 1305 as WENZEL III King of Bohemia.

István Duke of Slavonia had two illegitimate children, shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[895] although the source on which this is based has not so far been identified:

c) son. 1271.

d) son. 1271.

Source / Forrás:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#AndrasIIA

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_II_of_Hungary

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Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian: Andrija I. Slovak: Ondrej) (c. 1177 – 21 September, 1235), King of Hungary[1](1205-1235). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia. When his brother and his infant son died, Andrew ascended the throne and started to grant royal domains to his partisans. He participated in the Fifth Crusade but he could not achieve any major military success. He was obliged to issue the Golden Bull confirming the privileges of the noblemen of Hungary and later he was also obliged to confirm the special privileges of the clergy. During his long reign, he had several quarrels with his sons.

Contents [hide]

1 The turbulent duke

2 Novæ institutiones

3 Struggles for Halych

4 The Fifth Crusade

5 The Golden Bull and the Diploma Andreanum

6 Discords with his son

7 The Agreement of Bereg

8 His last years

9 Marriages and children

10 Ancestors

11 Titles

12 Sources


[edit] The turbulent duke

Andrew was the second son of King Béla III and his first wife, Agnes of Antioch. As younger son, Andrew had no hope to inherite the Kingdom of Hungary from his father who wanted to ensure the inheritance of his elder son, Emeric and had him crowned already in 1182.

Nevertheless, when Prince Volodymyr II of Halych, who had been expelled from his country by his subjects, fled to Hungary seeking for assistance in 1188, King Béla III had him arrested and occupied his principality and he invested Andrew with Halych. The child Andrew's rule in Halych must have been only nominal; he even did not visit his principality. Although, the young prince's troops could get the mastery in 1189 when the boyars of Halych rose against his rule, but shortly afterwards Prince Volodymyr II managed to escape from his captivity and he expelled the Hungarian troops from Halych.

On 23 April 1196, King Béla III died and he left the Kingdom of Hungary unportioned to his eldest son, Emeric, while Andrew inherited a large amount of money in order to fulfill his father's Crusader oath. However, Andrew used the money to recruit followers among the barons and also sought the assistance of Leopold V, Duke of Austria. In December 1197, Andrew's troops defeated King Emeric's armies in a battle near to Macsek in December 1197. Following Andrew's victory, the king was obliged to transfer the government of the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia to Andrew.

In the beginning of 1198, Pope Innocent III requested Andrew to fulfill his father's last will and lead a Crusade to the Holy Land. However, instead of a Crusade, Andrew made a campaign against the neighbouring provinces and occupied Zahumlje and Rama. Andrew also went on conspiring with some prelates against his brother, but King Emeric was informed on Andrew's plans and he personally arrested Bishop Boleszlo of Vác, one of Andrew's main supporters, and he also deprived his brother's followers (e.g., Palatine Mog) of their dignities. In the summer of 1199, King Emeric defeated Andrew in the Battle of Rád and Andrew had to fleed to Austria. Finally, the two brothers made peace with the mediation of the Papal Legate Gregory, and the king granted again the government of Croatia and Dalmatia to his brother.

Around 1200, Andrew married Gertrude, a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania. It was probably his wife who persuaded him to conspire against his brother again, but when King Emeric, who had realised that Andrew's troops outnumbered his armies, went unarmed, wearing only the crown and the sceptre, to Andrew's camp near Varasd, Andrew surrendered voluntarily on the spur of the scene. The king had his brother arrested, but Andrew managed to escape shortly afterwards.

Nevertheless, the king become more and more ill, and wanted to secure the ascension of his young son, Ladislaus, who had been crowned on 26 August 1204. Shortly afterwards, the king reconciled with Andrew whom he appointed to govern the kingdom during his son's minority. After his brother's death on 30 September/November 1204, Andrew took over the government of the kingdom as his nephew's tutor and he also seized the money his brother had deposited on behalf of the child Ladislaus. The Dowager Queen Constance was anxious about her son's life and she escaped with King Ladislaus to the court of Leopold VI, Duke of Austria. Andrew made preparations for a war against Austria, but the child king died on 7 May 1205, thus Andrew inherited the throne.

[edit] Novæ institutiones

Andrew was crowned by Archbishop John of Kalocsa on 29 May 1205 in Székesfehérvár, but before the coronation, he had to take an oath. Andrew made a radical alteration in the internal policy followed by his predecessors and he began to bestow the royal estates to his partisans. He called this new policy novæ institutiones in his deeds, and he declared that "Nothing can set bounds to generosity of the Royal Majesty, and the best measure of grants, for a monarch, is immeasurableness". He gave away everything - money, villages, domains, whole counties - to the utter impoverishment of the treasury. Andrew was generous primarily with his wife's German relatives and followers, which caused discontent among his subjects.

[edit] Struggles for Halych

During the first years of his reign, Andrew was occupied with the discords within the Principality of Halych. In 1205, he led his armies to the principality to ensure the rule of the child Prince Danylo. Following his campaign, he adopted the title of "King of Galicia and Lodomeria" referring to his supremacy over the two neighbouring principalities. In the beginning of the next year, the child Danylo was again expelled from Halych but Andrew denied to give assistance to him because the child prince's opponent, Prince Volodymyr III Igorevych had bribed him. Nevertheless, in the same year, he made a campaign in Halych and gave assistance to Prince Roman Igorevych to acquire the throne.

In 1208, taking advantage of the quarrel between Prince Roman Igorevych and his boyars, Andrew occupied Halych and appointed a regent to govern the principality in his name, but Prince Volodymyr III Igorevych managed to reconquer his principality already in the following year.

A group of the aristocrats of his court, scandalised by Andrew's generosity towards his wife's relatives and followers, planned to offer the throne to his cousins, who had been living in the court of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicea, but their envoy was arrested and Andrew could overcome the conspiracy. In 1211, he granted the Burzenland to the Teutonic Knights in order to ensure the security of the southeastern borders of his kingdom against the Cumans. However, the Teutonic Knights began to establish a country independent of the King of Hungary.

In 1211, Andrew provided military assistance to Prince Danylo to reoccupy Halych. Moreover, in the following year, Andrew lead his armies personally to Halych to repulse the attack of Prince Mstilav of Peresopnytsia against Prince Danylo. Shortly afterwards, Prince Danylo, was obliged to leave his country and he sought again Andrew's assistance. Andrew left for his campaign in the summer 1213 when he was informed that a group of conspirators had murdered his queen on 28 September and he had to return.

Following his return, he ordered the execution only the leader of the conspirators and he forgave the other members of the group, which resulted in the emerging antipaty of his son, Béla. Nevertheless, in 1214, Andrew had his son crowned.

In the summer of 1214, Andrew had a meeting with Grand Duke Leszek I of Poland and they agreed that they would divide the Principality of Halych between Hungary and Poland. Their allied troops occupied the neighbouring principality which was granted to Andrew's younger son, Coloman. However, Andrew denied to transfer the agreed territories to Duke Leszek I who made an alliance with Prince Mstilav of Novgorod and they drove away Andrew's troops from the principality.

Shortly afterwards, Andrew made an alliance again with Leszek I and they occupied Halych where again Andrew's son was appointed to prince.

[edit] The Fifth Crusade

In the meantime, Andrew began to deal with the problems of the southern borders of his kingdom. In 1214, the Hungarian troops annexed Belgrade and Braničevo from the Bulgarian Empire.

In February 1215, Andrew married Yolanda, the niece of Henry I, the Emperor of Constantinople. When the Emperor Henry I died on 11 July 1216, Andrew was planning to acquire the imperial throne, but the barons of the Latin Empire proclaimed his father-in-law, Peter of Courtenay their emperor.

Nevertheles, Andrew decided to fulfill his father's oath and made preparations for a Crusade. He agreed with the Republic of Venice to undertake the delivery of his troops to the Holy Land, in exchange he renounced the supremacy over Zára on behalf of the Republic. Andrew and his troops embarked on 23 August 1217 in Spalato. They landed on 9 October on Cyprus from where they sailed to Acre. The well-mounted army defeated sultan Al-Adil I ( Sultan of Egypt ) in Bethsaida at Jordan River on November 10. Muslim forces retreated in their fortress and towns. The catapults and trebuchets didn't arrived on time, so he had fruitless assaults on the fortresses of the Lebanon and on Mount Tabor. Afterwards, Andrew spent his time collecting alleged relics.

Andrew set home on (January 18, 1218). On the way home, he negotiated with King Levon I of Armenia, the Emperor Theodore I Laskaris of Nicaea and Tsar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria and arranged several marriage contracts between his children and the courts he visited. When he was staying in Nicaea, his cousins, who had been living there, made an unsuccessful attempt to take his life.

[edit] The Golden Bull and the Diploma Andreanum

On his return, he found its kingdom in anarchy. While he had been away in the Holy Land, even his regent, Archbishop John of Esztergom had been obliged to leave the country and his treasury had been exhausted. He tried to collect money by using new instruments, such as introducing new taxes, undermining the currency and leasing his income to Jews and Muslims which increased his unpopularity.

His foreign policy was also a total failure. In August 1219, his younger son, Coloman, who had been crowned King of Halych, was expelled from his kingdom by Prince Mstilav of Novgorod. Andrew had to make peace with the Prince of Novgorod and he also engaged his youngest son, Andrew with one of his opponent's daughter.

In 1220, Andrew entrusted the government of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia to his son, Béla. Andrew also enforced Béla to separate from his wife.

In the beginning of 1222, the discontent serviens (nobles) came to Andrew's court in large numbers, and they persuaded the king to issue the Golden Bull which confirmed their privileges, including the right to disobey the King if he acted not in line with the provisions of the Golden Bull (ius resistendi).

In 1223, the junior King Béla IV took back his wife and escaped to Austria fearing of Andrew's anger. Finally, Andrew made an agreement with his son with the mediation of Pope Honorius III and the junior king took over again the government of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia. On 6 June 1224 Andrew made a peace with Duke Leopold VI of Austria.

In 1224, Andrew issued the Diploma Andreanum which unified and ensured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons. It's considered the oldest Autonomy law in the world. In the same year, Andrew expelled the Teutonic Knights from Transylvania because they had ignored his overlordship.

[edit] Discords with his son

The junior King Béla IV started, with the authorization of Pope Honorius III, to take back the royal domains in his provinces that Andrew had granted to his partisans during the first half of his reign. Andrew opposed his son's policy and he entrusted Béla with the government of Transylvania while his younger son, Coloman became the governor of Béla's former provinces.

In the second half of 1226, Andrew lead his armies to Halych on the request of his youngest son, Andrew. Although, Prince Mstilav defeated the royal armies, but finally he agreed to cede the government of the principality to the Hungarian prince.

During 1228, Andrew's two sons started again to take back the former royal domains in their provinces, and they persuaded Andrew to confiscate the estates of the barons who had taken part in the conspiracy against their mother. In 1229, Prince Danylo of Halych expelled Andrew's youngest son from his principality, while Frederick II, Duke of Austria started to attack the western borders of the kingdom in 1230.

[edit] The Agreement of Bereg

Andrew, in contrast with the decisions of the Fourth Council of the Lateran, often employed Jews and Muslims in the royal household. Therefore, Pope Gregory IX requested him to give up this practise. Finally, Andrew was obliged to confirm the Golden Bull and supplement it with a provision that prohibited the employment of non-Christians and also authorised the Archbishop of Esztergom to punish the king in case he ignored his promise.

In the second half of 1231, Andrew lead his armies to Halych and managed to ensure his youngest son's rule in the principality. On his return to Hungary, Archbishop Robert of Esztergom took his kingdom under interdict and excommunicated the king's major dignitaries because Andrew insisted on the employment of Jews and Muslims in his administration. Nevertheless, upon Andrew's request, the Archbishop withdrew the ecclesiastic punishments soon and the Pope promised that the dignitaries of the King of Hungary would never be excommunicated without his special authorization.

On 20 August 1233, Andrew had a meeting with the legate of Pope Gregory IX in the woods of Bereg, and they made an agreement which ensured the privileges of the clergy. In the autumn of the year, he also met with Duke Frederick II of Austria and they agreed to stop the skirmishes on the border, but the Duke soon broke the agreement.

[edit] His last years

On 14 May 1234, Andrew, who had lost his second wife in the previous year, married Beatrice D'Este who was thirty years younger than himself. Because of the new marriage, his relationship enworthened with his sons.

In the summer of 1234, the Bishop John of Bosnia excommunicated Andrew because he had not respected some provisions of the Agreement of Bereg. Andrew appealed to the Pope against the bishop's measure. In the autumn of 1234, Prince Danylo laid siege to the capital of Andrew's youngest son who died during the siege. Thus, the Hungarian supremacy over Halych disappeared.

In the beginning of 1235, Andrew made a campaign against Austria and enforced Duke Frederick II to make a peace.

He was still alive when one of his daughters, Elisabeth, who had died some years before, was canonized on 28 May 1235. Before his death, he was absolved from the excommunication; moreover, the Pope also promised that the King of Hungary and his relatives would not be excommunicated without the special permission of the Pope.

[edit] Marriages and children

  1. 1. around 1200: Gertrude of Merania (? – 8 September 1213), a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania and his wife, Agnes of Wettin

Anna Maria of Hungary (c. 1204 – 1237), wife of Tzar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria

King Béla IV of Hungary (1206 – 3 May 1270)

Saint Elisabeth of Hungary (1207 – 10 November 1231), wife of Landgraf Louis IV of Thuringia

King Coloman of Halych (1208 – after 11 April 1241)

Prince Andrew II of Halych (c. 1210 – 1234)

  1. 2. February 1215: Yolanda de Courtenay (c. 1200 – 1233), daughter of Peter I, Emperor of the Latin Empire and his second wife, Yolanda I, Empress of the Latin Empire

Violant of Hungary or Yolanda (c. 1215 – 12 October 1251), wife of King James I of Aragon

  1. 3. 14 May 1234: Beatrice D'Este (c. 1215 – before 8 May 1245), daughter of Aldobrandino I D'Este and his wife

Stephen (1236 – 10 April 1271)

[edit] Ancestors

Ancestors of Andrew II of Hungary[show]

                                 

 16. Duke Álmos 
 
         

 8. Béla II of Hungary   
 
               

 17. Predslava of Kiev 
 
         

 4. Geza II of Hungary   
 
                     

 18. Duke Uroš I of Raška 
 
         

 9. Helena of Raška   
 
               

 19. Anna 
 
         

 2. Bela III of Hungary   
 
                           

 20. Grand Prince Vladimir II of Kiev 
 
         

 10. Grand Prince Mstislav I of Kiev   
 
               

 21. Gytha of Wessex 
 
         

 5. Euphrosyne of Kiev   
 
                     

 22. Dmitrij Zavidich 
 
         

 11. Ljubava Dmitrijevna   
 
               





 1. Andrew II of Hungary   
 
                                 

 24. Gaucher de Châtillon 
 
         

 12. Henri de Châtillon   
 
               





 6. Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch   
 
                     

 26. Aubry de Montjay 
 
         

 13. Ermengarde de Montjay   
 
               





 3. Agnes of Antioch   
 
                           

 28. Prince Bohemond I of Antioch 
 
         

 14. Prince Bohemond II of Antioch   
 
               

 29. Constance of France 
 
         

 7. Constance of Antioch   
 
                     

 30. King Baldwin II of Jerusalem 
 
         

 15. Alice of Jerusalem   
 
               

 31. Morphia of Melitene 
 
         

[edit] Titles

HAM King of HungaryHRH Prince of HungaryHRHDuke of Croatia and Dalmatia(1197-1199, 1200-1203) HRH Prince of Halych(1188-1189, 1208-1209), King of Croatia

[edit] Sources

Kristó, Gyula - Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói (IPC Könyvek, 1996)

Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század), főszerkesztő: Kristó, Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)

Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig, főszerkesztő: Benda, Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981)

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Preceded by

Ladislaus III King of Hungary

1205–1235 Succeeded by

Béla IV

Preceded by

Volodymyr II Prince of Halych

1188–1189 Succeeded by

Volodymyr II

Preceded by

Roman Igorevych Prince of Halych

1208–1209 Succeeded by

Volodymyr III Igorevych

--------------------

Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian: Andrija II. Arpadovic Slovak: Ondrej, Serbian: Андрија II) (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235), King of Hungary[1](1205-1235). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia. When his brother and his infant son died, Andrew ascended the throne and started to grant royal domains to his partisans. He participated in the Fifth Crusade but he could not achieve any major military success. He was obliged to issue the Golden Bull confirming the privileges of the noblemen of Hungary and later he was also obliged to confirm the special privileges of the clergy. During his long reign, he had several quarrels with his sons.

The turbulent duke

Andrew was the second son of King Béla III and his first wife, Agnes of Antioch. As younger son, Andrew had no hope to inherite the Kingdom of Hungary from his father who wanted to ensure the inheritance of his elder son, Emeric and had him crowned already in 1182.

Nevertheless, when Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych, who had been expelled from his country by his subjects, fled to Hungary seeking for assistance in 1188, King Béla III had him arrested and occupied his principality and he invested Andrew with Halych. The child Andrew's rule in Halych must have been only nominal; he did not even visit his principality. Although, the young prince's troops could get the mastery in 1189 when the boyars of Halych rose against his rule, but shortly afterwards Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich managed to escape from his captivity and he expelled the Hungarian troops from Halych.

On 23 April 1196, King Béla III died and he left the Kingdom of Hungary unportioned to his eldest son, Emeric, while Andrew inherited a large amount of money in order to fulfill his father's Crusader oath. However, Andrew used the money to recruit followers among the barons and also sought the assistance of Leopold V, Duke of Austria. In December 1197, Andrew's troops defeated King Emeric's armies in a battle near to Macsek in December 1197. Following Andrew's victory, the king was obliged to transfer the government of the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia to Andrew.

In the beginning of 1198, Pope Innocent III requested that Andrew fulfill his father's last wishes and lead a Crusade to the Holy Land. However, instead of a Crusade, Andrew led a campaign against the neighbouring provinces and occupied Zahumlje and Rama. Andrew also went on conspiring with some prelates against his brother, but King Emeric was informed as to Andrew's plans and he personally arrested Bishop Boleszlo of Vác, one of Andrew's main supporters, and he also deprived his brother's followers (e.g., Palatine Mog) of their privileges. In the summer of 1199, King Emeric defeated Andrew in the Battle of Rád and Andrew had to flee to Austria. Finally, the two brothers made peace with the mediation of the Papal Legate Gregory, and the king granted rule of Croatia and Dalmatia again to his brother.

Around 1200, Andrew married Gertrude, a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania. It was probably his wife who persuaded him to conspire against his brother again, but when King Emeric, who had realised that Andrew's troops outnumbered his armies, went unarmed, wearing only the crown and the sceptre, to Andrew's camp near Varasd, Andrew immediately surrendered . The king had his brother arrested, but Andrew managed to escape shortly afterwards.

Nevertheless, the king whose health was failing, wanted to secure the ascension of his young son, Ladislaus, who had been crowned on 26 August 1204. Shortly afterwards, the king reconciled with Andrew whom he appointed to govern the kingdom during his son's minority. After his brother's death on 30 September/November 1204, Andrew took over the government of the kingdom as his nephew's tutor and he also seized the money his brother had deposited on behalf of the child Ladislaus. The Dowager Queen Constance was anxious for her son's life and she escaped with King Ladislaus to the court of Leopold VI, Duke of Austria. Andrew made preparations for a war against Austria, but the child king died on 7 May 1205, thus Andrew inherited the throne.

Novæ institutiones

Andrew was crowned by Archbishop John of Kalocsa on 29 May 1205 in Székesfehérvár, but before the coronation, he had to take an oath. Andrew made a radical alteration in the internal policy followed by his predecessors and he began to bestow the royal estates to his partisans. He called this new policy novæ institutiones in his deeds, and he declared that "Nothing can set bounds to generosity of the Royal Majesty, and the best measure of grants, for a monarch, is immeasurableness". He gave away everything - money, villages, domains, whole counties - to the utter impoverishment of the treasury. Andrew was generous primarily with his wife's German relatives and followers, which caused discontent among his subjects.

[edit] Struggles for Halych

During the first years of his reign, Andrew was occupied with the discords within the Principality of Halych. In 1205, he led his armies to the principality to ensure the rule of the child Prince Danylo. Following his campaign, he adopted the title of "King of Galicia and Lodomeria" referring to his supremacy over the two neighbouring principalities. In the beginning of the next year, the child Danylo was again expelled from Halych but Andrew denied to give assistance to him because the child prince's opponent, Prince Volodymyr III Igorevych had bribed him. Nevertheless, in the same year, he made a campaign in Halych and gave assistance to Prince Roman Igorevych to acquire the throne.

In 1208, taking advantage of the quarrel between Prince Roman Igorevych and his boyars, Andrew occupied Halych and appointed a regent to govern the principality in his name, but Prince Volodymyr III Igorevych managed to reconquer his principality already in the following year.

A group of the aristocrats of his court, scandalised by Andrew's generosity towards his wife's relatives and followers, planned to offer the throne to his cousins, who had been living in the court of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicaea, but their envoy was arrested and Andrew could overcome the conspiracy. In 1211, he granted the Burzenland to the Teutonic Knights in order to ensure the security of the southeastern borders of his kingdom against the Cumans. However, the Teutonic Knights began to establish a country independent of the King of Hungary.

In 1211, Andrew provided military assistance to Prince Danylo to reoccupy Halych. Moreover, in the following year, Andrew lead his armies personally to Halych to repulse the attack of Prince Mstilav of Peresopnytsia against Prince Danylo. Shortly afterwards, Prince Danylo, was obliged to leave his country and he sought again Andrew's assistance. Andrew left for his campaign in the summer 1213 when he was informed that a group of conspirators had murdered his queen on 28 September and he had to return.

Following his return, he ordered the execution only the leader of the conspirators and he forgave the other members of the group, which resulted in the emerging antipaty of his son, Béla. Nevertheless, in 1214, Andrew had his son crowned.

In the summer of 1214, Andrew had a meeting with Grand Duke Leszek I of Poland and they agreed that they would divide the Principality of Halych between Hungary and Poland. Their allied troops occupied the neighbouring principality which was granted to Andrew's younger son, Coloman. However, Andrew denied to transfer the agreed territories to Duke Leszek I who made an alliance with Prince Mstilav of Novgorod and they drove away Andrew's troops from the principality.

Shortly afterwards, Andrew made an alliance again with Leszek I and they occupied Halych where again Andrew's son was appointed to prince.

The Fifth Crusade

Andrew in the Holy Land (After he defeated Sultan of Egypt)

In the meantime, Andrew began to deal with the problems of the southern borders of his kingdom. In 1214, the Hungarian troops annexed Belgrade and Braničevo from the Bulgarian Empire.

In February 1215, Andrew married Yolanda, the niece of Henry I, the Emperor of Constantinople. When the Emperor Henry I died on 11 July 1216, Andrew was planning to acquire the imperial throne, but the barons of the Latin Empire proclaimed his father-in-law, Peter of Courtenay their emperor.

Nevertheles, Andrew decided to fulfill his father's oath and made preparations for a Crusade. He agreed with the Republic of Venice to undertake the delivery of his troops to the Holy Land, in exchange he renounced the supremacy over Zára on behalf of the Republic. Andrew and his troops embarked on 23 August 1217 in Spalato. They landed on 9 October on Cyprus from where they sailed to Acre. The well-mounted army defeated sultan Al-Adil I ( Sultan of Egypt ) in Bethsaida at Jordan River on November 10. Muslim forces retreated in their fortress and towns. The catapults and trebuchets didn't arrive on time, so he had fruitless assaults on the fortresses of the Lebanon and on Mount Tabor. Afterwards, Andrew spent his time collecting alleged relics.

Andrew set home on ( 18 January 1218). On the way home, he negotiated with King Levon I of Armenia, the Emperor Theodore I Laskaris of Nicaea and Tsar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria and arranged several marriage contracts between his children and the courts he visited. When he was staying in Nicaea, his cousins, who had been living there, made an unsuccessful attempt to take his life.

The Golden Bull and the Diploma Andreanum

On his return, he found its kingdom in anarchy. While he had been away in the Holy Land, even his regent, Archbishop John of Esztergom had been obliged to leave the country and his treasury had been exhausted. He tried to collect money by using new instruments, such as introducing new taxes, undermining the currency and leasing his income to Jews and Muslims which increased his unpopularity.

His foreign policy was also a total failure. In August 1219, his younger son, Coloman, who had been crowned King of Halych, was expelled from his kingdom by Prince Mstilav of Novgorod. Andrew had to make peace with the Prince of Novgorod and he also engaged his youngest son, Andrew with one of his opponent's daughter.

In 1220, Andrew entrusted the government of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia to his son, Béla. Andrew also enforced Béla to separate from his wife.

In the beginning of 1222, the discontent serviens (nobles) came to Andrew's court in large numbers, and they persuaded the king to issue the Golden Bull which confirmed their privileges, including the right to disobey the King if he acted not in line with the provisions of the Golden Bull (ius resistendi).

In 1223, the junior King Béla IV took back his wife and escaped to Austria fearing of Andrew's anger. Finally, Andrew made an agreement with his son with the mediation of Pope Honorius III and the junior king took over again the government of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia. On 6 June 1224 Andrew made a peace with Duke Leopold VI of Austria.

In 1224, Andrew issued the Diploma Andreanum which unified and ensured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons. It's considered the oldest Autonomy law in the world. In the same year, Andrew expelled the Teutonic Knights from Transylvania because they had ignored his overlordship.

Discords with his son

The junior King Béla IV started, with the authorization of Pope Honorius III, to take back the royal domains in his provinces that Andrew had granted to his partisans during the first half of his reign. Andrew opposed his son's policy and he entrusted Béla with the government of Transylvania while his younger son, Coloman became the governor of Béla's former provinces.

In the second half of 1226, Andrew lead his armies to Halych on the request of his youngest son, Andrew. Although, Prince Mstilav defeated the royal armies, but finally he agreed to cede the government of the principality to the Hungarian prince.

During 1228, Andrew's two sons started again to take back the former royal domains in their provinces, and they persuaded Andrew to confiscate the estates of the barons who had taken part in the conspiracy against their mother. In 1229, Prince Danylo of Halych expelled Andrew's youngest son from his principality, while Frederick II, Duke of Austria started to attack the western borders of the kingdom in 1230.

The Agreement of Bereg

Andrew, in contrast with the decisions of the Fourth Council of the Lateran, often employed Jews and Muslims in the royal household. Therefore, Pope Gregory IX requested him to give up this practise. Finally, Andrew was obliged to confirm the Golden Bull and supplement it with a provision that prohibited the employment of non-Christians and also authorised the Archbishop of Esztergom to punish the king in case he ignored his promise.

In the second half of 1231, Andrew lead his armies to Halych and managed to ensure his youngest son's rule in the principality. On his return to Hungary, Archbishop Robert of Esztergom took his kingdom under interdict and excommunicated the king's major dignitaries because Andrew insisted on the employment of Jews and Muslims in his administration. Nevertheless, upon Andrew's request, the Archbishop withdrew the ecclesiastic punishments soon and the Pope promised that the dignitaries of the King of Hungary would never be excommunicated without his special authorization.

On 20 August 1233, Andrew had a meeting with the legate of Pope Gregory IX in the woods of Bereg, and they made an agreement which ensured the privileges of the clergy. In the autumn of the year, he also met with Duke Frederick II of Austria and they agreed to stop the skirmishes on the border, but the Duke soon broke the agreement.

His last years

On 14 May 1234, Andrew, who had lost his second wife in the previous year, married Beatrice D'Este who was thirty years younger than himself. Because of the new marriage, his relationship enworthened with his sons.

In the summer of 1234, the Bishop John of Bosnia excommunicated Andrew because he had not respected some provisions of the Agreement of Bereg. Andrew appealed to the Pope against the bishop's measure. In the autumn of 1234, Prince Danylo laid siege to the capital of Andrew's youngest son who died during the siege. Thus, the Hungarian supremacy over Halych disappeared.

In the beginning of 1235, Andrew made a campaign against Austria and enforced Duke Frederick II to make a peace.

He was still alive when one of his daughters, Elisabeth, who had died some years before, was canonized on 28 May 1235. Before his death, he was absolved from the excommunication; moreover, the Pope also promised that the King of Hungary and his relatives would not be excommunicated without the special permission of the Pope.

Marriages and children

  1. 1. around 1200: Gertrude of Merania (1185 – 8 September 1213), a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania and his wife, Agnes of Wettin
   * Anna Maria of Hungary (c. 1204 – 1237), wife of Tzar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria
   * King Béla IV of Hungary (1206 – 3 May 1270)
   * Saint Elisabeth of Hungary (1207 – 10 November 1231), wife of Landgraf Louis IV of Thuringia
   * King Coloman of Halych (1208 – after 11 April 1241)
   * Prince Andrew II of Halych (c. 1210 – 1234)
  1. 2. February 1215: Yolanda de Courtenay (c. 1200 – 1233), daughter of Peter I, Emperor of the Latin Empire and his second wife, Yolanda I, Empress of the Latin Empire
   * Violant of Hungary or Yolanda (c. 1215 – 12 October 1251), wife of King James I of Aragon
  1. 3. 14 May 1234: Beatrice D'Este (c. 1215 – before 8 May 1245), daughter of Aldobrandino I D'Este and his wife
   * Stephen (1236 – 10 April 1271)

BIOGRAPHY: Infopedia: Andrew II. 1175-1235. King (1205-35). Son of Bela III; succeeded Laszlo III. His extravagance and generosity brought financial troubles; forced to grant estates to nobles who reduced Hungary almost to anarchy. m. Gertrude of Meran, murdered (1213) by nobles. Set out with large army on crusade to Holy Land (1217); sailed to Acre, but expedition failed. On return nobles extorted from him (1222) the Golden Bull, which limited the monarchy, granted people annual assembly, and preserved rights of feudal nobles; during his reign Teutonic Knights expelled from Hungary (1225). Father of St. Elizabeth of Hungary.

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Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian: Andrija I. Slovak: Ondrej) (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235), King of Hungary and Croatia (1205-1235), Prince of Halych (1188-1189, 1208-1209), Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia (1197-1199, 1200-1203). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia. When his brother and his infant son died, Andrew ascended the throne and started to grant royal domains to his partisans. He participated in the Fifth Crusade but he could not achieve any major military success. He was obliged to issue the Golden Bull confirming the privileges of the noblemen of Hungary and later he was also obliged to confirm the special privileges of the clergy. During his long reign, he had several quarrels with his sons.

Marriages and children

  1. 1. around 1200: Gertrude (? – 8 September 1213), a daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Merania and his wife, Agnes of Wettin

Maria (c. 1204 – 1237), wife of Tzar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria

King Béla IV of Hungary (1206 – 3 May 1270)

Saint Elisabeth (1207 – 10 November 1231), wife of Landgraf Louis IV of Thuringia

King Coloman of Halych (1208 – after 11 April 1241)

Prince Andrew II of Halych (c. 1210 – 1234)

  1. 2. February 1215: Yolanda de Courtenay (c. 1200 – 1233), daughter of Peter I, Emperor of the Latin Empire and his second wife, Yolanda I, Empress of the Latin Empire

Yolanda (c. 1215 – 12 October 1251), wife of King James I of Aragon

  1. 3. 14 May 1234: Beatrice D'Este (c. 1215 – before 8 May 1245), daughter of Aldobrandino I D'Este and his wife

Stephen (1236 – 10 April 1271)

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Andrew II of Hungary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian: Andrija I. Slovak: Ondrej) (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235), King of Hungary and Croatia (1205-1235), Prince of Halych (1188-1189, 1208-1209), Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia (1197-1199, 1200-1203). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia. When his brother and his infant son died, Andrew ascended the throne and started to grant royal domains to his partisans. He participated in the Fifth Crusade but he could not achieve any major military success. He was obliged to issue the Golden Bull confirming the privileges of the noblemen of Hungary and later he was also obliged to confirm the special privileges of the clergy. During his long reign, he had several quarrels with his sons.

The turbulent duke

Andrew was the second son of King Béla III and his first wife, Agnes of Antioch. As younger son, Andrew had no hope to inherite the Kingdom of Hungary from his father who wanted to ensure the inheritance of his elder son, Emeric and had him crowned already in 1182.

Nevertheless, when Prince Volodymyr II of Halych, who had been expelled from his country by his subjects, fled to Hungary seeking for assistance in 1188, King Béla III had him arrested and occupied his principality and he invested Andrew with Halych. The child Andrew's rule in Halych must have been only nominal; he even did not visit his principality. In any case, his rule became unpopular soon, because the Hungarian soldiers were violent and they often violated the Eastern Orthodox churches. Although, the young prince's troops could get the mastery in 1189 when the boyars of Halych rose against his rule, but shortly afterwards Prince Volodymyr II managed to escape from his captivity and he expelled the Hungarian troops from Halych.

On 23 April 1196, King Béla III died and he left the Kingdom of Hungary unportioned to his eldest son, Emeric, while Andrew inherited a large amount of money in order to fulfill his father's Crusader oath. However, Andrew used the money to recruit followers among the barons and also sought the assistance of Leopold V, Duke of Austria. In December 1197, Andrew's troops defeated King Emeric's armies in a battle near to Macsek in December 1197. Following Andrew's victory, the king was obliged to transfer the government of the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia to Andrew.

In the beginning of 1198, Pope Innocent III requested Andrew to fulfill his father's last will and lead a Crusade to the Holy Land. However, instead of a Crusade, Andrew made a campaign against the neighbouring provinces and occupied Zahumlje and Rama. Andrew also went on conspiring with some prelates against his brother, but King Emeric was informed on Andrew's plans and he personally arrested Bishop Boleszlo of Vác, one of Andrew's main supporters, and he also deprived his brother's followers (e.g., Palatine Mog) of their dignities. In the summer of 1199, King Emeric defeated Andrew in the Battle of Rád and Andrew had to fleed to Austria. Finally, the two brothers made peace with the mediation of the Papal Legate Gregory, and the king granted again the government of Croatia and Dalmatia to his brother.

Around 1200, And

view all 26

ÁRPÁD(házi) II. András - Andrew II, King of Hungary's Timeline

1176
1176
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom 1176/77, Hungary
1202
1202
Age 26
(Unknown)
1204
1204
Age 28
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1205
May 7, 1205
- September 21, 1235
Age 29
1206
November 29, 1206
Age 30
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1207
July 7, 1207
Age 31
Sárospatak, or Pozsony, or Óbuda, Hungary
1208
1208
Age 32
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1210
1210
Age 34
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1215
1215
Age 39
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom , Hungary
1222
May 29, 1222
Age 46
Székesfehérvár, Fejér County, Hungary

Az Aranybulla1222. évi kibocsátása óta mint a nemesek jogainak biztosítéka,
az ország "alkotmánya" szerepel a közgondolkodásban.
II. András király (1205–1235) az országos elégedetlenség lecsillapítására foglalta írásba a királyi szerviensek követeléseit.
Ezt az oklevelet később, 1351-ben Nagy Lajos király (1342–1382) és utódai is megerősítették.

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aranybulla