Áed Findliath Mac Niall (mac Neíll), Ard-rí na h'Éireann (840 - 879) MP

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Nicknames: "Aedh", "9450High King of Ireland"
Birthplace: Ireland
Death: Died in Druim Inesclain, County Conaille, Ireland
Occupation: King of Ireland
Managed by: Esther ROWE Irish
Last Updated:

About Áed Findliath Mac Niall (mac Neíll), Ard-rí na h'Éireann

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81ed_Findliath

'Áed mac Neíll (died 879), called Áed Findliath (Áed the Fair Warrior) to distinguish him from his paternal grandfather Áed Oirdnide, was king of Ailech and High King of Ireland. A member of the northern Uí Néill kindred of the Cenél nEógain, Áed was the son of Niall Caille.'

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerball_mac_D%C3%BAnlainge

-------------------- Áed Finliath (Áed the Fair Warrior) was King of Ailech (855-879) and High King of Ireland (862-879).

Áed came into power at a critical period in the history of Ireland. Raids by norse vikings had taken place for half a century, and the Norse settlements now seemed to have become permanent establishments more than just bases for raids. They also now had an effective leadership under Amlaíb Conung and Ímar. At this time, both the contemporary annalists as well as modern historians refer to them not just as Vikings, foreigners or pagans, but also Norse-Irish or Norse-Gaels.

Áed Findliath has been described as one of the Irish High-kings who most effectively fought the Norse expansion in Ireland. He did indeed win some crucial battles against the Norse-gaels, the first recorded victory is in 856, at the battle of Glenn Foichle[3], six years prior to him becoming High-King. The reigning High-King at the time, Mael Sechnaill, seemed more concerned with the internal Irish power struggle, particularly in Munster, than with engaging the Norse. There is however one reference in 856 to him fighting against "pagans" (Vikings) with the support of the Norse-Gaels[4]. This could probably be interpreted as an alliance between the Norse settlers and the established Irish society against marauders.

In 858 Máel Sechnaill finally managed to establish control over Munster, and in 859 he also made a peace settlement with Cerball mac Dúnlainge king of Osraige (forced upon him by Cerball, who had allied himself with Amlaíb and Ímar and ravaged Míde). Máel Sechnaill now turned his attention to the north, where the growing power of Áed Findliath had become a threath against him as head of Uí Néill. In 860 he brought an army consisting of forces from all of the southern part of Ireland to Armagh. While they were camped there, Áed Findliath attacked. The outcome of the battle seem to have been some sort of draw.[5]

By now it was Áed Findliath who sought an alliance with the Norse Dublin. In 861 as well as 862 he plundered Míde in cooperation with Norse forces, in 862 he also had the support of Flann mac Conaing, king of Brega. [6]

[edit] King of Tara

Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid died 20 November 862, and he was on that occasion described in the Annals of Ulster as ri h-Erenn uile, king of all Ireland. That was a title that would never be used about Áed Findliath, even though he assumed the kingship of Tara following Máel Sechnaill's death, and has also been counted in the lists of High Kings of Ireland. His kingship was disputed throughout his 17 year long reign, and he did not even have support from the southern clans of Uí Néill. The annals show that the Taillten Fair on was not held in six of those 17 years, which is a strong indication of strife and unrest.

The Norse Dublin had, by the beginning of Áed's reign, become an important, if not very trustworthy, ally in the struggle for power in Míde. Máel Sechnaill's successor as head of Clann Cholmain and king of Míde, Lorcán mac Cathal, allied himself with Amlaib, Ímar and Auslie against Flann of Brega. Flann was a former ally of Dublin, and still Áed's most important ally in the central part of Ireland. Lorcán and his Norse allies plundered Brega in 863, and in 864 Conchobar mac Donnchado, king of Lagore (southern Brega) and presumably an ally of Flann against Lorcán, was captured and drowned near Clonard on Amlaibhs order. Áed led an host to Míde, captured Lorcán and blinded him.

Áed now had some notable victories against the Norse, but the main reason for his success was probably neither that he was a military genius or a particularly gifted politician. He defeated the Vikings at Lough Foyle in 866 and uprooted their settlements.[1] In 866 Amlaíb and Auslie left Ireland with the larger part of the Norse forces, and in cooperation with the Norse-gaels from present day Scotland they attacked the picts[7]. Áed seized this opportunity, plundering and burning all the Norse bases (longphorts) in the northern part of Ireland [8].

In 868 Áed again was confronted by a coalition of his Irish rivals and the Norse-Gaels. According to the Annals of Ulster he defeated "the Uí Neíll of Brega, and the Laigin, and a large force of the foreigners" in a battle at a place called Cell Ua nDaigri. Flann of Brega was killed in this battle. This battle has later been presented as a decisive victory over the Norse. Amlaibh and Ímar was, however, very active in Ireland during the following years and did not in any way seem to be seriously weakened, neither in ambition nor in strength. It is probably more accurately to regard this battle as a victory over the southern Uí Neíll and Leinster. In 870 Áed followed up his victory from 868 by invading Leinster with the support of his new ally Cerball of Osraige. He again invaded Leinster in 874.[9]

Áed Findliath died on 20 November 879, at Druim Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille. On that occasion he was described as "king of Tara" (rex Temorie), even if he in a poem referred by the annalist also is called "over-king of the Irish" (airdri Gaidhel) [10] He was buried at Armagh.

-------------------- Áed Findliath

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Áed mac Neíll (died 879), called Áed Findliath (Áed the Fair Warrior) to distinguish him from his paternal grandfather Áed Oirdnide, was king of Ailech and High King of Ireland. A member of the northern Uí Néill kindred of the Cenél nEógain, Áed was the son of Niall Caille.

Contents [hide]

1 Background

2 Origins and family

3 Early years

4 King of Tara

5 Notes

6 References

[edit]Background

Main articles: Early Medieval Ireland 800–1166 and Viking Age

From the death of Áed Allán in 743 until the overthrow of Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill by Brian Boru in 1002, the succession to the High Kingship of Ireland century alternated between northern and southern branches of the Uí Néill with the north represented by members of the Cenél nÉogain, Áed's paternal kindred, and the south by the Clann Cholmáin, his mother's kin.[1] Francis John Byrne describes this as "a fragile convention, marked by watchful jealousy rather than friendly accord."[2]

During the reign of Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid, who succeeded Áed's father as High King, the balance of power between north and south which had ensured the alternating succession appeared to be tipping in favour of the southern Clann Cholmáin kindred. The weakness of the Kings of Munster following the death of the powerful Feidlimid mac Crimthainn in 847 led to repeated attacks on Munster by Máel Sechnaill in the 850s and a submission by the kings of Munster in 858. In 859, Osraige was made subject to the Uí Néill, and this led to open warfare between Máel Sechnaill and Áed.[3]

[edit]Origins and family

Áed was the son of Niall Caille and Gormlaith. His mother is called "Gormlaith of the dazzling white complexion" by the Banshenchas. His maternal grandfather was Donnchad Midi, his paternal grandfather Áed Oirdnide. His father, his mother's brother, Conchobar mac Donnchada, and both of his grandfathers had been counted as High Kings of Ireland.

The names of three of Áed's wives are recorded, although the order of his marriages is perhaps uncertain. His first wife may have been Gormlaith Rapach, "the harsh", daughter of Muiredach mac Echdach, king of Ulster. The Banshenchas say that Domnall mac Áeda was her son, and Eithne, who married Flann Sinna, may have been her daughter. Áed's second wife, Land, sister of Cerball mac Dúnlainge, king of Osraige, was the widow of his predecessor as High King, Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid, a grandson of Donnchad Midi. His third known wife was Máel Muire, probably the daughter of Cináed mac Ailpín, the king of the Picts in Britain. She was the mother of Niall Glúndub. On Áed's death she married his successor Flann Sinna. Other children of Áed included a son named Máel Dub, reputed a saint, and another, Máel Dúin, who ruled Ailech as Áed's deputy until his early death in 867.[4]

[edit]Early years

Following the death of Neill Caille in 845, Áed's uncle Máel Dúin mac Áeda assumed the kingship of Ailech. When Áed succeeded him is not recorded, but it might have been in 855. Áed is mentioned for the first time in the annals this year, as the Annals of Ulster records that he

made a foray against the Ulaid, and he left behind dead Coinnecán son of Colmán and Flaithbertach son of Niall, and a large number besides[5]

Presumably Flaithbertach was his own brother, and this foray was made to secure Áed's position as king of Ailech.

Áed came into power at a critical period in the history of Ireland. Raids by norse vikings had taken place for half a century, and the Norse settlements now seemed to have become permanent establishments more than just bases for raids. They also now had an effective leadership under Amlaíb Conung and Ímar. At this time, both the contemporary annalists as well as modern historians refer to them not just as Vikings, foreigners or pagans, but also Norse-Irish or Norse-Gaels.

Áed Findliath has been described as one of the Irish High-kings who most effectively fought the Norse expansion in Ireland. He did indeed win some crucial battles against the Norse-gaels, the first recorded victory is in 856, at the battle of Glenn Foichle[6], six years prior to him becoming High-King. The reigning High-King at the time, Mael Sechnaill, seemed more concerned with the internal Irish power struggle, particularly in Munster, than with engaging the Norse. There is however one reference in 856 to him fighting against "pagans" (Vikings) with the support of the Norse-Gaels[7]. This could probably be interpreted as an alliance between the Norse settlers and the established Irish society against marauders.

In 858 Máel Sechnaill finally managed to establish control over Munster, and in 859 he also made a peace settlement with Cerball mac Dúnlainge king of Osraige (forced upon him by Cerball, who had allied himself with Amlaíb and Ímar and ravaged Míde). Máel Sechnaill now turned his attention to the north, where the growing power of Áed Findliath had become a threath against him as head of Uí Néill. In 860 he brought an army consisting of forces from all of the southern part of Ireland to Armagh. While they were camped there, Áed Findliath attacked. The outcome of the battle seem to have been some sort of draw.[8]

By now it was Áed Findliath who sought an alliance with the Norse Dublin. In 861 as well as 862 he plundered Míde in cooperation with Norse forces, in 862 he also had the support of Flann mac Conaing, king of Brega. [9]

[edit]King of Tara

Máel Sechnaill mac Máele Ruanaid died 20 November 862, and he was on that occasion described in the Annals of Ulster as ri h-Erenn uile, king of all Ireland. That was a title that would never be used about Áed Findliath, even though he assumed the kingship of Tara following Máel Sechnaill's death, and has also been counted in the lists of High Kings of Ireland. His kingship was disputed throughout his 17 year long reign, and he did not even have support from the southern clans of Uí Néill. The annals show that the Taillten Fair on was not held in six of those 17 years, which is a strong indication of strife and unrest.

The Norse Dublin had, by the beginning of Áed's reign, become an important, if not very trustworthy, ally in the struggle for power in Míde. Máel Sechnaill's successor as head of Clann Cholmain and king of Míde, Lorcán mac Cathail', allied himself with Amlaib, Ímar and Auisle against Flann of Brega. Flann was a former ally of Dublin, and still Áed's most important ally in the central part of Ireland. Lorcán and his Norse allies plundered Brega in 863, and in 864 Conchobar mac Donnchada, king of Lagore (southern Brega) and presumably an ally of Flann against Lorcán, was captured and drowned near Clonard on Amlaibhs order. Áed led an host to Míde, captured Lorcán and blinded him.

Áed now had some notable victories against the Norse, but the main reason for his success was probably neither that he was a military genius or a particularly gifted politician. He defeated the Vikings at Lough Foyle in 866 and uprooted their settlements.[4] In 866 Amlaíb and Auslie left Ireland with the larger part of the Norse forces, and in cooperation with the Norse-gaels from present day Scotland they attacked the picts[10]. Áed seized this opportunity, plundering and burning all the Norse bases (longphorts) in the northern part of Ireland [11].

In 868 Áed again was confronted by a coalition of his Irish rivals and the Norse-Gaels. According to the Annals of Ulster he defeated "the Uí Neíll of Brega, and the Laigin, and a large force of the foreigners" in a battle at a place called Cell Ua nDaigri. Flann of Brega was killed in this battle. This battle has later been presented as a decisive victory over the Norse. Amlaibh and Ímar was, however, very active in Ireland during the following years and did not in any way seem to be seriously weakened, neither in ambition nor in strength. It is probably more accurately to regard this battle as a victory over the southern Uí Neíll and Leinster. In 870 Áed followed up his victory from 868 by invading Leinster with the support of his new ally Cerball of Osraige. He again invaded Leinster in 874.[12]

Áed Findliath died on 20 November 879, at Druim Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille. On that occasion he was described as "king of Tara" (rex Temorie), even if he in a poem referred by the annalist also is called "over-king of the Irish" (airdri Gaidhel) [13] He was buried at Armagh.

-------------------- Navn: Áed Finliath mac Neíll

Fyrstehus: Cenél nEógain

Regjeringstid: 862–879

Død: 879, Irland

Foreldre: far Niall Caille, mor Gormflaith ingen Donnchada[1]

Ektefelle‍(r): Flann (d.929), datter av Dúngal mac Cerbaill (konge av Osraige)

Maolmuire datter av Cinaed mac Alpin

Barn: Domnall mac Áeda (død 911), Niall Glúndub (død 14. september 919),Eitne, (død 917).

Áed Finliath mac Neíll (død 879) var konge av Ailech fra 855 og overkonge av Irland fra 862 til 879. Han tilhørte klanen Cenél nEógain av den nordlige Uí Néill, og var sønn av den tidligere overkongen Niall Caille. Áeds sønn Niall Glúndub ble senere også overkonge av Irland. Tilnavnet Finliath betyr «hvitt» eller «lyst hår».

Innhold [skjul]

1 Konge av Ailech

2 Overkonge

3 Familie

4 Litteratur

4.1 Sekundær litteratur

5 Referanser


[rediger] Konge av Ailech

Etter Niall Cailles død i 846 overtok farens bror Máel Dúin mac Áeda som konge i Ailech, og Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid ble overkonge. Det er usikkert når Áed så ble konge av Ailech, men sannsynligvis var det i 855. Det året omtales han for første gang i de irske annalene. I Ulsterannalenes opptegnelser for 855 står det at han

gjorde et utfall mot Ulaid, og etterlot seg døde Coinnecán sønn av Colmán og Flaithbertach sønn av Niall, og et stort antall i tillegg[2]

Denne Flaithbertach var formodentlig Áeds egen bror, og det er rimelig å anta at dette var et tokt Áed gjorde for å sikre sin egen posisjon som konge av Ailech.

Áed kom til makten i en kritisk tid i Irlands historie. Øya hadde levd med plyndringstokt fra norrøne vikinger i over et halvt århundre, og det norrøne nærværet begynte å få form av permanente bosetninger og ikke bare baser for plyndringstokt og overvintringer. De norrøne hadde også fått et kompentent og effektivt lederskap i Olav Kvite og Ivar i Dublin. Fra denne tiden begynner både de (mer eller mindre) samtidige annalistene og moderne historikere å omtale de norrøne ikke bare som hedninger, fremmede eller vikinger, men også som norrøn-gælere eller norrøn-irske.

Áed Finliath har fått et ettermæle som en av de irske overkongene som mest effektivt bekjempet norrøn(-gælisk) ekspansjon. Han vant flere slag mot norrøne motstandere, men han hadde også tidvis norrøn-gælere som allierte. Hans første seier over norrøn-gælerne kom i 856 ved Glenn Foichle[3]. Den daværende overkongen Máel Sechnaill later til å være mer opptatt med krigføring i Mumu (Munster), selv om han i 856 også kriger mot «hedningene», med «støtte av de norrøn-irske»[4].

Máel Sechnaill fikk i 858 kontroll over Mumu, og i 859 kom han også til en fredsavtale med Cerball mac Dúnlainge av Osraige (framtvunget av Cerball etter at han hadde alliert seg med Olav og Ivar og herjet Míde). Máel Sechnaill vendte nå oppmerksomheten nordover, hvor Áed Finliaths voksende makt var blitt en trussel. I 860 førte han en hær satt sammen av styrker fra hele den sørlige delen av Irland til Armagh. Áed Finliath angrep dem der, og det later til at slaget endte uten noen tydelig avgjørelse.[5]

Så var det Áed Finliath som allierte seg med de norrøne fra Dublin. Både i 861 og 862 plyndet han Míde i allianse med norrøne, i 862 hadde han også Flann mac Conaing av Brega med seg som alliert.[6]

[rediger] Overkonge

Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid døde 20. november 862, og omtales i den anledning i Ulsterannalene som ri h-Erenn uile, konge over hele Irland. Det er en benevnelse som aldri skulle bli brukt om Áed Finliath i denne annalen, selv om han samme år etterfulgte Máel Sechnaill som konge av Tara og i senere historiske verk inngår som en av Irlands overkonger. Han var omstridt i hele sin 17 år lange regjerningstid, og hadde ikke en gang støtte fra den sørlige delen av Uí Neíll. Annalene forteller at Tailtiu festivalen, en årlig samling for Uí Neíll klanene ved seks anledninger ikke ble avholdt i hans regjeringstid, et tegn på dyp splittelse.

Det norrøne Dublin var nå blitt en viktig, om enn upålitelig, alliansepartner i maktkampen i Míde. Máel Sechnaills etterfølger som konge i Mide, Lorcán mac Cathal, fikk Olav Kvite, Ivar og Øysle med seg mot Flann av Brega, som tidligere hadde vært alliert med Dublin og fortsatt var alliert med og viktig støttespiller for Áed. Lorcán og de norrøne plyndret Brega i 863, og i 864 ble Conchobar mac Donnchado, konge av Lagore og formodentlig i allianse med Flann, druknet nær Clonard på Olavs ordre. Áed på sin side tok Lorcán til fange og lot ham blinde.

Noe av Áeds senere seire mot de norrøne kan forklares med at Olav og Øysle forlot Irland i 866 med størsteparten av styrkene fra Dublin, og sammen med norrøn-gælere fra Skottland angrep og plyndet de piktiske områdene[7]. Áed grep denne anledningen, og plyndret og brente alle de norrøne basene i den nordlige delen av Irland [8].

I 868 møtte Áed igjen en koalisjon av sine rivaler og norrøn-gælere. I følge Ulsterannalene beseiret han «Uí Neíll fra Brega», Leinstermenn og «en stor styrke av norrøne, over tre hundre» i slaget ved Cell Ua nDaigri dette året. Flann av Brega døde i slaget. Dette har senere vært framstillt som en avgjørende seier over de norrøne. Olav og Ivar var imidlertid svært aktive i de følgende årene og lot ikke på noen måte til å være svekket. Det er nok mer riktig å se dette først og fremst som en seier over sørlige Uí Neíll og Leinster. I 870 fulgte Áed opp denne seieren med å invadere Leinster sammen med sin nye allierte Cerball av Osraige. Han var tilbake i Leinster i 874.[9].

Áed Finliath døde 20. november 879, ved Druim Inasclainn i territoriet Conaille. Han omtales i den anledning som «konge av Tara», selv om han i et dikt som er gjengitt også kalles overkonge.[10]

[rediger] Familie

Áed Finliath giftet seg, som skikken var, men sin forgjengers enke, Flann ingen Dúngal mac Carbaill. Han var også gift med Maolmuire, datter av den skotske kongen Cinaed mac Alpin. Hans sønn Domnall ble konge av Ailech, men ble drept av hans andre sønn Niall i 911. Niall ble senere også overkonge av Irland, fra 915 til sin død i 919. Hans datter Eitne var gift med Flann Sinna, og også med Flannacán av Brega (sannsynligvis etter Flann Sinna). Hun døde som nonne i 917.

[rediger] Litteratur

Donnchadh Ó Corraín, «Vikings in Ireland and Scotland in the Ninth Century». I: Peritia 1998. Årbok for Medieval Academy of Ireland. issn 0332-1592 pdf

Donnchadh Ó Corraín, The Vikings & Ireland pdf

Seathrún Céitinn, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn [1] (engelsk oversettelse)

Annalene av de fire mesterne

Inisfallen-annalene

Ulster-annalene

[rediger] Sekundær litteratur

Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings. Batsford, London, 1973. ISBN 0-7134-5882-8

[rediger] Referanser

^ FFE s.189

^ Ulsterannalene (AU) 855.3 Annalene til de fire mesterne (AFM) 853.6 Der hvor datering i AU og AFM avviker foretrekkes AU.

^ AU 856.5 Gall-Gaeidhelu her oversatt norrøn-gælere. Gall betyr ordrett fremmed eller utlending, men brukes i annalene på denne tiden utelukkende om de norrøne/ vikingene

^ AU 856.2 mot Gennti med støtte av Gall-Ghoidhelaib

^ AU 858.4, 859.2-3 og 860.1

^ AU 861.1 862.2 Verken Olav eller Ivar er denne gang nevnt, men i innførselen for 862 står det «de norrønes konger», riga Gall

^ AU 866.1 norrøn-irene og -skottene, Gallaib Erenn & Alban

^ AU 866.4 de norrøne basene benevnes Longportu Gall

^ AU 868.4, 870.2, 874.3

^ AU 879.1

Forgjenger:

Máel Sechnaill mac Maíl Ruanaid  Overkonger av Irland

(862–879) Etterfølger:

Flann Sinna  

Hentet fra «http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81ed_Finliath»

--------------------

-------------------- Called Hugh of the White Hair; he died in a monastery. He waged war against the Southern Ui Neill in 860 and invaded the camp of Maelsechlainn (High King of Ireland) but was driven back. He plundered all the Danish fortresses in Ulster and defeated the Danes near Lough Foyl in 866. Bards called him Chief King of the Gael

AEDH FINNLIATH "White Hair" [K. of Ireland 862-79]; He went to war against the Southern Ui Neill in 860 and invaded the camp of MAELSECHLAINN [K. of Ireland] but was driven back. He plundered all the Danish fortresses in Ulster and defeated the Danes near Lough Foyle in 866, after which "twelve score of their heads were counted before him." He won a great victory in 868 against heavy odds at Killaderry over the Meath and Leinstermen, who were allied with the Dublin Vikings. The bards called AEDH "Chief King of the Gael"; he d. 879. He m. Maelmuire, daughter of KENNETH MacALPIN [K. of the Scots & Picts]; she was prob. the widow of Run [K. of the Strathclyde].

Aodh Finnlaith

Hugh the Hoary -------------------- Called Hugh of the White Hair; he died in a monastery. He waged war against the Southern Ui Neill in 860 and invaded the camp of Maelsechlainn (High King of Ireland) but was driven back. He plundered all the Danish fortresses in Ulster and defeated the Danes near Lough Foyl in 866. Bards called him Chief King of the Gael

AEDH FINNLIATH "White Hair" [K. of Ireland 862-79]; He went to war against the Southern Ui Neill in 860 and invaded the camp of MAELSECHLAINN [K. of Ireland] but was driven back. He plundered all the Danish fortresses in Ulster and defeated the Danes near Lough Foyle in 866, after which "twelve score of their heads were counted before him." He won a great victory in 868 against heavy odds at Killaderry over the Meath and Leinstermen, who were allied with the Dublin Vikings. The bards called AEDH "Chief King of the Gael"; he d. 879. He m. Maelmuire, daughter of KENNETH MacALPIN [K. of the Scots & Picts]; she was prob. the widow of Run [K. of the Strathclyde].

Aodh Finnlaith

Hugh the Hoary