Vajk►Szent István - Saint Stephan of Hungary ÁRPÁD(házi), King (c.969 - 1038) MP

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Nicknames: "King Stephen I of Hungary", "ÁRPÁD(házi) Vajk / Szent István", "Magyarország első királya", "államalapító", "King Stephen I of /Hungary/", "8958"
Birthplace: Esztergom [967/75], Komárom-Esztergom, Magyarország - Hungary
Death: Died in Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Magyarország - Hungary
Occupation: Prince, de Hongrie, 997, 1ʻ, Roi, 1000, Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038)
Managed by: FARKAS Mihály László
Last Updated:

About Vajk►Szent István - Saint Stephan of Hungary ÁRPÁD(házi), King

ISTVÁN I 997-1038

VAJK, son of GÉZA Prince of Hungary & his [first wife Sarolt of Transylvania] (Esztergom [967/75]-Buda 15 Aug 1038, bur Székesfehérvár). The Gesta Hungarorum records the birth in 967 of "Geicha dux [filium] regem Stephanum"[309]. The sources are contradictory regarding the identification of his mother. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "una…Caroldu et altera Saroltu" as the two daughters of "Geula", specifying that the Sarolt was mother of "sancti regis Stephani"[310]. On the other hand, the Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie" by whom she was mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[311], and the Breve chronicon Silesiæ names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie" and that she was the mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[312]. Both these Polish sources record the birth of István in 975, which is more consistent with his having been the son of his father´s first marriage. It is more likely that the Hungarian source is more accurate. It is possible that the Polish sources misrepresented the facts in order to fabricate what could have been seen as a prestigious family relationship between the Polish kings and the first king of Hungary. Thietmar names "Waik brother-in-law of Duke Heinrich of the Bavarians"[313]. He was baptised as ISTVÁN [Stephen]. He succeeded his father in 997 as Prince of Hungary. His succession was challenged on grounds of seniority by his older cousin Koppány, whose rebellion was suppressed at Veszprem in 998 with the help of Bavarian cavalry[314]. Prince István received a royal crown from Pope Sylvester II and was crowned ISTVÁN I King of Hungary 25 Dec 1000 or 1 Jan 1001. He was also granted an apostolic cross, symbolic of the status and authority of the Hungarian church which was responsible to the Pope alone[315]. Rodulfus Glaber records that King István encouraged pilgrims to Jerusalem to cross Hungary rather than travel by sea, making "the road safe for everyone"[316]. "Stephanus…Ungrorum Rex" founded the monastery of St Martin "in monte supra Pannoniam sito" by charter dated 1001[317]. His army attacked his maternal uncle Gyula Prince in Transylvania in 1002 and incorporated Transylvania into his domains[318]. "Stephanus…Hungarorum Rex" donated property to the church of St Emeram "in…castro nostro Nitra" by charter dated to 1006[319]. "Stephanus…Hungarorum Rex" donated property to the church of St Michael, Vesprim by charter dated 1009[320]. "Stephanus…Hungarorum Rex" founded the church of St Adrian, Zala by charter dated 1019, and donated further property by charter dated 1024[321]. His authority was challenged unsuccessfully in south-eastern Hungary by Ohtum [Ajtony], maybe a Khazar prince. King István confirmed the privileged 'freeman' status of the descendants of the original Magyar conquerors who, in return for providing military support, were exempt from taxes other than church tithes[322]. He reformed the Magyar legal system, enacting many new laws particularly relating to ecclesiastical matters. The first Hungarian constitution is dated to 1030[323]. He was the author of a Book of Exhortations [Intelmek könyve] to his son, the first known Hungarian literary work, which emphasises the ecclesiastical basis for the king's authority[324]. "Stephanus…Ungarorum Rex" donated property to the church of St Maurice, Bakonbél by charter dated 1037[325]. The necrology of Tegernsee records the death "XVIII Kal Sep" of "Stephanus rex Ungarorum"[326]. The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1038 of "Stephanus rex"[327]. According to the Gesta Hungarorum, he died in the 46th year of his reign and was buried in "Albæ [Székesfehérvár] in ecclesia Beatæ Virginis"[328]. He was canonised in 1083 by the Catholic church, his feast-day being 4 Nov.

m (996) GISELA of Bavaria, daughter of HEINRICH II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria and Carinthia [Germany] & his wife Gisela of Burgundy ([985]-Passau 7 May 1065, bur Passau Kloster Niedernburg). Herimannus names "Gisela, huius soror [=Heinricus imperator]" as wife of "Stephano regi Ungariorum"[329]. The Annalista Saxo states that "mater ipsius [Stephanus Ungariorum rex] Gisla" was sister of "Heinrici inperatoris Babenbergensis", when recording her husband's death[330], but clearly the text misstates "mater" for "uxor". This marriage was agreed by Gisela's brother Duke Heinrich IV and István's father to confirm the Hungarian/Bavarian alliance[331]. According to the legends of St Stephen, she founded Veszprém Cathedral and the convent of Veszprémvölgy[332]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Kysla regina" sent "comitem Sebus" to blind Vazúl, whom her husband wished to appoint as his successor after the death of their son Imre, and have moulten lead poured into his ears[333]. Bak suggests that Queen Gisela was blamed because of anti-German feeling in the Hungarian court[334]. According to another Hungarian chronicle, Queen Gisela took council from "an evil man named Buda" concerning her husband's plan to name his nephew Vazúl as his heir and sent Buda's son Egiruth to do the deed[335]. After her husband died, she was robbed of her possessions by her husband's successor and left Hungary, becoming Abbess of Niedernburg.

King István & Queen Gisela had [five] children. The names and order of the children are as set out in Daniel Cornides[336], although Imre is the only child whose existence is corroborated in the primary sources so far consulted.

  1. [OTTO (-young).]
  2. IMRE [Heinrich] ([1007]-killed Bihar 2 Nov 1031). The Gesta Hungarorum records that "rex Stephanus" had several sons of whom "Emricum" stood out[337].

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hemericum" as the only son of "sanctus rex de Ungaria Stephanus primus", specifying that he died before his father[338]. The Annales Hildesheimenses name "Heinricus, Stephani regis filius, dux Ruizorum" when recording his death[339]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that "rege Stephano" wished to renounce his crown in favour of "Emrico duci suo filio" but was prevented from doing so by the latter's early death[340]. He was killed by a wild boar while hunting. The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1031 of "Henricus filius Stephani regis"[341]. The Altahense Annales record the death in 1033 of "Heinricus filius Stephani Regis Ungarie"[342]. [m ([1022]) --- (-after 1031). Sources are contradictory regarding the possible marriage of Imre. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[343], she was --- Argyre, daughter of Emperor Romanos III. Kosztolnyik refers to (unnamed) Byzantine sources which record the Byzantine marriage of Imre[344], suggesting that "the terminology of the Greek text of the founding charter of the monastery for women at Veszprém" supports the position[345]. It is clear whether these sources specify that she was a member of the Argyre family, but this appears unlikely to be correct. If Prince Imre died marry a Byzantine princess, the marriage must have been arranged by Emperor Basileios II, assuming that it is correctly dated to [1022]. Although Romanos Argyros (later Emperor Romanos III) held office during the later years of the emperor's reign (he was city prefect of Constantinople), the absence of detailed information in Greek primary sources about the Argyros family suggests that it was not at that time especially prominent among the noble families of the empire. If this is correct, a member of the Argyros family would seem a surprising choice as bride for the heir to the Hungarian throne. This difficulty would not arise if the marriage took place after the accession of Emperor Romanos in 1028. If this Byzantine marriage is correct, it is possible that her father-in-law founded the Greek monastery in Veszprém valley for his son's wife[346]. An alternative possibility is that Imre's wife was --- of Poland, daughter of Mieszko II Lambert King of Poland & his wife Richeza [Ezzonen], as the Annales Sanctæ Crucis Polonici record that "Stephanus rex…filium…Emrich" married "Meszkone rege Polonie…filiam"[347]. However, this report in the Annales may have been due to confusion with the marriage of another of King Miesko's daughters, reported in the Gesta Hungarorum as having married the future Béla I King of Hungary while he was in exile in Poland[348]. It does not appear likely that King István's political relations with Poland would have been sufficiently close for him to have arranged a Polish marriage for his heir. The king's main political alliance was with Germany, whose relations with Poland were tense during the reigns of Emperor Heinrich II and Emperor Konrad II. A third possibility is provided by the Chronicle of Joannes Archidiaconus Goricensis which suggests that Imre was not married at all when he died, recording that "sancto Stephano" betrothed "Emerici ducis Sclavoniæ" to "filia Cresimiri" but that the future bridegroom died the following year[349]. His betrothed would have been --- of Croatia, daughter of Krešimir III King of Croatia & his wife ---.]

  1. [BERNHARD (-young).]
  2. [HEDWIG . According to the early 12th century Vita Eberhardi[350], the mother of Eberhard Graf von Nellenburg (son of Eberhard IV Graf im Zürichgau) was a daughter of István I King of Hungary, although it is somewhat surprising that such a prominent figure as King István, in far off Hungary, would have married his daughter to an obscure Swiss count.

The Annales Scafhusenses record the marriage in 1009 of "Ebbo comes de Nellenburc" and "consobrinam Heinrici regis Hedewigam…de curie regis"[351]. If "consobrinam" is here used in its precise sense, Hedwig would have been the daughter of one of the sisters of Gisela, daughter of Conrad I King of Upper Burgundy. Hedwig founded Kloster Pfaffenschwabenheim as a widow[352]. If she was the daughter of King István, there is a remote possibility that she was the same daughter who supposedly married Edmund ætheling (see below), although if this is correct she would have been much older than her second husband. m (1009) EBERHARD [IV] Graf im Zürichgau, son of [MANGOLD [I] Graf im Zürichgau & his wife ---] (-[1030/34]).]

  1. [DOBUKA .]
  • Possible relative of the kings of Hungary, precise relationship not known:
  • *
  1. [HEDWIG of Hungary. Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edmundo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "Hungariorum regem…filiam suam"[353]. Geoffrey Gaimar recounts that "Edgar" (older of the two children of King Edmund whom he names incorrectly in an earlier passage) made "la fille al rei [de Hungrie]" pregnant, was married to her and appointed heir by her father, but adding confusingly that they were parents of "Margarete" who married "rei Malcolom"[354]. The basis for this story, and whether there is any element of truth hidden somewhere in it, is unknown. Edmund's wife is named Hedwig in Burke's Guide to the Royal Family[355], although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. In the absence of further information, the accuracy of these reports must be considered dubious as none of the Hungarian kings during the first half of the 11th century provides an obvious match. In the case of King István, it is likely that all his daughters predeceased their father in view of the accession of his nephew, King Péter, when he died. In any case, his daughters would have been beyond child-bearing age when the ætheling Edmund arrived in Hungary, assuming this arrival took place in [1046] as is probable. As the ætheling brothers were closely linked to King András I, it is unlikely that Edmund would have married a daughter of either of his disgraced predecessors King Péter or King Samuel Aba, and any daughters of the former at least would have been too young for such a marriage. Finally, any daughters of King András himself would certainly have been too young for the marriage. There is therefore considerable doubt about the historical authenticity of this Hungarian princess or her marriage to Edmund. m EDMUND of England, son of EDMUND "Ironsides" King of England & his wife Ældgyth --- (1016-before 1054).]

Source / Forrás:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_ISTVÁN_I_997-1038

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_I_of_Hungary

---------------------------

There are some incorrect merges in this area - being looked at by Arthur Jackson 4th October

-------------------- St. Stephen I Arpád, King of Hungary (1) M, #102405, b. between 969 and 975, d. 1038 Last Edited=8 Mar 2007

    St. Stephen I Arpád, King of Hungary was born between 969 and 975. He was the son of Geisa Arpád, King of Hungary. (1) He married Gisela of Germany, daughter of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor and Gisela de Bourgogne, in 996. He died in 1038. (1)
    St. Stephen I Arpád, King of Hungary took the religious name of Saint Stephen. He succeeded to the title of King Stephen I of Hungary in 997. (1) He was crowned King of Hungary in 1001. (1)

Child of St. Stephen I Arpád, King of Hungary and Gisela of Germany

  1. Hedwig of Hungary (2)

Forrás / Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10241.htm#i102405 --------------------------------- I. István A Wikipédiából, a szabad enciklopédiából. Uralkodása 997-től fejedelem 1001-től király – 1038. augusztus 15. Megkoronázása 1000 vagy 1001 Született kb. 975 Esztergom Elhunyt 1038. augusztus 15. Székesfehérvár vagy Szentkirály Nyughelye Székesfehérvár Szűz Mária templom Elődje Géza (fejedelemként) Utóda Orseolo Péter Felesége Boldog Gizella (kb. 995-1038) Gyermekei Ottó – fiatalon meghalt Szent Imre herceg († 1031) Dinasztia Árpád-ház Édesapja Géza fejedelem

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/I._István

--------------------- 1000-1038. I. (Szent) István 1038. augusztus 15-én, hosszú betegség után 59-63 éves korában halt meg. Halála helyének régebben sematikusan Esztergomot jelölték meg, Györffy György (2000) szerint valószínűbb, hogy az uralkodó Esztergom-Szentkirályon lelte halálát, ahol II. Géza királyunk Szent István halála emlékéül megalapította a jeruzsálemi stefanita keresztes kanonokrend – máig még kutatatlan – anyaházát. Innen – Abony-Szentkirályról – vihették le a holt tetemet a király végakaratának megfelelően Székesfehérvárra, ahol az általa alapított királyi bazilikában temették el.

Felesége: Gizella királyné (Boldog Gizella), II. (Civakodó) Henrik bajor herceg és Welf Gizella burgundi hercegnő leánya, Konrád burgundi királynak az unokája. 1045 május-júniusában kíséretével elhagyta az országot, és nagy valószínűséggel a Passau melletti niederburgi kolostorban halt meg idős korában – feltehetően 1065. május 7-én –, ahol el is temették. Mások szerint a veszprémi székesegyház altemplomába temették, de az sem kizárható, hogy Székesfehérvárott helyezték örök nyugalomra.

Gyermekei: **(children)**

  1. Imre (Szent Imre)

(eredetileg Henrik-Heinrich). 1031. szeptember 2-án, 24 éves korában, vadászat közben "tisztázatlan körülmények" (bajor Szentek Élete) között halt meg, valószínűleg a bihari Hegyköz-Szentimrén. Apja óhajára (utólag) Székesfehérvárott temették el. 1083-ban avatták szentté. Lehetséges, hogy 1734-ben Székesfehérvárott az ő sírköve került elő. Az 1936-os ásatások során feltehetően az ő üres sírját találták meg, majd ezt 1994-1995-ben Szabó Zoltán építész és Biczó Pirosa régész hitelesítette. Nem hiteles Szent Imre ereklyék voltak a niederburgi kolostorban, ahova azokat állítólag a mohácsi vész után Mária királyné, II. Lajos király felesége menekítette, amikor kincseivel Budáról menekült.

  1. Ottó, meghalt 8 éves korában, 1010 körül. valószínűleg a székesfehérvári Nagyboldogasszony-bazilikában nyugodott.
  • *

A hagyomány I. (Szent) Istvánnak még több, fiatal korban elhalt gyermekéről tud. Általában az

  • 3. István vagy Bernát, az
  • 4. Ágota **(∞ perhaps Edmund)** és a
  • 5. Hedvig **(∞ perhaps Eppo)**

neveket emlegetik. Lehetséges, hogy őket – némelyiküket – 1000, 1002 vagy 1004 körül az első székesfehérvári templomba temették, majd később a Szent István alapítású bazilikába vitték át. Egyes források tudni vélik, hogy Hedviget Eppo, nellenburgi comes vette feleségül. Ágota pedig Edmund angol herceghez ment feleségül, és anyja lett a Skóciai Szent Margit királynénak.

(**Notes from Farkas M. L.**)

Testvérei / Siblings: I. (Szent) Istvánnak édesapja Géza (István) első és második házasságából hat leánytestvére született. Lehetséges, hogy egyiket-másikat Székesfehérvárott temették el.

Egyik leánytestvére – talán

# Gizella, mások szerint Ilona, de az is lehet, hogy Mária volt a neve – Orseolo Ottó velencei dózse felesége lett és így I. (Orseolo) Péter anyja volt. Meghalt 1026 után, feltehetően Magyarországon. Nagy valószínűség szerint Székesfehérvárott temették el.
  1. A másik leánytestvér nevét nem ismerjük; ő Aba Sámuel édesanyja – más nézet szerint felesége – volt. Meghalt 1044 július-augusztusában.
  2. A harmadik leánytestvér nevét sem ismerjük; sokak szerint Judit volt. Férje I. vitéz Boleszláv (Boleszló), Lengyelország fejedelme, Msciszláv fejedelem fia volt. Férjétől eltaszítva fiával Magyarországra költözött, ahol 987 után halt meg. Fiának neve állítólag Beszprim volt; lehetséges, hogy Veszprém városa róla kapta a nevét.
  3. A negyedik leánytestvéréről csak annyit tudunk, hogy 1000 után halt meg. Sem halála helyéről, sem sírjáról nincsen tudomásunk.
  4. Ötödik leánytestvére Radorim (Romanos) bolgár cárevics felesége volt, de tőle eltaszítva Magyarországra költözött és itt halt meg.
  5. A hatodik leánytestvér apácaneve Scholastika (Skolasztika) volt; a somlyóvásárhelyi Szent Lambert klastromban élt, ahol 1008-tól annak fejedelemasszonya lett. Sorsát nem tudjuk követni.

István király édesapjának, Gézának testvérét / his paternal oncle:/ Mihálynak (Bélának?) nevezték; 997 előtt halt meg, feltehetően a Tarnaszentmária-i birtokán alapított "fejedelmi temetkezőhelyen" temették el, ahol sírja ma is látható; feleségét /his oncle's wife was/ Adelhaidnak hívták.

Géza (István) fejedelmet – Szent István király édesapját – 997-ben feltehetően Székesfehérvárott, a Szent Péter és Pál apostolok templomának helyén levő egyházba temették. Ugyanitt helyezték örök nyugalomra feleségét Saroltot (Sar-Aldut), az erdélyi Gyula fejedelem leányát is, 954 táján. Géza templomát IV. Béla bontatta le, hogy helyére felépítse Péter és Pál katedrálisát. Minden bizonnyal exhumáltatta Szent István szüleinek a tetemét. 1440-ben, amikor V. Lászlót koronázták, vele jött az ünnepségekre Dragos krakkói kanonok és megemlékezett arról, hogy a koronázási szertartás után Géza és felesége nyughelyére is elzarándokoltak.

Mihály felesége egy Sámuel családjából származó, ismeretlen nevű bolgár hercegnő volt. Gyermekei: egy leány, akinek férje I. (Bátor) Boleszló lengyel fejedelem. Sorsáról nem tudunk. Vazul (Vászoly), felesége Tátony nembeli leány volt. Újabb kutatások szerint Vazul felesége hozta a családba az "ielsorvadi-t" – ma már tudjuk, hogy cukorbetegséget. Az Árpád-házi királyság ezen az ágon folytatódott. Vazulnak három fia volt: András, Béla és Levente. Vazult 1038 előtt feltehetően Székesfehérvárott temették el. Levente 1047-ben hunyt el. András és Béla később király lett. Mihály másik fia, Szár László, 1031 előtt halt meg. Elképzelhető, hogy Szent István Székesfehérvárott temettette el. Szár László felesége Premiszláva, I. Vladimir orosz herceg leánya. Több gyermeke volt; név szerint csak Bogyiszlóról tudunk. Fiatalon elhunyt gyermekét – vagy gyermekeit – feltételezhetően Székesfehérvárott temették el.

Szent István édesanyjának – Saroltnak – volt egy Karolt nevű nővére, aki Doboka főúrhoz ment nőül; fiúk volt Csanád, aki a lázadó Ajtonyt leverte a Maros mellett.

http://mek.oszk.hu/04000/04092/html/index.htm (Hankó Ildikó Királyaink tömegsírban) -------------------------------- See also / Lásd még: KRISTÓ GYULA SZENT ISTVÁN KIRÁLY http://mek.niif.hu/05000/05000/html/index.htm -------------------- Stephen I of Hungary From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: I. (Szent) István, Slovak: (Svätý) Štefan I.) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary – 15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). Stephen was born under the pagan Turkish name Vajk, but was baptised as Stephen in his childhood. Following the death of his father, Géza, Stephen became the Grand Prince of the Magyars, but he could only strengthen his rule when he defeated his relative, Koppány. Shortly afterwards, he claimed and received a crown from the pope and he became the first King of Hungary. Stephen extended his rule in the Carpathian Basin with force by defeating several local chieftains. He maintained peace with the Holy Roman Empire during the first three decades of his reign, and later he could withdraw the attacks of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Stephen established ten dioceses in his kingdom and he issued severe decrees against pagan customs and in favor of the Christian faith in order to strengthen Christianity among his subjects. He organised several counties (vármegye) in Hungary and his decrees could ensure the internal peace in his kingdom. Based on his acts, he is generally considered as the founder of Hungary. Following the death of his son, Emeric, Stephen wanted to ensure the maintenance of the Christianity in his kingdom and therefore he named his sister's son, the Venetian Peter Urseolo as his heir instead of his cousin, Vazul whom he suspected following pagan customs and ordered him blinded. Stephen was canonised, together with his son and Bishop Gerard of Csanád, on 20 August 1083 and he become one of the most popular saints in Hungary.

Early years

St. Stephen was born Vajk[1] in the town of Esztergom. His father was Géza, Grand Prince of the Magyars; his mother was Sarolt, the daughter of Gyula of Transylvania.[2] According to his legends, Vajk was baptized by Saint Adalbert of Prague.[3] He was given the baptismal name Stephen (István) in honour of the original early Christian Saint Stephen.[4] When Stephen reached adolescence, Great Prince Géza convened an assembly where they decided that Stephen would follow his father as the monarch of the Magyars.[5] Nevertheless, this decision contradicted the Magyar tribal custom that gave preference to the eldest member of the ruling family to the deceased ruler's son. Stephen married Giselle of Bavaria, the daughter of Henry II the Wrangler and Gisela of Burgundy in or after 995.[6] By this marriage, he became the brother-in-law of the future Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor. Giselle arrived to her husband's court accompanied by German knights.[7] [edit]Ruling prince of the Magyars

In 997, his father died and a succession struggle ensued.[8] Stephen claimed to rule the Magyars as the deceased monarch's son, while his relative Koppány, a powerful pagan chieftain in Somogy, claimed the traditional right of seniority.[9] Eventually, the two met in battle near Veszprém and Stephen was victorious, primarily thanks to his German retinue lead by the brothers Pázmány and Hont[10]. The nearly contemporary deed of foundation of the Abbey of Pannonhalma clearly described the battle as a struggle between the Germans and the Magyars. Thus, Stephen strengthened his power in Transdanubia, but several parts of Hungary still did not accept his rule. According to Hungarian tradition Pope Silvester II, with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, sent a magnificent jeweled gold crown to Stephen along with an apostolic cross and a letter of blessing officially recognizing Stephen as the Christian king of Hungary. The date of this coronation is variously given as Christmas Day, 1000 or 1 January 1001.

First king of Hungary

After (or just before) his coronation Stephen I founded several dioceses, ie, the dioceses of Veszprém, Győr, Kalocsa, Vác, Bihar (Romanian: Biharea). He also established the Archdiocese of Esztergom, thus he set up an ecclesiastical organisation independent of the German archbishops. He also began to organise a territory-based administration by founding several counties (comitatus, megye) in his kingdom. Stephen discouraged pagan customs and strengthened Christianity with various laws. In his first decree, issued in the beginning of his rule, he ordered that each ten villages are obliged to build a church. He invited foreign priests to Hungary to evangelize his kingdom; Saint Astricus served as his advisor, and Stephen also had Saint Gerard Sagredo as the tutor for his son Imre. Around 1003, he invaded and occupied Transylvania, a territory ruled by his maternal uncle, Gyula, a semi-independent chieftain; and after his victory, he organised the Diocese of Transylvania. In the next few years he also occupied the lands of the Black Magyars in the Southern part of Transdanubia, and organised there the Diocese of Pécs. Shortly afterwards, he probably made an agreement with Samuel Aba, the chieftain of the Kabar tribes settled in the Mátra region, who married Stephen's sister; in his brother-in-law's domains, Stephen founded the Diocese of Eger. Finally, Stephen occupied the domains of Ajtony, a semi-pagan chieftain, who had been ruling over the territories of the later Banat, where he set up the Diocese of Csanád.

External politics

In his external politics Stephen I allied himself with his brother-in-law, the Emperor Henry II against Prince Boleslaw I of Poland, who had extended his rule over the territories between the Morava and Vág Rivers. He sent troops to the Emperor's army, and in the Peace of Bautzen, in 1018, the Polish prince had to hand over the occupied territories to Stephen. Shortly afterwards, Stephen sent troops to help Boleslaw I in his campaign against the Kievan Rus'. In 1018, Stephen lead his armies against Bulgaria, in alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, and collected several relics during his campaign. After the death of Henry II (July 3, 1024), Stephen broke with the German alliance, because the new Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II claimed the supremacy over the kingdom of Hungary, while Stephen demanded the duchy of Bavaria for his son Emeric who was the nearest relative of the deceased Emperor Henry II (who himself had been the last male descendant of the old dukes of Bavaria). In 1027, Stephen had Bishop Werner of Strasbourg, the envoy sent by Conrad II to the Byzantine Empire, arrested at the frontier. In 1030, the Emperor lead his armies against Hungary, but Stephen's troops enforced their retreat. Stephen and the Emperor Conrad II concluded peace in 1031, and the territories between the Leitha (Hungarian:(Lajta)) and Fischa Rivers were ceded to Hungary. [edit]His last years

Stephen intended to retire to a life of holy contemplation and hand the kingdom over to his son Emeric, but Emeric was wounded in a hunting accident and died in 1031. In Stephen's words of mourning: By God's secret decision death took him, so that wickedness would not change his soul and false imaginations would not deceive his mind – as the Book of Wisdom teaches about early death. Stephen mourned for a very long time over the loss of his son, which took a great toll on his health. He eventually recovered, but never regained his original vitality. Having no children left, he could not find anyone among his remaining relatives who was able to rule the country competently and willing to maintain the Christian faith of the nation. He did not want to entrust his kingdom to his cousin, Duke Vazul whom he suspected to be following pagan customs. The disregarded duke took part in conspiracy aimed at the murder of Stephen I, but the assassination attempt failed and Vazul had his eyes gouged out and molten lead poured in his ears. King Stephen died on the Feast of the Assumption in 1038 at Székesfehérvár, where he was then buried. His nobles and his subjects were said to have mourned for three straight years afterwards.[citation needed] [edit]His legacy

The Hungarian Sacred Crown is closely devoted to King Stephen. According to Hartwick's legend Pope Silvester II sent a crown to Stephen, however, it is not true as the legend cannot be recognised as authentic source, and also, there are no evidence found in Vatican City. The date of his coronation is unknown, it is variously given as Christmas Day, 1000 or 1 January 1001. During this coronation, he dedicated the crown to the Holy Virgin, thereby sealing a contract between God and the crown (which is therefore considered a "holy" crown). This contract is also the base for the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, and the base of Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary. Stephen intended to retire to a life of holy contemplation and hand the kingdom over to his son Imre, but Imre was wounded in a hunting accident and died in 1031. In Stephen's words of mourning: By God's secret decision death took him, so that wickedness would not change his soul and false imaginations would not deceive his mind – as the Book of Wisdom teaches about early death. Stephen mourned for a very long time over the loss of his son, which took a great toll on his health. He eventually recovered, but never regained his original vitality. Having no children left, he could not find anyone among his remaining relatives who was able to rule the country competently and willing to maintain the Christian faith of the nation. Unable to choose an heir, King Stephen died on the Feast of the Assumption in 1038 at Székesfehérvár, where he was buried. His nobles and his subjects were said to have mourned for three straight years afterwards.[citation needed] Following Stephen's death, his nephew Peter Urseolo (his appointed heir) and brother-in-law Samuel Aba contended for the crown. Nine years of instability followed until Stephen's cousin Andrew I was crowned King of Hungary, re-establishing the Árpád dynasty in 1047. Hungarian historiography saw Peter and Samuel as members of the Árpád dynasty, and both are counted among the Árpád kings.

Shortly after Stephen's death, healing miracles were said to have occurred at his tomb. Stephen was canonized by Pope Gregory VII as Saint Stephen of Hungary in 1083, along with his son, Saint Imre and Bishop Gerhard (Hungarian: Szent Gellért). Thus Saint Stephen became the first of the canonized confessor kings, a new prototype of saints. Catholics venerate him as the patron saint of Hungary, kings, the death of children, masons, stonecutters, and bricklayers. His feast day was not included in the Tridentine Calendar. It was added in 1631 to the Roman Calendar as a commemoration in the feast of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. In 1687 it was moved to 2 September. In the 1969 revision of the calendar, 16 August became free from other celebrations and the feast of Saint Stephen of Hungary was moved to that date, the day immediately after that of his death.[11] However, in Hungary the feast is observed on August 20, the day on which his sacred relics were transferred to the city of Buda. This day is a public holiday in Hungary. The king's right hand, known as "The Holy Right", is kept as a relic. His body was mummified after his death[citation needed], but the tomb was opened and his hand was separated some years later. Except for this, only some bone fragments remained (which are kept in churches throughout Hungary). Catholics honour the first king of their country on annual processions, where the Holy Right is exhibited. The canonization of Saint Stephen was recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople in 2000, thus making Stephen of Hungary the first saint since Saint Sergius of Radonezh to be recognised both by Orthodoxy and Catholicism since the Great Schism.[citation needed] The Holy Crown, popularly attributed to St. Stephen, was removed from the country in 1945 for safekeeping, and entrusted to the United States government. It was kept in a vault at Fort Knox until 1978, when it was returned to the nation by order of U.S. President Jimmy Carter. It has been enshrined in the Hungarian Parliament building in Budapest since 2000.

Quote

My beloved son, delight of my heart, hope of your posterity, I pray, I command, that at every time and in everything, strengthened by your devotion to me, you may show favor not only to relations and kin, or to the most eminent, be they leaders or rich men or neighbors or fellow countrymen, but also to foreigners and to all who come to you. By fulfilling your duty in this way you will reach the highest state of happiness. Be merciful to all who are suffering violence, keeping always in your heart the example of the Lord who said, "I desire mercy and not sacrifice." Be patient with everyone, not only with the powerful, but also with the weak. Finally be strong lest prosperity lift you up too much or adversity cast you down. Be humble in this life, that God may raise you up in the next. Be truly moderate and do not punish or condemn anyone immoderately. Be gentle so that you may never oppose justice. Be honorable so that you may never voluntarily bring disgrace upon anyone. Be chaste so that you may avoid all the foulness of lust like the pangs of death. All these virtues I have noted above make up the royal crown, and without them no one is fit to rule here on earth or attain to the heavenly kingdom. --Excerpt from Saint Stephen's admonitions to his son Imre.

Artistic representation

King Stephen of Hungary has been a popular theme in art, especially from the 19th century on, with its development of nationalism. Paintings such as The Baptism of Vajk (1875) by Gyula Benczúr and many statues representing the king all over Hungary testify to Stephen's importance in Hungarian national thought. The best known representations of St. Stephen in music are Ludwig van Beethoven's King Stephen Overture, and the 1983 rock opera István, a király (Stephen, the King) by Levente Szörényi and János Bródy. Szörényi's Veled, Uram! (With You, Lord! - 2000) was a sequel to István, a király.

[edit]References ^1.^ István halála 2.^ Esztergom.hu 3.^ Hankó Ildikó: Királyaink Tömegsírban 4.^ a b c d e "Stephen I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2008. http://britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/565415/Stephen-I. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 5.^ He was referred to as Waic by Thietmar of Merseburg. "Vajk" is probably a turkic name meaning "rich" or "hero", but it may have originated from the Hungarian word for butter ("vaj"), as well. 6.^ a b History of Latin Christianity. Michigan State University. pp. 398. ISBN 9781144985040. http://books.google.com/books?id=6iqEkINoXdgC&printsec=titlepage&hl=hu#PPA398,M1. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 7.^ Some Polish sources claim his mother was the Polish princess Adelajda from the dynasty of the Piasts, the second wife of Géza, after Sarolt's death, but this version is generally rejected by historians, 8.^ For, Society (1842). The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful. C. Knight. p. 29. http://books.google.com/books?id=qlYMAAAAYAAJ&printsec=titlepage&hl=hu#PPA29,M1. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 9.^ "Foundation for Medieval Genealogy". http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_ftnref230. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 10.^ a b "Országalapító királyunk és a keleti hagyományok kapcsolatáról" (in Hungarian). Új Ember (Catholic weekly). 2005-08-21. http://ujember.katolikus.hu/Archivum/2005.08.21/0201.html. Retrieved 2008-07-30. 11.^ Engel, Pal; Andrew Ayton (2005). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary. I.B.Tauris. pp. 27. ISBN 185043977X. http://books.google.hu/books?id=vEJNBqanT_8C&printsec=frontcover#PPA27,M1. 12.^ "St. Stephen". Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14287a.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-30. 13.^ "Legenda maior Sancti Regis Stephani" ("The major legend of King Saint Stephen") 14.^ The name "Stephen" derives from the Greek στεφανος, "stephanos," meaning "crowned." 15.^ According to Legenda Aurea by Jacobus Voragine 16.^ a b Legenda maior Sancti Regis Stephani (The major legend of King Saint Stephen) 17.^ Hermann of Reichenau: Chronicon de sex ætatibus mundi (Chronicle of the six ages of the world) 18.^ a b Chronicon Pictum 19.^ Some authors call them Poznan and Hunt claiming that Poznan was a Slovakian landholder in the Nitra region, but the sources seem to strengthen the idea that the brothers arrived in Hungary in the company of Giselle. 20.^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), pp. 100, 137 -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_I_of_Hungary

Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: I. (Szent) István) (Latin: Sanctus Stephanus) (Esztergom, 967/969/975 – 15 August 1038, Esztergom-Szentkirály or Székesfehérvár, Hungary), born Vajk, was Grand Prince of the Hungarians (997–1000) and the first King of Hungary (1000–1038). He greatly expanded Hungarian control over the Carpathian Basin during his lifetime, broadly established Christianity in the region, and is generally considered to be the founder of the Kingdom of Hungary. Pope Gregory VII canonized Stephen I, together with his son, Saint Emeric of Hungary and Bishop Gerard of Csanád, on 20 August 1083. Stephen became one of the most popular saints in Hungary, and the date of his canonization is celebrated as a state holiday commemorating the foundation of the nation.

Early years He was born as Vajk in the town of Esztergom. His father was Grand Prince Géza of Hungary; his mother was Sarolt[6], daughter of Gyula of Transylvania a Hungarian nobleman who had been baptized in Greece [8]. Though Sarolt was baptized into the Orthodox Christian faith at her father's court in Transylvania by the Greek bishop Hierotheos, she did not persist in the religion. According to his legends, Vajk was baptized a Christian by Saint Adalbert of Prague. He was given the baptismal name Stephen (István) in honour of the original early Christian Saint Stephen.[14] The baptised name was possibly chosen on purpose, as it means not only "crown" as mentioned, but also "norm, standard" in Hebrew.[15] So the mission of St. Stephen was to grant a norm to Hungary through the Holy Crown (also called the Doctrine of the Holy Crown). However, another reason could be thought of: that Stephen, as fiancé of a woman from the diocese of Passau, simply wanted to do honour to the then-major saint of Passau, Saint Stephen, after whom the Passau Cathedral is named up to today.

When Stephen reached adolescence, Great Prince Géza convened an assembly where they decided that Stephen would follow his father as the monarch of the Hungarians.[16] This decision, however, contradicted the Magyar tribal custom that gave the right of succession to the eldest close relative of the deceased ruler.

Stephen married Giselle of Bavaria[4], the daughter of Henry II the Wrangler[4] in or after 995.[17] By this marriage, he became the brother-in-law of the future Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor. Giselle arrived at her husband's court accompanied by German knights.[18]

Ruling prince of the Hungarians In 997, his father died and a succession struggle ensued.[16] Stephen claimed to rule the Magyars by the principle of Christian divine right, while his uncle Koppány, a powerful pagan chieftain in Somogy, claimed the traditional right of agnatic seniority.[18] Eventually, the two met in battle near Veszprém and Stephen, victorious, assumed the role of Grand Prince of the Hungarians. Stephen's victory came about primarily thanks to his German retinue led by the brothers Pázmány and Hont[19]. The nearly contemporary deed of foundation of the Abbey of Pannonhalma clearly described the battle as a struggle between the Germans and the Magyars. Thus, Stephen strengthened his power in Transdanubia, but several parts of Hungary still did not accept his rule.

According to Hungarian tradition, Pope Silvester II, with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, sent a magnificent jeweled gold crown to Stephen along with an apostolic cross and a letter of blessing officially recognizing Stephen as the Christian king of Hungary. Later this tradition was interpreted as the papal recognition of the independence of Hungary from the Holy Roman Empire. The date of Stephen's coronation is variously given as Christmas Day, 1000 or 1 January 1001.

Stephen I is closely tied to the Crown of St. Stephen and the Doctrine of the Holy Crown which marks a unique tradition of the Kingdom of Hungary. According to Hartwick's legend, during his coronation Stephen dedicated the crown to the Holy Virgin, thereby sealing a contract between God and the crown (which is therefore considered a "holy" crown). This contract is also the basis for the Doctrine of the Holy Crown and the basis for the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary. The actual crown which survives today was probably never worn by the king himself as it has been dated as originating in the 12th century. The origin of the crown, however, is hotly disputed.

First King of Hungary According to the much argued Chronicon Pictum, the first king of the Hungarians is Attila the Hun. However, the codex repeats itself as Stephen I is also cited as the first king of the Hungarians. Also argued by historians is the exact meaning of the phrase in the Remonstrances to Emerick from St Stephen: "Regale ornamentum scito esse maximum: sequi antecessores reges et honestos imitari parentos", which translates to: "The greatest deed for the kingdom is to follow the old kings and to imitate parents". This might mean that Stephen is referring to the "old kings" which could only be Attila and Nimrod. It might also mean that the constitution of the kingdom itself was not employed by St Stephen, but by his ancestors.

What is confirmed is that, after (or just before) his coronation, Stephen I founded several dioceses, namely, the dioceses of Veszprém, Győr, Kalocsa, Vác, and Bihar. He also established the Archdiocese of Esztergom. Thus he set up an ecclesiastical organisation independent of the German archbishops. He also began to organize a territory-based administration by founding several counties (comitatus, megye) in his kingdom.

Stephen discouraged pagan customs and strengthened Christianity by means of various laws. In his first decree, issued at the beginning of his rule, he ordered that each ten villages would be obliged to build a church. He invited foreign priests to Hungary to evangelize his kingdom. Saint Astricus served as his adviser and Saint Gerard Sagredo as the tutor for his son Emeric (also rendered as Imre).

Around 1003, Stephen invaded and occupied Transylvania, a territory ruled by his maternal uncle, Gyula, a semi-independent chieftain. After this victory, Stephen organized the Diocese of Transylvania. In the next few years he also occupied the lands of the Black Magyars in the southern part of Transdanubia, and there organized the Diocese of Pécs. Shortly afterwards, it is believed that he made an agreement with Samuel Aba, the chieftain of the Kabar tribes settled in the Mátra region, who married Stephen's sister. In his brother-in-law's domains, Stephen founded the Diocese of Eger.

Finally, Stephen occupied the domains of Ajtony, a semi-pagan chieftain who had been ruling over the territories of the later Banat. Here Stephen set up the Diocese of Csanád.

External politics In his external politics Stephen I allied himself with his brother-in-law, the Emperor Henry II against Prince Boleslaw I of Poland, who had extended his rule over the territories between the Morava and Váh Rivers.[citation needed] Stephen sent troops to the emperor's army, and in the Peace of Bautzen, in 1018, the Polish prince had to hand over the occupied territories to Stephen.

Shortly afterwards, Stephen sent troops to help Boleslaw I in his campaign against Kievan Rus'. In 1018, Stephen lead his armies against Bulgaria, in alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, and collected several relics during his campaign.

After the death of Henry II ( 3 July 1024), Stephen broke with the German alliance, because the new Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II claimed supremacy over the Kingdom of Hungary, while Stephen demanded the Duchy of Bavaria for his son Emeric who was the nearest relative of the deceased Emperor Henry II (who himself had been the last male descendant of the old dukes of Bavaria). In 1027, Stephen had Bishop Werner of Strasbourg, the envoy sent by Conrad II to the Byzantine Empire, arrested at the frontier. In 1030, the emperor lead his armies against Hungary, but Stephen's troops forced them to retreat. Stephen and Emperor Conrad II concluded peace negotiations in 1031, and the territories between the Leitha (Hungarian: (Lajta)) and Fischa Rivers were ceded to Hungary.

His last years Stephen intended to retire to a life of holy contemplation and hand the kingdom over to his son Emeric, but Emeric was wounded in a hunting accident and died in 1031. In Stephen's words of mourning:

By God's secret decision death took him, so that wickedness would not change his soul and false imaginations would not deceive his mind – as the Book of Wisdom teaches about early death.

Stephen mourned for a very long time over the loss of his son, which took a great toll on his health. He eventually recovered, but never regained his original vitality. Having no children left, he could not find anyone among his remaining relatives who was able to rule the country competently and be willing to maintain the Christian faith of the nation. He did not want to entrust his kingdom to his cousin, Duke Vazul, whom he suspected to be following pagan customs. The disregarded duke took part in a conspiracy aimed at the murder of Stephen I, but the assassination attempt failed and Vazul had his eyes gouged out and molten lead poured in his ears. Without a living heir, on his deathbed, King St. Istvan (pronounced EESHT-vahn) raised with his right hand the Holy Crown of Hungary, (given to him by the pope because he had civilized the pagan Hungarians by the tenets and sacraments of the Holy Catholic Faith), and prayed to the Blessed Virgin Mary, asking her to take the Hungarian people as her subjects and become their queen. As though it were the first of many signs that she did accept this offer and position, King Stephen died on the feast day which commemorates the bodily assumption into heaven of the Blessed Virgin Mary, from where she continues to act with motherly mercy for the well-being of mankind, the Feast of the Assumption on 15 August, in the year 1038, at Esztergom-Szentkirály or Székesfehérvár, where he was buried. His nobles and his subjects were said to have mourned for three straight years afterwards.[citation needed]

His legacy Following Stephen's death, his nephew Peter Urseolo (his appointed heir) and his brother-in-law Samuel Aba contended for the crown. Nine years of instability followed until Stephen's cousin Andrew I was crowned King of Hungary in 1047 to re-establish the Árpád dynasty. Hungarian historiography saw Peter and Samuel as members of the Árpád dynasty, and both are counted among the Árpád kings.

Shortly after Stephen's death, healing miracles were said to have occurred at his tomb. Stephen was canonized by Pope Gregory VII as Saint Stephen of Hungary in 1083, along with his son, Saint Emeric and Bishop Gerhard (Hungarian: Szent Gellért). Thus Saint Stephen became the first canonized confessor king, a new category of saint. He is venerated as the patron saint of Hungary, kings, children who are dying, masons, stonecutters, and bricklayers.

St Stephen is not mentioned in the Tridentine Calendar. His feast day was added to the General Roman Calendar only in 1631, and only as a commemoration on 20 August, the feast of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. In 1687, it was moved to 2 September and remained there until the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints. Then the feast of Saint Joachim on 16 August was moved and the date became available for another celebration, so the feast of Saint Stephen of Hungary was moved to that date, the day immediately after his death.[20] Some traditionalist Catholics continue to observe pre-1970 versions of the General Roman Calendar.

In the local calendar of the Church in Hungary, the feast is observed on 20 August, the day on which his sacred relics were translated to the city of Buda. It is a public holiday in Hungary.

The king's right hand, known as the Holy Right, is kept as a relic. Hungarians interpreted the incorruptibility of his right arm and hand - with which he had held the Holy Crown aloft from his deathbed when asking our Lady to be the Queen of the Hungarians - as a sign that the Blessed Virgin Mary had accepted the king's offer to her of the Hungarian people, and she remains officially their queen. The incorrupt arm was divided among European royalty, but the Holy Right of King Saint Stephen was placed in a town built solely for the purpose of keeping it, the town in Transylvania called "Szent Jobb", or Holy Right. Later, the Holy Right was transferred to where it is today, the Basilica of King Saint Stephen in Budapest. Apart from the Holy Right, only some bone fragments remain, which are kept in churches throughout Hungary. Hungarian Catholics honor the first king of their country with annual processions, at which the Holy Right is exhibited.

The canonization of Saint Stephen was recognized by Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople in the year 2000.[10]

The Holy Crown, popularly attributed to St. Stephen, was removed from the country in 1945 for safekeeping, and entrusted to the United States government. It was kept in a vault at Fort Knox until 1978, when it was returned to the nation by order of President Jimmy Carter. It has been enshrined in the Hungarian parliament building in Budapest since 2000.

Quote "My dearest son, if you desire to honor the royal crown, I advise, I counsel, I urge you above all things to maintain the Catholic and Apostolic faith with such diligence and care that you may be an example for all those placed under you by God, and that all the clergy may rightly call you a man of true Christian profession. Failing to do this, you may be sure that you will not be called a Christian or a son of the Church. Indeed, in the royal palace, after the faith itself, the Church holds second place, first constituted and spread through the whole world by His members, the apostles and holy fathers, And though she always produced fresh offspring, nevertheless in certain places she is regarded as ancient. However, dearest son, even now in our kingdom the Church is proclaimed as young and newly planted; and for that reason she needs more prudent and trustworthy guardians less a benefit which the divine mercy bestowed on us undeservedly should be destroyed and annihilated through your idleness, indolence or neglect. My beloved son, delight of my heart, hope of your posterity, I pray, I command, that at very time and in everything, strengthened by your devotion to me, you may show favor not only to relations and kin, or to the most eminent, be they leaders or rich men or neighbors or fellow-countrymen, but also to foreigners and to all who come to you. By fulfilling your duty in this way you will reach the highest state of happiness. Be merciful to all who are suffering violence, keeping always in your heart the example of the Lord who said: “I desire mercy and not sacrifice”. Be patient with everyone, not only with the powerful, but also with the weak.

Finally be strong lest prosperity lift you up too much or adversity cast you down. Be humble in this life that God may raise you up in the next. Be truly moderate and do not punish or condemn anyone immoderately. Be gentle so that you may never oppose justice. Be honorable so that you never voluntarily bring disgrace upon anyone. Be chaste so that you may avoid all the foulness that so resembles the pangs of death.

All these virtues I have noted above make up the royal crown and without them no one is fit to rule here on earth or attain to the heavenly Kingdom..

–Excerpt from Saint Stephen's admonitions to his son Emeric.

Artistic representation King Stephen of Hungary has been a popular theme in art, especially from the 19th century on, with the development of nationalism. Paintings such as The Baptism of Vajk (1875) by Gyula Benczúr and many statues representing the king all over Hungary testify to Stephen's importance in Hungarian national thought.

The last complete opera by the Hungarian composer Ferenc Erkel is István király (King Stephen) (1885). The best known representations of St. Stephen in music are Ludwig van Beethoven's King Stephen Overture, and the 1983 rock opera István, a király (Stephen, the King) by Levente Szörényi and János Bródy. Szörényi's Veled, Uram! (With You, my Lord!) (2000) was a sequel to István király.

The crown is represented in the painting of Edward Burne-Jones, started in 1881, The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon.

-------------------- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephan_I._%28Ungarn%29 Stephan I. (Ungarn) aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche Statue des Heiligen König Stephans I. an der Fischerbastei in Budapest

Der Heilige Stephan I. (ungarisch (Szent) István; * 969 bei Esztergom; † 15. August 1038) aus dem Geschlecht der Arpaden war der erste König Ungarns und ist heute der Nationalheilige des Landes.

Er christianisierte die heidnischen Magyaren. Sein Gedenktag ist der 20. August, der in Ungarn auch Staatsfeiertag ist. Die römisch-katholische Kirche gedenkt dieses Heiligen am 16. August. Inhaltsverzeichnis [Anzeigen]

   * 1 Leben
   * 2 Würdigungen
   * 3 Literatur
   * 4 Weblinks

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Zusammen mit seinem Vater Géza wurde Stephan 985 von Adalbert von Prag getauft. Während der Großfürst Géza trotz der Taufe im Grunde Heide blieb, erhielt Stephan eine christliche Erziehung. Diese wurde noch verstärkt durch die Verheiratung Stephans mit der bayrischen Herzogstochter Gisela, der Schwester des späteren Kaisers Heinrich II. Zudem festigte die Hochzeit das Bündnis Ungarns mit den bayerischen Fürsten, die noch 991 einen Feldzug gegen die Ungarn geführt hatten, und besiegelte die Bindung der Ungarn an die Westkirche. Als Stephan 997 die Nachfolge seines Vaters als Großfürst antrat, war er auch dank des Einflusses von Adalbert von Prag vermutlich Christ aus Überzeugung. Am Anfang seiner Herrschaft musste er sich zunächst gegen seinen Onkel Koppány durchsetzen, der als Clanältester selbst den Anspruch auf den Fürstenstuhl erhob.

In Jahr 1000 sandte Stephan den Abt Astricus (Anastasius) aus dem Gefolge Adalberts zu Papst Silvester II. mit der Bitte nach Gewährung der Königswürde. Unterstützt wurde dieses Anliegen vom deutschen Kaiser Otto III., der mit Stephan verwandt war und sich zur gleichen Zeit in Rom befand. Anastasius brachte schließlich die Krönungsinsignien mit zurück nach Ungarn und wurde später zum Bischof von Gran (Esztergom) ernannt, dem Oberhaupt der ungarischen Landeskirche. Die Königskrönung Stephans durch einen päpstlichen Gesandten am 17. August 1000 in Gran war verbunden mit der Installierung dieser Landeskirche und vermutlich auch mit der Schenkung des Königreichs Ungarn an den Papst, der es darauf als Lehen an Stephan zurück gab. Dieser Schritt, analog zur Schaffung des Königreichs Polen, sollte die Herrschaft Stephans und die Kontinuität der Thronfolge in seiner Familie sichern.

Stephan setzte als König die Christianisierung fort. Er holte vor allem deutsche Ordensleute als Missionare ins Land. Er stand in Kontakt mit Bruno von Querfurt und Odo von Cluny. Darüber hinaus ordnete er die politische Struktur Ungarns neu. Die alten Stammesgebiete ersetzte er durch rund 40 Grafschaften (vármegye). Jeder Graf (ispán) diente nicht nur als Regionalverwalter, sondern auch als Heerführer der freien Krieger, der Jobagionen, seiner Grafschaft.

Am 2. September 1031 verunglückte Stephans einziger Sohn Emmerich (Imre) bei einer Bärenjagd tödlich, so dass plötzlich die Söhne von Gézas Bruder Michael Thronfolger waren, die aber noch zum Heidentum neigten. Stephan I. machte daher seinen Vetter regierungsunfähig, indem er ihm die Augen ausstechen und Blei in die Ohren gießen ließ. Die anderen flohen daraufhin nach Polen und Russland. Er ernannte schließlich Peter Orseolo, den Sohn seiner Schwester Maria, zu seinem Nachfolger. 1038 verstarb auch Stephan und wurde neben seinem Sohn in der Marienkirche in Székesfehérvár (Stuhlweißenburg) beigesetzt. Seine Gebeine wurden später nach Buda übertragen. Am 20. August 1083 wurde Stephan zusammen mit seinem Sohn heilig gesprochen. Würdigungen [Bearbeiten] Die Stephanskrone, heraldische Darstellung

Die Krone des Hl. Stephan, die Stephanskrone, ist Staatsinsignie Ungarns als Königreich und in der Doppelmonarchie Österreich-Ungarn, und krönt auch das heutige Staatswappen der Republik Ungarn. Heute wird sie als Nationalschatz im ungarischen Parlamentsgebäude aufbewahrt. Sie geht jedoch in keinem ihrer Teile auf Stephan selbst zurück.

Ihn würdigt unter anderem ein Denkmal in Budapest. Es befindet sich zwischen der Fischerbastei und der Matthiaskirche. Literatur [Bearbeiten]

Bibliographie:

   * LitDok Ostmitteleuropa

Monographien:

   * Paul Lendvai: Die Ungarn, München 1999

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * Gabriel Adriányi: Stefan I.. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Band 10, Herzberg 1995, ISBN 3-88309-062-X, Sp. 1258–1261.
   * genealogie-mittelalter.de
   * Porträt von Stephan auf dem 10.000 Forint-Schein

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger Géza König von Ungarn 997–1038 Peter Orseolo Normdaten: PND: 11861777X | WP-Personeninfo Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 5. August 2010 um 22:43 Uhr geändert.

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ÁRPÁD(házi) Vajk►Szent István - Saint Stephan, 1st King of Hungary's Timeline

969
969
Esztergom [967/75], Komárom-Esztergom, Magyarország - Hungary
975
975
Age 6
Hungary - aka Waic or Istvan
995
995
Age 26
or 996
996
996
Age 27
Hungary
1002
1002
Age 33
Székesfehérvár
1005
1005
Age 36
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1018
1018
Age 49
Hungary
1038
August 15, 1038
Age 69
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Magyarország - Hungary
????
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