Ágota - Agatha ÁRPÁD(házi)

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Ágota - Agatha ÁRPÁD(házi)

Birthplace: Magyarország - Hungary
Death: Died in Scotland, United Kingdom
Place of Burial: Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai
Immediate Family:

Daughter of ÁRPÁD(házi) Vajk►Szent István - Saint Stephan, 1st King of Hungary and Giselle von Bayern, magyar királyné
Wife of Edward the Outlaw; Edward the Exile and Edward 'the Exile', Ætheling of England
Mother of Saint Margaret, Queen of Scots; Christina of England, Nun at Romsey and Eadgar Æðeling, Uncrowned King of England
Sister of ÁRPÁD(házi) Ottó; ÁRPÁD(házi) Gizella, Princess of Hungary; ÁRPÁD(házi) Henrik►Szent Imre - Saint Emerich, prince of Hungary / herceg; ÁRPÁD(házi) Bernát; ÁRPÁD(házi) N and 1 other

Managed by: FARKAS Mihály László
Last Updated:

About Ágota - Agatha ÁRPÁD(házi)

Note from curator:

Agatha's origins may be questionable, but the data from the official website of the British Monarchy can be considered more credible than any other source.

From the official website of the British Monarchy

See: http://www.royal.gov.uk/Home.aspx > http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheAnglo-Saxonkings/Overview.aspx



Anglo Saxon Family Tree (PDF)

„Edward the Atheling = Agatha, dau. of STEPHEN, King of Hungary”

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Unknown Origin

There is some confusion regarding her parentage. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that she was a niece of the Emperor Henry (filia germani imperatoris Henrici). Florent of Worcester says Agatha was the daughter of a brother of Emperor Henry. William of Malmesbury says Agatha was sister of a queen of Hungary. Roger of Hoveden (late 12th century) says that Agatha was a Russian princess. Several other chroniclers say that Agatha was the daughter of a king of Hungary. A traditional theory is that she was the daughter of Henry II's brother.

Ronay and Vajay suggest that she might have been the daughter of Liudolf, Margrave of West Friesland, a half-brother of the Emperor Henry III who is known to have been a close relative of Agatha. Jette argues for Yaroslav I, Grand Duke of Kiev, and Ingegarde of Sweden. De Vajay's hypothesis makes Agatha a daughter of a half-brother of Emperor Henry III, consistent with early documents which specify that Agatha was "filia germani imperatoris Henrici, " that is, daughter of a brother of the Emperor Henry. Jette believes that this hypothesis requires an unreasonably tight chronology and that the absence of mention of such a connection by continental chroniclers makes it suspect. In response, it can be said that the chronology -- three generations in 58 years -- is tight but not impossible.

Edward was a political non-entity on the continent, so the absence of a mention is not surprising. Jette also adduces onomastic support for his proposal that Jaroslav and Ingegarde were the parents of Agafiya (a Greek name). Jaroslav had an attraction to Greek culture, perhaps inspired by his stepmother Anne of Byzantium; in addition, none of Agafiya's children or grandchildren were given German names, while two of her three children (Margaret and Christine) had Greek names which are found only in Sweden at this time. Jette believes that the blood relationship with Emperor Henry might have been inferred by later chroniclers from William of Malmesbury's statement that Agafiya was the sister of the Queen of Hungary. Jette's hypothesis makes Agafiya a sister of Anastasia, queen of Andrew I of Hungary. De Vajay's hypothesis makes Agafiya a niece of Judith, daughter of Emperor Henry III and wife of Andrew's son Salomon. Another hypothesis is that she was daughter of Vazul of Hungary, which would make her a granddaughter of Agatha Chryselia.




Nothing is known of her early life, and what speculation has appeared is inextricably linked to the contentious issue of Agatha's paternity, one of the unresolved questions of medieval genealogy. She came to England with her husband and children in 1057, but she was widowed shortly after her arrival. Following the Norman conquest of England, in 1067 she fled with her children to Scotland, finding refuge under her future son-in-law Malcolm III. While one modern source indicates that she spent her last years as a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, dying before circa 1093,[1] Simeon of Durham [2] carries what appears to be the last reference to her in 1070.[3]



Gisela von Bayern

... Gisela heiratete um 995 vermutlich im Alter von zehn Jahren Stephan, den späteren König von Ungarn. ...


  1. Emmerich (Imre) (* 1007, † 2. September 1031)
  2. Otto
  3. Agathe, Ehefrau Eduards von England



Az a feltevés, hogy Edward angol herceg felesége, Ágota az ő gyermekük (Skóciai Szent Margit pedig az ő unokájuk) lett volna, nem igazolódott.

Translation with http://www.morphologic.hu /

The hypothesis that Edward is an English prince's wife, Ágota their child (Saint Margaret though their grandchild) would have been, not proven true.

Note from FARKAS Mihály László

'Szent István ∞ Gisella

Ugyanakkor (ha nem is teljes bizonyosság) mértékadónak tekinthető az angol Királynő hivatalos honlapján szereplő adat, mely szerint II. Erzsébet ősei között szerepel Agátha, Szent István lánya.

However, (if not certainty) considered authoritive according the data in official website of the British Queen's II. Elizabeth's ancestors include Agatha was daughter of St. Stephen.


She was NOT the other 'possible' (1-4; 6-15) women:

  1. German Hypothesis: Agatha (Dght. of Liudolf&Gertrude) von Braunschweig
  2. Russian Hypothesis: Agatha (Dght. of Yaroslav I the Wise&Ingegerd) of Kiev
  3. Polish Hypothesis: Agatha of Poland
  4. Bulgarian Hypothesis: Агата / Agatha Комитопулина, Княгиня
  5. Hungarian Hypothesis:
  6. Cristinus Hypothesis: Agatha (Dght. of Christinus&Oda)
  7. German Hypothesis (alternate version): Agatha (Dght. of Ernst II) von Schwaben
  8. Bruno Hypothesis: Agatha (Dght. of Bruno&Christine) von Augsburg

-------------------- http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/agath000.htm

3. The Polish Hypothesis:

  • Conjectured father (improbable): Mieszko II Lambert, d. 10 May 1034, king of Poland.
  • Conjectured mother (improbable): Richenza, daughter of Ezzo, count


-------------------- Agatha of Hungary - the MYSTERY Agatha was the wife of Edward the Exile (heir to the throne of England) and mother of Edgar Ætheling, Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina of England. Her antecedents are unclear, and subject to much speculation. Life Nothing is known of her early life, and what speculation has appeared is inextricably linked to the contentious issue of Agatha's paternity, one of the unresolved questions of medievalgenealogy. She came to England with her husband and children in 1057, but she was widowed shortly after her arrival. Following the Norman conquest of England, in 1067 she fled with her children to Scotland, finding refuge under her future son-in-law Malcolm III. While one modern source indicates that she spent her last years as a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, dying before circa 1093,[1] Simeon of Durham [2 ] carries what appears to be the last reference to her in 1070. M edieval sources Agatha's origin is alluded to in numerous surviving medieval sources, but the information they provide is sometimes imprecise, often contradictory, and occasionally outright impossible. The earliest surviving source, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, along with Florence of Worcester's Chronicon ex chronicis and Regalis prosapia Anglorum, Simeon of Durham and Ailred of Rievaulx describe Agatha as a kinswoman of "Emperor Henry" (thaes ceseres maga, filia germani imperatoris Henrici). In an earlier entry, the same Ailred of Rievaulx had called her daughter of emperor Henry, as do later sources of dubious credibility such as the Chronicle of Melrose Abbey, while Matthew of Paris calls her the emperor's sister (soror Henrici imperatoris Romani). Geoffrey Gaimar in Lestoire des Engles states that she was daughter of the Hungarian king and queen (Li reis sa fille), although he places the marriage at a time when Edward is thought still to have been in Kiev, while Orderic Vitalis in Historiae Ecclesiasticae is more specific, naming her father as king Solomon (filiam Salomonis Regis Hunorum), actually a contemporary of Agatha's children. William of Malmesbury in De Gestis Regis Anglorum states that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary (reginae sororem) and is echoed in this by Alberic of Trois-Fontaines, while less precisely, Ailred says of Margaret that she was derived from English and Hungarian royal blood (de semine regio Anglorum et Hungariorum extitit oriunda). Finally, Roger of Howden and the anonymous Leges Edwardi Confessoris indicate that while Edward was a guest of Kievan "king Malesclodus" he married a woman of noble birth (nobili progenio), Leges adding that the mother of St. Margaret was of Rus royal blood (ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum). Onomastics Onomastic a nalysis has also been brought to bear on the question. The name Agatha itself is rare in western Europe at this time. Likewise, those of her children and grandchildren are drawn either from the pool of Anglo-Saxon names expected given her husband's connection to the Wessex royal family, or names not typical of western Europe, and hence speculated to derive from Agatha's eastern European ancestry. Specifically, her own name, the names of daughters Cristina and Margaret, and those of grandchildren Alexander, David I, and Mary, have been used as possible indicators of her origins. German and Hungarian theories While various sources repeat the claims that Agatha was daughter or sister of Emperor Henry, it seems unlikely that such a sibling or daughter would have been ignored by the German chroniclers.[5 ] The description of Agatha as a blood relative of "Emperor Henry" may be applicable to a niece of either Henry II or Henry III, Holy Roman Emperors (although Florence, in Regalis prosapia Anglorum specifies Henry III). Early attempts at reconstructing the relationship focused on the former. Georgio Pray 1764, Annales Regum Hungariae), P.F. Suhm (1777,Geschichte Dänmarks, Norwegen und Holsteins) and Istvan Katona (1779, Historia Critica Regum Hungariae) each suggested that Agatha was daughter of Henry II's brother Bruno of Augsburg (an ecclesiastic described as beatae memoriae, with no known issue), while Daniel Cornides (1778, Regum Hungariae) tried to harmonise the German and Hungarian claims, making Agatha daughter of Henry II's sister Giselle of Bavaria, wife of Stephen I of Hungary.[6 ] This solution remained popular among scholars through a good part of twentieth century As tempting as it may be to thus view St. Margaret as a granddaughter of another famous saint, Stephen of Hungary, this popular solution fails to explain why Stephen's death triggered a dynastic crisis in Hungary. If St. Stephen and Giselle were indeed Agatha's parents, her offspring might have succeeded to the Hungarian crown and the dynastic strife that followed Stephen's death could have been averted. Actually, there is no indication in Hungarian sources that any of Stephen's children outlived him. Likewise, all of the solutions involving Henry II would seem to make Agatha much older than her husband, and prohibitively old at the time of the birth of her son, Edgar. Based on a more strict translation of the Latin description used by Florence and others as well as the supposition that Henry III was the Emperor designated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, genealogist Szabolcs de Vajay popularised another idea first suggested in 1939. In that year, Joszef Herzog published an analysis suggesting that Agatha was daughter of one of the half-brothers of Henry III, born to his mother Gisela of Swabia by one of her earlier marriages to Ernest I of Swabia and Bruno of Brunswick, probably the former based on more favourable chronology.[8 ] De Vajay reevaluated the chronology of the marriages and children of Gisela and concluded that Agatha was the daughter of Henry III's elder (uterine) half-brother, Liudolf, Margrave of Frisia.[9] This theory saw broad acceptance for thirty years [10 ] until René Jetté resurrected a Kievan solution to the problem,[11 ] since which time opinion has been divided among several competing possibilities. Kievan theory Jetté pointed out that William of Malmesbury in De Gestis Regis Anglorum and several later chronicles unambiguously state that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary. From what we know about the biography of Edward the Exile, he loyally supported Andrew I of Hungary, following him from Kiev to Hungary in 1046 and staying at his court for many years. Andrew's wife and queen was Anastasia, a daughter of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev by Ingigerd of Sweden. Following Jetté's logic, Edward's wife was another daughter of Yaroslav. 11th-century fresco representing the daughters of Yaroslav I. This theory accords with the seemingly incongruous statements of Geoffrey Gaimar and Roger of Howden that, while living in Kiev, Edward took a nativeborn wife "of noble parentage" or that his father-in-law was a "Rus king".[13 ] Jetté's theory seems to be supported by an onomastic argument. [14] Among the medieval royalty, Agatha's rare Greek name is first recorded in the Macedonian dynasty of Byzantium; it was also one of the most frequent feminine names in the Kievan Rurikiddynasty. [15] After Anna of Byzantium married Yaroslav's father, he took the Christian name of the reigning emperor, Basil II, while some members of his family were named after other members of the imperial dynasty. Agatha could have been one of these.[16] The names of Agatha's immediate descendants—Margaret, Cristina, David, Alexander—were likewise extraordinary for Anglo-Saxon Britain. They may provide a clue to Agatha's origin. The names Margaret and Cristina are today associated with Sweden, the native country of Yaroslav's wife Ingigerd.[17 ] The name of Margaret's son, David, obviously echoes that of Solomon, the son and heir of Andrew I.[18] Furthermore, the first saint of the Rus (canonized ca. 1073) was Yaroslav's brother Gleb, whose Christian name was David. The name of Margaret's other son, Alexander, may point to a variety of traditions, both occidental and oriental: the biography of Alexander the Great was one of the most popular books in eleventh-century Kiev. One inference from the Kievan theory is that Edgar Atheling and St. Margaret were, through their mother, first cousins of Philip I of France. The connection is too notable to be omitted from contemporary sources, yet we have no indication that medieval chroniclers were aware of it. The argumentum ex silentio leads critics of the Kievan theory to search for alternative explanations. [ edit]Bulgarian theory In response to the recent flurry of activity on the subject, Ian Mladjov reevaluated the question and presented a completely novel solution.[19 ] He dismissed each of the prior theories in turn as insufficiently grounded and incompatible given the historical record, and further suggested that many of the proposed solutions would have resulted in later marriages that fell within the prohibited degrees of kinship. He argued that the documentary testimony of Agatha's origins is tainted or late, and concurred with Humphreys' evaluation that the names of the children and grandchildren of Agatha, so central to prior reevaluations, may have had non-family origins (for example, Pope Alexander II played a critical role in the marriage of Malcolm and Margaret). However, he then focused in on the name of Agatha as being critical to determining her origin. He concluded that of the few contemporary Agathas, only one could possibly have been an ancestor of the wife of Edward the Exile, Agatha,[20 ] wife of Samuel of Bulgaria. Some of the other names associated with Agatha and used to corroborate theories based in onomastics are also readily available within the Bulgarian ruling family at the time, including Mary and several Davids. Mladjov inferred that Agatha was daughter of Gavril Radomir, Tsar of Bulgaria, Agatha's son, by his first wife, a Hungarian princess thought to have been the daughter of Duke Géza of Hungary. This hypothesis has Agatha born in Hungary after her parents divorced, her mother being pregnant when she left Bulgaria, and naming her daughter after the mother of the prince who had expelled her. Traditional dates of this divorce would seem to preclude the suggested relationship, but the article re-examined some long-standing assumptions about the chronology of Gavril Radomir's marriage to the Hungarian princess, and concludes that its dating to the late 980s is unsupportable, and its dissolution belongs in c. 1009-1014. The argument is based almost exclusively on the onomastic precedent but is said to vindicate the intimate connection between Agatha and Hungary attested in the Medieval sources. Mladjov speculates further that the medieval testimony could largely be harmonized were one to posit that Agatha's mother was the same Hungarian princess who married Samuel Aba of Hungary, his family fleeing to Kiev after his downfall, thereby allowing a Russian marriage for Agatha. This solution fails to conform with any of the relationships appearing in the primary record. It is inferred that the relative familiarity with Germany and unfamiliarity with Hungary partly distorted the depiction of Agatha in the English sources; her actual position would have been that of a daughter of the (unnamed) sister of the King of Hungary (Stephen I), himself the brother-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor (Henry II, and therefore kinsman of Henry III).

Other theories In 2002, in an article meant not only to refute the Kievan hypothesis, but also to broaden the consideration of possible alternatives beyond the competing German Imperial and Kievan reconstructions, John Carmi Parsons presented a novel theory. He pointed out that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle represents the earliest surviving testimony, and argues that it was probably well informed in reporting an Imperial kinship. He proposed that Agatha might be daughter of a documented German Count Cristinus (explaining the name Christina for Agatha's daughter) by Oda of Haldensleben, hypothesized to be maternal granddaughter of Vladimir I of Kiev by a German kinswoman of Emperor Henry III. Parsons also noted that Edward could have married twice, with the contradictory primary record in part reflecting confusion between distinct wives.[21] Recently, a Polish hypothesis has appeared. John P. Ravilious has proposed that Agatha was daughter of Mieszko II Lambert of Poland by his German wife, making her kinswoman of both Emperors Henry, as well as sister of a Hungarian queen, the wife of Béla .


http://mult-kor.hu/cikk.php?id=686 http://www.dobogommt.hu/ujsagcikk?aid=136 http://arpad.org/category/turulnemzetseg/szent-nemzetseg/ http://szentantal.bajabaratok.hu/ai1ec_event/skociai-szent-margit-e...= http://www.ipariszakkozep.hu/?q=node/137 -------------------- Sources [S39] Medieval, royalty, nobility family group sheets (filmed 1996), Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Family History Department. Medieval Family History Unit, (Manuscript. Salt Lake City, Utah : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1996), FHL film 1553977-1553985.. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agatha,_wife_of_Edward_the_Exile

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Ágota - Agatha ÁRPÁD(házi)'s Timeline

Magyarország - Hungary
Age 17
Age 26
Wessex, England
September 8, 1045
Age 27
Budapest, Budapest, Budapest, Hungary
Age 33
Age 49
Scotland, United Kingdom
Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai