Ælgifu

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Ælgifu

Also Known As: "Ælflæd", "Ælfgiva", "Aelfgifu", "Algifu", "Elfleda of Deira", "Elgiva (Elfleda) Thorold of Nothumbria", "Aelfgifu Gunnarsson", "Algifu (Aelflaed) of England"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Wessex Kingdom, Anglo Saxon, England
Death: Died in London, Middlesex, England
Place of Burial: Winchester, Hampshire, England
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Thored Gunnarsson, Ealdorman of York and Hilda
Wife of Æthelred "the Unready", King of the English
Mother of Athelstan, Prince Of England; Ecgberht; Eadwig; Eadgyth Edith; NN Abbess of Wherwell and 6 others

Occupation: Queen Consort of England
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Ælgifu

Æthelred's first wife, background unclear. Possible father is Thored Gunnarsson, ealdorman of York.

Six children:

1. Æthelstan

2. Æcgbert

3. Eadmund/Edmund Ironside

4. Eadred

5. Eadwig

6. Eadgyth (daughter), married Eadric Streona and Thorkell

Another five children by her or another, unknown wife or mistresses - see below.

7. Eadgar

8. Ælfgifu (Uchtred's wife)

9. Wulfhild

10. Daughter (married Æthelstan "Ringmere")

11. Daughter, Abbess of Wherwell

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016A

[m] firstly ([980/85]) [ÆLFGIVA], daughter of ---. The information about the parentage of the first "wife" of King Æthelred is contradictory. According to Florence of Worcester´s genealogies, she was Ælfgiva, daughter of Ealdorman "Ægelberht", as he names "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1786]. (It should be noted in passing that this is the only example of the root "Ægel-" being found in an Anglo-Saxon name; it is therefore possible that "Ægelberhti" represents a transcription error, maybe for "Æthelberhti".) On the other hand, Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that she was ---, daughter of Thored Ealdorman of York, naming "filia Torethi…comitis" as the mother of "Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"][1787]. The Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, written in [1245], must have used Ailred as its source as it states that the first wife of King Æthelred II was the daughter of "Count Torin"[1788]. Roger of Wendover is unspecific, noting that "rex Ethelredus" married "cujusdam ducis filiam" by whom he fathered "filium…Eadmundum", although in a later passage he says that King Eadmund had "matrem quondam ignobilem fœminam"[1789]. No trace of King Æthelred´s first wife has been found in any other contemporary document. In charters dated 996, King Æthelred's mother countersigns "Ælfthryth regina", but there is no mention of the king's wife. This suggests that Ælfgiva (if indeed that was her name) was an "unofficial" wife, having a similar status to Æthelflæd, first "wife" of King Eadgar, King Æthelred´s father. The will of her son ætheling Æthelstan, dated [1014], refers to "the soul of Ælfthryth my grandmother who brought me up" but makes no mention of his mother[1790], which suggests that she played little part in his early life. This seems suprising if she was in fact the mother of all King Æthelred's children who were not born to his known wife Emma, as is generally reported in most secondary sources. There must therefore be some doubt whether [Ælfgiva] was the king's only wife or concubine before his marriage to Emma de Normandie.

King Æthelred II & his first [wife] had [six] children:

1. ÆTHELSTAN ([986]-killed in battle after 25 Jun 1014[1805]). Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1806]. "Æthelstanus filius regis/clito/ætheling" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1013, his name being recorded consistently first among his brothers and specified as "primogenitus" in 1004[1807]. He was killed fighting the Danes[1808]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made bequests (in order) to "my father King Æthelred, my brother Eadmund, my brother Eadwig, Ælfmær…Godwine, Wulfnoth's son…my foster mother Ælfswith, my mass priest Ælfwine, my seneschal Ælfmær, Sigeferth…Æthelweard the Stammerer and Lifing…Leofstan the brother of Leofwine Cwatt…Leofmær of Bygrave, Godwine the Driveller, Eadric son of Wynflæd…", names "Ælfmær, Ælfric's son" and refers to "the soul of Ælfthryth my grandmother who brought me up"[1809].

2. ECGBERHT (-1005). "Ecgbyrht/Ecbyrhtus filius regis/clito" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1005, in all cases named directly after his brother Æthelstan, consistent with Ecgberht being the second son[1810]. If this is correct, it is assumed that Ecgberht was the son of King Æthelred´s "wife" Ælflæd, although he is not specifically named by Florence of Worcester as one of her children.

3. EADMUND ([990]-30 Nov 1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey). Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1811]. "Eadmundus filius regis/clito/ætheling" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1015, the last dated 1015 being signed "Eadmund regie indolis soboles"[1812]. He succeeded his father in 1016 as EDMUND "Ironside" King of England.

- see below.

4. EADRED (-[1012]). "Eadred regis filius/clito" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and [1012/13][1813], a charter dated 1011 specifying "Eadred tercia proles regia"[1814]. Eadred was named after "Eadmund" in all lists in which the two appear, consistent with his being his father's fourth son. If this is correct, it is assumed that Eadred was the son of King Æthelred´s "wife" Ælflæd, although he is not specifically named by Florence of Worcester as one of her children. "Eadric clito" subscribed a charter of King Æthelred II dated 1005[1815]. As this charter is not one subscribed by "Eadred", it is reasonable to assume that this is a copyist's error rather than that King Æthelred had another son of this name. "Eadred clito" countersigned his father's 1006 charter making grants to St Alban's, signing fifth among the brothers[1816].

5. EADWIG (-murdered 1017, bur Tavistock Abbey, Devon[1817]). Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1818]. "Eadwius/Eadwig filius regis/clito" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 1000 and 1014[1819]. He is named after his brother Eadred in the lists of subscribers, indicating that Eadwig was the fifth son. Eadwig countersigned his father's charter dated 1002 which grants land at Codicote, Hertfordshire to Ælthelm, signing fifth among his brothers[1820], and "Eadwig clito" his father's 1006 charter which made grants to St Alban's, signing sixth[1821]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made bequests to "…my brother Eadmund, my brother Eadwig…"[1822]. He was banished "by the counsel of the perfidious ealdorman Eadric" and murdered on the orders of King Canute[1823]. Simeon of Durham records that King Canute outlawed "the Atheling Edwy the brother of king Eadmund who was called King of the Churls" in 1017[1824].

6. EADGYTH (-after 11 Nov 1021). Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred´s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1825]. Roger of Hoveden names her as the daughter of King Æthelred when recording her first marriage[1826]. Florence of Worcester records that she was banished from England with her second husband 11 Nov 1021[1827].

m firstly (1009) EADRIC "Streona/the Acquisitor", son of --- (-murdered 25 Dec 1017). One of the main advisers of King Æthelred II from [1006], he acquired a position of considerable power but gained a reputation for treachery. He was made Ealdorman of Mercia in 1007[1828]. He changed sides several times during 1014/1016, wavering between Edmund "Ironside" or Canute depending on who had the upper hand at the time, but finally abandoned Edmund's cause at the battle of Ashingdon. Canute appointed Eadric as Ealdorman of Mercia in 1017, but had him murdered in 1017.

m secondly (1017 or after) THORKELL "Havi/the Tall", son of [STRUTHARALD King in Skane] (-killed in battle 1039). One of the leaders of the Danish invasion of England in 1009. He changed sides and supported Æthelred II King of England at the end of 1012, but defected back to join the invasion fleet of Knud of Denmark in Aug 1015. King Canute appointed him Ealdorman of the East Angles 1017 after the murder of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor", whose widow he married. It is probable that the King appointed him Regent of England 1019, during his absence in Denmark. King Canute outlawed him 11 Nov 1021[1829], but they entered a pact of reconciliation in 1023 under which Thorkell would govern Denmark and each would keep the other's son as hostage[1830]. He remained regent in Denmark for about three years, being replaced by Ulf, King Knud's brother-in-law. He was killed by the Welsh[1831].

---------------------------

King Æthelred II & his [first/second] [wife] had [five] children:

7. EADGAR (-[1012/15]). "Eadgarus filius regis/clito" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 1001 and 1008[1832]. He is named after his brother Eadwig in the lists of subscribers, consistent with Eadgar being the sixth son. Eadgar countersigned his father's charter dated 1002 which grants land at Codicote, Hertfordshire to Ælthelm, signing sixth among his brothers[1833], and "Eadgar clito" his father's 1006 charter which made grants to St Alban's, signing seventh[1834].

8. ÆLFGIFU ([990/95]-). She is named as daughter of King Æthelred by Roger of Hoveden, when he records her marriage[1835]. Her birth date range is estimated from her having given birth to her daughter before 1016. m ([1009/16][1836]) as his third wife, UHTRED Earl of Northumbria, son of WALTHEOF Earl of Northumbria & his wife --- (-murdered 1016).

9. WULFHILD . The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m ULFCYTEL "Snillingr/the Valliant", son of --- (-killed in battle Ashingdon Oct 1016[1837]). Ealdorman of East Anglia. After being surprised by the forces of Svend King of Denmark which landed at Norwich, he made peace with the invader. After the Danes broke the treaty, Ulfcytel forced them to retreat to their ships[1838]. He was defeated by the Danes outside Thetford in 1004[1839], and again in East Anglia 18 May 1009[1840]. He was defeated by the Danes 5 May 1010 at Ringmere after their landing near Ipswich[1841]. He was killed in King Edmund II's final battle against Canute.

10. daughter.

m ÆTHELSTAN, son of --- (-killed in battle Ringmere 5 May 1010).

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names Athelstan as "the king's son-in-law", killed by the Danes after they landed near Ipswich[1842]. Simeon of Durham names "Ethelstan the son-in-law of king Ethelred" among those killed in battle by the Danes "in East Anglia…Ringmere"[1843].

11. daughter (-after 1051). Abbess of Wherwell. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that the abbess of Wherwell was the king's sister but does not name her when recording that she received Queen Eadgyth in 1051 after the disgrace of her family[1844].

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Ælfgifu (wife of Ethelred)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ælfgifu (c. 963-1002),she was also know as Elgyva, and also know as Elffleda, was the first wife of King Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England.

Early life

Ælfgifu was the daughter of Thored and Hilda.

References

Template:Http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfgifu_(wife_of_Ethelred)"

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Aelfflaed, Ælfgifu

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Ælfgifu (fl. c. 985-1002) was presumably a daughter of Thored, earl of southern Northumbria, and the first wife of King Æthelred (r. 978-1016), by whom she bore many offspring, including Edmund Ironside.

for more info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfgifu_of_York

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Ælfgifu (fl. c. 985-1002) was presumably a daughter of Thored, earl of southern Northumbria, and the first wife of King Æthelred (r. 978-1016), by whom she bore many offspring, including Edmund Ironside.

sons

       * Æthelstan (born before 993, d. 1014)
       * Ecgberht (born before 993, d. 1005)
       * Edmund (II) Ironside (born before 993, d. 1016)
       * Eadred (d. 1012 x 1015)
       * Eadwig (born before 997, exiled and killed 1017)
       * Edgar (born before 1001, d. 1012 x 1015)

[edit] daughters

       * Eadgyth (born before 993), married Eadric Streona, ealdorman of Mercia.[15]
       * Ælfgifu, married ealdorman Uhtred of Northumbria.[16]
       * (possibly) Wulfhild, who married Ulfcytel (Snillingr) (d. 1016), apparently ealdorman of East Anglia.[17]
       * possibly an unnamed daughter who married the Æthelstan who was killed fighting the Danes at the Battle of Ringmere in 1010. He is called Æthelred's aðum, meaning either son-in-law or brother-in-law.[18] Ann Williams, however, argues that the latter meaning is the appropriate one and refers to Æthelstan as being Ælfgifu's brother.[19]
       * possibly unnamed daughter, who became abbess of Wherwell

she appears to have died by 1002, when Æthelred took to wife Emma, daughter of Count Richard of Rouen, who received or adopted her predecessor's Anglo-Saxon name, Ælfgifu.

Sources

   * John of Worcester, Chronicon ex Chronicis, ed. Benjamin Thorpe, Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. 2 vols. London, 1848-9; tr. J. Stevenson, Church Historians of England. 8 vols.: vol. 2.1. London, 1855. 171-372.
   * Ailred of Rievaulx, De genealogia regum Anglorum ("On the Genealogy of the English Kings"), ed. R. Twysden, De genealogia regum Anglorum. Rerum Anglicarum scriptores 10. London, 1652. 1.347–70. Patrologia Latina 195 (711–38) edition available from Documenta Catholica; tr. M. L. Dutton and J. P. Freeland, Aelred of Rievaulx, The Historical Works. Kalamazoo, 2005.
   * William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum Anglorum, ed. and tr. R.A.B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum. The History of the English Kings. OMT. 2 vols: vol 1. Oxford, 1998.
   * Sulcard of Westminster, Prologus de construccione Westmonasterii, ed. B.W. Scholz, “Sulcard of Westminster. Prologus de construccione Westmonasterii.” Traditio 20 (1964): 59–91.
   * Anglo-Saxon charters
         o S 1511 (possibly AD 980 x 987)
         o S 1497 (c. AD 990 x 1001)
   * Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. D. Dumville and S. Keynes, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. A Collaborative Edition. 8 vols. Cambridge, 1983; tr. Michael J. Swanton, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. 2nd ed. London, 2000.

[edit] Secondary sources

   * Fryde, E. et al. Handbook of British Chronology. 3d ed. Cambridge, 1996.
   * Keynes, Simon. “Æthelred II (c.966x8–1016).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 200.4 Accessed 1 Sept 2007.
   * Stafford, Pauline. "The Reign of Æthelred II. A Study in the Limitations on Royal Policy and Action." In Ethelred the Unready. Papers from the Millenary Conference, ed. D. Hill. BAR British series 59. Oxford, 1978. 15-46.
   * Stafford, Pauline. Queen Emma and Queen Edith: Queenship and Women’s Power in Eleventh-Century England. Oxford, 1997.
   * Trow, M.J. Cnut: Emperor of the North. Sutton, 2005.
   * Williams, Ann. Æthelred the Unready: The Ill-Counselled King. London, 2003.

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Ælfgifu of York

Ælfgifu (fl. c. 985-1002) was presumably a daughter of Thored, earl of southern Northumbria, and the first wife of King Æthelred (r. 978-1016), by whom she bore many offspring, including Edmund Ironside.

Identity and background

Her name and paternity do not surface in the sources until sometime after the Conquest. The first to offer any information at all, Sulcard of Westminster (fl. 1080s), merely describes her as being “of very noble English stock” (ex nobilioribus Anglis), without naming her,[1] while in in the early 12th century, William of Malmesbury has nothing to report. All primary evidence comes from two Anglo-Norman historians. John of Worcester, in a chronicle which is thought to rely on earlier material compiled c. 1100, tells that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, daughter of the nobleman Æthelberht (comes Agelberhtus) and the mother of Edmund, Æthelstan, Eadwig and Eadgyth.[2] Writing in the 1150s, Ailred of Rievaulx had reason to identify Æthelred's first wife as a daughter of earl (comes) Thored and the mother of Edmund, though he supplies no name.[3] Ailred had been seneschal at the court of King David I of Scotland (r. 1124–53), whose mother Margaret descended from King Æthelred and his first wife. Although his testimony is late, his proximity to the royal family may have given him access to genuine information.[4]

These two accounts are irreconcilable at the point of ascribing two different fathers to Æthelred's first wife (in both cases, Edmund's mother). One way out of it would be to assume the existence of two different wives before the arrival of Queen Emma, Æthelred's Norman wife, although this interpretation presents difficulties of its own, especially as the sources envisage a single woman.[5] Historians generally favour the view that John of Worcester was in error about the father's name, as Æthelberht's very existence is under suspicion:[6] if Latin comes is to be interpreted as a gloss on the office of ealdorman, only two doubtful references to one or two duces (ealdormen) of this name can be put forward that would fit the description.[7] All in all, the combined evidence suggests that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, the daughter of Earl Thored. This magnate is likely to have been the Thored who was a son of Gunnar and earl of (southern) Northumbria.[8]

Marriage and offspring

Based largely on the careers of her sons, Ælfgifu's marriage has been dated approximately to the (mid-)980s.[9] Considering Thored's authority as earl of York and apparently, the tenure of that office without royal appointment, the union would have signified an important step for the West-Saxon royal family by which it secured a foothold in the north.[10] Such a politically weighty union would help explain the close connections maintained by Ælfgifu's eldest sons Edmund and Æthelstan with noble families based in the northern Danelaw.[11]

The marriage produced six sons, all of whom were named after Æthelred's predecessors, and an indefinite number of daughters. The eldest sons Æthelstan, Ecgberht, Eadred and Edmund first attest charters in 993, while the younger sons Eadwig and Edgar first make an appearance in them in 997 and 1001 respectively.[12] Some of these sons seem to have spent part of their childhood in fosterage elsewhere, possibly with Æthelred's mother Ælfthryth.[13]

The only ætheling to become king was Edmund Ironside, whose brief reign came to an end when Cnut won a series of victories and so conquered England (1016). Æthelred gave three of his daughters in marriage to ealdormen, presumably in order to secure the loyalties of his nobles and so to consolidate a defence system against Viking attacks.[14]

sons

Æthelstan (born before 993, d. 1014)

Ecgberht (born before 993, d. 1005)

Edmund (II) Ironside (born before 993, d. 1016)

Eadred (d. 1012 x 1015)

Eadwig (born before 997, exiled and killed 1017)

Edgar (born before 1001, d. 1012 x 1015)

[edit]daughters

Eadgyth (born before 993), married Eadric Streona, ealdorman of Mercia.[15]

Ælfgifu, married ealdorman Uhtred of Northumbria.[16]

(possibly) Wulfhild, who married Ulfcytel (Snillingr) (d. 1016), apparently ealdorman of East Anglia.[17]

possibly an unnamed daughter who married the Æthelstan who was killed fighting the Danes at the Battle of Ringmere in 1010. He is called Æthelred's aðum, meaning either son-in-law or brother-in-law.[18] Ann Williams, however, argues that the latter meaning is the appropriate one and refers to Æthelstan as being Ælfgifu's brother.[19]

possibly unnamed daughter, who became abbess of Wherwell.[20]

Life and death

Ælfgifu seems to have kept a low profile in her husband's political life, to judge by her total absence from royal diplomas. She did, however, make at least some impression on the contemporary record. In a will issued between 975/980 and 987, the thegn Beorhtric and his wife bequeathed to their “lady” (hlæfdige) an armlet worth 30 gold mancuses and a stallion, calling upon her authority to oversee that the arrangements set out by will were implemented.[21] In a will of later date (AD 990 x 1001), in which she is addressed as “my lady” (mire hlæfdian), the noblewoman Æthelgifu promised a bequest of 30 mancuses of gold.[22] Just as little is known of Ælfgifu's life, so the precise date and circumstances of her death cannot be recovered.[23] In any event, she appears to have died by 1002, when Æthelred took to wife Emma, daughter of Count Richard of Rouen, who received or adopted her predecessor's Anglo-Saxon name, Ælfgifu.

--------------------

Ælfgifu of York (fl. c. 985-1002) was the first wife of King Æthelred (r. 978-1016), by whom she bore many offspring, including Edmund Ironside. It is most probable that she was a daughter of Thored, earl of southern Northumbria.

Identity and background

Her name and paternity do not surface in the sources until sometime after the Conquest. The first to offer any information at all, Sulcard of Westminster (fl. 1080s), merely describes her as being “of very noble English stock” (ex nobilioribus Anglis), without naming her,[1] while in in the early 12th century, William of Malmesbury has nothing to report. All primary evidence comes from two Anglo-Norman historians. John of Worcester, in a chronicle which is thought to rely on earlier material compiled c. 1100, tells that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, daughter of the nobleman Æthelberht (comes Agelberhtus) and the mother of Edmund, Æthelstan, Eadwig and Eadgyth.[2] Writing in the 1150s, Ailred of Rievaulx had reason to identify Æthelred's first wife as a daughter of earl (comes) Thored and the mother of Edmund, though he supplies no name.[3] Ailred had been seneschal at the court of King David I of Scotland (r. 1124–53), whose mother Margaret descended from King Æthelred and his first wife. Although his testimony is late, his proximity to the royal family may have given him access to genuine information.[4]

Problem of fatherhood

These two accounts are irreconcilable at the point of ascribing two different fathers to Æthelred's first wife (in both cases, Edmund's mother). One way out of it would be to assume the existence of two different wives before the arrival of Queen Emma, Æthelred's Norman wife, although this interpretation presents difficulties of its own, especially as the sources envisage a single woman.[5] Historians generally favour the view that John of Worcester was in error about the father's name, as Æthelberht's very existence is under suspicion:[6] if Latin comes is to be interpreted as a gloss on the office of ealdorman, only two doubtful references to one or two duces (ealdormen) of this name can be put forward that would fit the description.[7] All in all, the combined evidence suggests that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, the daughter of Earl Thored. This magnate is likely to have been the Thored who was a son of Gunnar and earl of (southern) Northumbria.[8]

Marriage and offspring

Based largely on the careers of her sons, Ælfgifu's marriage has been dated approximately to the (mid-)980s.[9] Considering Thored's authority as earl of York and apparently, the tenure of that office without royal appointment, the union would have signified an important step for the West-Saxon royal family by which it secured a foothold in the north.[10] Such a politically weighty union would help explain the close connections maintained by Ælfgifu's eldest sons Edmund and Æthelstan with noble families based in the northern Danelaw.[11]

The marriage produced six sons, all of whom were named after Æthelred's predecessors, and an unknown number of daughters. The eldest sons Æthelstan, Ecgberht, Eadred and Edmund first attest charters in 993, while the younger sons Eadwig and Edgar first make an appearance in them in 997 and 1001 respectively.[12] Some of these sons seem to have spent part of their childhood in fosterage elsewhere, possibly with Æthelred's mother Ælfthryth.[13]

The only ætheling to become king was Edmund Ironside, whose brief reign came to an end when Cnut won a series of victories and so conquered England (1016). Æthelred gave three of his daughters in marriage to ealdormen, presumably in order to secure the loyalties of his nobles and so to consolidate a defence system against Viking attacks.[14]

Sons

       * Æthelstan (born before 993, d. 1014)
       * Ecgberht (born before 993, d. 1005)
       * Edmund (II) Ironside (born before 993, d. 1016)
       * Eadred (d. 1012 x 1015)
       * Eadwig (born before 997, exiled and killed 1017)
       * Edgar (born before 1001, d. 1012 x 1015)

Daughters

       * Eadgyth (born before 993), married Eadric Streona, ealdorman of Mercia.[15]
       * Ælfgifu, married ealdorman Uhtred of Northumbria.[16]
       * (possibly) Wulfhild, who married Ulfcytel (Snillingr) (d. 1016), apparently ealdorman of East Anglia.[17]
       * possibly an unnamed daughter who married the Æthelstan who was killed fighting the Danes at the Battle of Ringmere in 1010. He is called Æthelred's aðum, meaning either son-in-law or brother-in-law.[18] Ann Williams, however, argues that the latter meaning is the appropriate one and refers to Æthelstan as being Ælfgifu's brother.[19]
       * possibly unnamed daughter, who became abbess of Wherwell.[20]

Life and death

Ælfgifu seems to have kept a low profile in her husband's political life, to judge by her total absence from royal diplomas. She did, however, make at least some impression on the contemporary record. In a will issued between 975/980 and 987, the thegn Beorhtric and his wife bequeathed to their “lady” (hlæfdige) an armlet worth 30 gold mancuses and a stallion, calling upon her authority to oversee the implementation of the arrangements set out by will.[21] In a will of later date (AD 990 x 1001), in which she is addressed as “my lady” (mire hlæfdian), the noblewoman Æthelgifu promised a bequest of 30 mancuses of gold.[22] Just as little is known of Ælfgifu's life, so the precise date and circumstances of her death cannot be recovered.[23] In any event, she appears to have died by 1002, when Æthelred took to wife Emma, daughter of Count Richard of Rouen, who received or adopted her predecessor's Anglo-Saxon name, Ælfgifu.

Notes

  1. ^ Sulcard of Winchester, Prologus de construccione Westmonasterii, ed. Scholz, pp. 74, 89; Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 169, note 30.
  2. ^ John of Worcester, Chronicon ex Chronicis (West-Saxon regnal list at the end of Chronicle).
  3. ^ '[…] cum jam de filia Torethi nobilissimi comitis filium suscepisset Edmundum.'--Ailred of Rievaulx, Genealogia regum Anglorum.
  4. ^ Keynes, “Æthelred.”
  5. ^ This possibility is raised, for instance, by Stafford, Queen Emma, p. 66 and 66 note 3. It is also considered, but subsequently rejected by Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 25.
  6. ^ Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 25; Keynes, “Æthelred”; Handbook of British Chronology, p. 27.
  7. ^ His name is only attested for an ealdorman (dux) on the witness lists for two spurious royal charters relating to grants in Tavistock and Exeter. S 838 (AD 981) and S 954 (AD 1019). The latter subscription may be an error for Æthelweard; see Williams, Æthelred the Unready. p. 169 note 29.
  8. ^ Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 24.
  9. ^ Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 24.
 10. ^ Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 24-5.
 11. ^ Keynes, “Æthelred”; Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 25.
 12. ^ S 876 (AD 993), S 891 (AD 997), S 899 (AD 1001).
 13. ^ Keynes, “Æthelred”
 14. ^ Stafford, The Reign of Æthelred II.34-5.
 15. ^ John of Worcester, Chronicon, AD 1009.
 16. ^ De Obsessione Dunelmi § 2; Handbook of British Chronology, p. 27.
 17. ^ Handbook of British Chronology, p. 27.
 18. ^ Handbook of British Chronology, p. 27.
 19. ^ Williams, Æthelred the Unready, p. 24.
 20. ^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (MS E) 1048; Handbook of British Chronology, p. 27.
 21. ^ S 1511 (975 or 980 x 987).
 22. ^ S 1497 (c. AD 990x 1001).
 23. ^ It has been suggested that she died in giving birth. Trow, Cnut: Emperor of the North, p. 54.

Sources

Primary sources

   * Ailred of Rievaulx, De genealogia regum Anglorum ("On the Genealogy of the English Kings"), ed. R. Twysden, De genealogia regum Anglorum. Rerum Anglicarum scriptores 10. London, 1652. 1.347–70. Patrologia Latina 195 (711–38) edition available from Documenta Catholica; tr. M. L. Dutton and J. P. Freeland, Aelred of Rievaulx, The Historical Works. Kalamazoo, 2005.
   * Anglo-Saxon charters
         o S 1511 (possibly AD 980 x 987)
         o S 1497 (c. AD 990 x 1001)
   * Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. D. Dumville and S. Keynes, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: a collaborative edition. 8 vols. Cambridge, 1983
         o Tr. Michael J. Swanton, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. 2nd ed. London, 2000.
   * John of Worcester, Chronicon ex Chronicis, ed. Benjamin Thorpe, Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. 2 vols. London, 1848-49
         o Tr. J. Stevenson, Church Historians of England. 8 vols.: vol. 2.1. London, 1855; pp. 171-372.
   * Sulcard of Westminster, Prologus de construccione Westmonasterii, ed. B. W. Scholz, “Sulcard of Westminster. Prologus de construccione Westmonasterii.” Traditio; 20 (1964); pp. 59–91.
   * William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum Anglorum, ed. and tr. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum: The History of the English Kings. (Oxford Medieval Texts.) 2 vols.; vol 1. Oxford, 1998.

Secondary sources

   * Fryde, E. et al. Handbook of British Chronology. 3d ed. Cambridge, 1996.
   * Keynes, Simon. “Æthelred II (c.966x8–1016).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press, 200.4 Accessed 1 Sept 2007.
   * Stafford, Pauline. "The Reign of Æthelred II. A Study in the Limitations on Royal Policy and Action." In Ethelred the Unready. Papers from the Millenary Conference, ed. D. Hill. BAR British series 59. Oxford, 1978. 15-46.
   * Stafford, Pauline. Queen Emma and Queen Edith: Queenship and Women’s Power in Eleventh-Century England. Oxford, 1997.
   * Trow, M.J. Cnut: Emperor of the North. Sutton, 2005.
   * Williams, Ann. Æthelred the Unready: The Ill-Counselled King. London, 2003.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfgifu_of_York

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Ælgifu (?) (1)

F, #102184, b. circa 963, d. February 1002

Last Edited=11 Dec 2005

    Ælgifu (?) was born circa 963.2 She was the daughter of Thored of Northumbria, Ealdorman of York and Hilda (?). (2) She married Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England, son of Eadgar 'the Peaceful', King of England and Ælfthryth (?), between 980 and 985. (2) 

She died in February 1002. (2)

    Ælgifu (?) was also known as Elgiva (?). (3) She was also known as Elffleda (?). (2)

Children of Ælgifu (?) and Æthelred II 'the Unready', King of England

-1. Æthelstan (?) b. c 986, d. bt 1012 - 1015 (3)

-2. Eadred (?) b. bt 987 - 1002, d. bt 1012 - 1015 (6)

-3. Edgar (?) b. bt 987 - 1002, d. bt 1012 - 1015 (7)

-4. Edmund II 'Ironside', King of England+ b. bt 988 - 993, d. 30 Nov 1016 (6)

-5. Edward (?) b. bt 988 - 1002, d. b 1004

-6. Eadwig (?) b. bt 989 - 1002, d. 1017 (6)

-7. Ecgberht (?) b. bt 990 - 1002, d. c 1005 (6)

-8. Eadgyth (?)+ b. bt 991 - 1002 (7)

-9. Ælfgifu (?)+ b. bt 991 - 1002 (8)

-10. Wulfhild (?) b. bt 992 - 1002 (7)

-11. unknown daughter (?) b. bt 993 - 1002 (7)

-12. unknown daughter2 (?) b. bt 994 - 1002, d. a 1051 (4)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10219.htm#i102184

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfgifu_of_York

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Ælfgifu of York

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ælgifu (c. 963- February 1002), also known as Elgiva or Elffleda, was the daughter of Thored of Northumbria, Ealdorman of York and Hilda. She married Ethelred the Unready, King of England, son of Edgar 'the Peaceful' and Ælfthryth, between 980 and 985. They had at least eight children:

Æthelstan Ætheling (died 1011)

Edmund Ironside

Ecgberht Ætheling

Eadred Ætheling

Eadwig Ætheling (killed 1017)

Eadgar Ætheling the Elder.

Edith, who married Eadric Streona, ealdorman of Mercia

Ælfgifu, who married Uchtred the Bold, ealdorman of Bamburgh

(possibly) a daughter Wulfhild, who married Ulfcytel Snillingr

(possibly) a daughter Aethelreda, who married Gospatric.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfgifu_of_York -------------------- Queen Aelfthryth Written by Jone Johnson Lewis Queen Aelfthryth was married to King Edgar "the Peaceable," stepmother of Edward "the Martyr" and mother of King Ethelred (Aethelred) II "the Unready". Her father was Earl of Devon, Ordgar. She married Edgar who died in 975, and was his second wife. Aelfthryth is sometimes credited with organizing, or being part of, a 978 assassination of her stepson Edward "the Martyr" so that her 10-year-old son Ethelred II "the Unready" could succeed. Her daughter, Aethelfleda or Ethelfleda, was abbess at Romsey. Another woman by the name of Aelfthryth was the daughter of King Alfred "the Great" and wife of Baldwin II, Count of Flanders and Artois. This Aelfthryth lived from about 877-929.

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Ælgifu's Timeline

963
963
Wessex Kingdom, Anglo Saxon, England
985
985
Age 22
Of, , Wessex, England
986
986
Age 23
Of, , Wessex, England
986
Age 23
987
987
Age 24
Wessex
988
988
Age 25
988
Age 25
Wessex, England
991
991
Age 28
Wessex, , England
995
995
Age 32
Wessex, England
998
998
Age 35
Wessex, England