|Birthplace:||Вели́кий Но́вгород (Great Novgorod), Новгородская земля (Land of Novgorod), Ки́евская русь (Kievan Rus, within present Russia)|
|Death:||Died in Чернигов (Chernigov/Chernihiv), Черниговское княжество (Principality of Chernigov), Ки́евская русь (Kievan Rus, within present Ukraine)|
|Cause of death:||Fatal blow to the shoulder by a spear in the Battle of Nezhatin Niva|
|Managed by:||Nancy Sawalich|
About Izyaslav Yaroslavich, князь
Ben M. Angel's summary:
Father: Ярослав Владимирович "Мудрий" (Yaroslav I "The Wise"), Grand Prince of Kiev (1019-1054)
Mother: Ингегерда (Ingegerd Olofsdotter), Grand Princess of Kiev (1019-1050)
1. Ilya Yaroslavich, Prince of Novgorod (1015-1020)
2. Vladimir Yaroslavich (b.1020, d. 1052), possibly married to Oda von Stade (famously unverified)
3. Anastasiya Yaroslavna (b. c1023, d. 1074/1096), wife of King Andras I of Hungary
5. Yeliziveta Yaroslavna (d. 1066), wife of King Harald III "Hardråde" of Norway
6. Svyatoslav Yaroslavich (b. 1027, d. 1076), Prince of Chernigov after 1054, successor to Izyaslav as Grand Prince of Kiev (1073-1076)
7. Vsevolod Yaroslavich (b. 1030, d. 1093), Prince of Pereyaslavl after 1054, successor to Svyatoslav as Grand Prince of Kiev (1076-1093)
8. Vyacheslav Yaroslavich (b. 1033/1036, d. 1055/1057), Prince of Smolensk (1054-1055/1057)
9. Anna Yaroslavna (b. 1036, d. 1075/1078), wife of King Henri I of France
10. Igor Yaroslavich (b. 1036 d. 1060), Prince of Volynia (1054-1060), Prince of Smolensk (1057-1060)
Gertruda of Poland (Гертруда Польская), (b. 1025, d. 1108)
1. Mstislav Izyaslavich (d.1069), Prince of Novgorod (1066/1067), Prince of Polotsk (1069)
2. Yaropolk Pyotr Izyaslavich (d. 1086), Prince of Volynia and maybe Turov (1078-1086), husband of Kunigunde von Weimar
3. Svyatopolk II Mikhail Izyaslavich (b. 1050, d. 1113) Prince of Polotsk (1069-1093), Grand Prince of Kiev (1093-1113)
4. Eudokhia Izyaslavna (d. 1089), wife of Mieszko of Poland
Basic information and justifications:
Birth: 1024 - Russian Wikipedia favors Novgorod.
Death: 3 October 1078 - Battle of Nezhatin Niva, outside of Chernigov (died in battle - pierced in the shoulder by a spear)
Burial: Десятинная Церковь, Church of the Tithes or Dormition of the Virgin (Desyatina Tserkva) on Starokiev Hill (Старокиевськой горе) in Kiev
Wedding: c.1043 - location unknown
Occupation: Prince of Turov to 1052, Prince of Novgorod (1052-1054), Grand Prince of Kiev (20 February 1054-1073, 27 December 1076-3 October 1078)
From the Foundation of Medieval Genealogy page on Russia Rurikid (covering his birth family):
IAROSLAV I 1019-1054
IAROSLAV Vladimirovich, son of VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Rognoda of Polotsk (-Vyshgorod 20 Feb 1054, bur Kiev Church of St Sophia).
Prince of Rostov 988-1010.
Prince of Novgorod 1013-1015.
He rebelled against his father and refused to pay tribute from Novgorod in 1014. Challenged by his cousin Sviatopolk I Grand Prince of Kiev, following the latter's accession in Kiev, he defeated Sviatopolk at Liubech  and forced him to flee to Poland, succeeding as IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev.
Sviatopolk returned in Jul 1018 with an army led by his father-in-law, Bolesław I King of Poland, and defeated Iaroslav at the Western Bug and forced him to retire to Novgorod. Sviatopolk entered Kiev again 14 Aug 1018 and resumed his rule. After King Bolesław returned to Poland, Iaroslav advanced once more on Kiev. Sviatopolk fled south to raise another force with the Pechenegs but was finally defeated by the river Alta in 1019, when Iaroslav resumed power in Kiev.
In 1024, his half-brother Mstislav Prince of Tmutorokan moved his headquarters north to Chernigov to challenge Iaroslav, whom he defeated at Listven. The half-brothers agreed a division of territories, Iaroslav taking the land on the western bank of the Dnieper including Kiev and Novgorod. While Iaroslav was absent in Novgorod, the Pechenegs laid siege to Kiev, but were defeated after Iaroslav returned with a formidable army to relieve the siege. He succeeded in the territories of his half-brother Mstislav on the latter's death in 1036, becoming sole ruler or "Autocrat of the land of the Rus".
His greatest project was the conquest of Constantinople but his armies were defeated in decisive battles in 1043.
He supervised the rapid expansion of the city of Kiev, modelled on Constantinople. His law code Rus'ka Pravda also contributed to the development and consolidation of his administration especially in the area around Kiev, although it appears to have had little impact in the north.
The Primary Chronicle records the death of Iaroslav 19 Feb 1054 at Vyshgorod aged 76 and his burial place. He left a testament dividing his territories between his sons, the substance of which is recorded in the Primary Chronicle although no original text has survived.
[m firstly ---. The fact of Iaroslav´s first marriage is indicated by the chronology of his oldest son, although as noted below no primary source has yet been identified which refers to this oldest son. Nevertheless, Iaroslav´s birth date, if accurate as shown above, does suggest that an earlier marriage is likely.]
m [secondly] (1019) INGIGERD Olafsdottir of Sweden, daughter of OLOF "Skotkonung" King of Sweden & his wife Estrid of the Obotriten ([1000/03]-10 Feb 1050).
Adam of Bremen names "filius Iacobus et filia Ingrad" as the children of "Olaph rex Sueonum" & his wife Estred, specifying that Ingrad married "rex sanctus Gerzlef de Ruzzia". Her birth date range is estimated based on the birth of her oldest child in 1020, and her youngest known child in . Morkinskinna names “Queen Ingigerđr the daughter of King Óláfr the Swede” as wife of “King Yaroslav [of] Russia”. Snorre records the betrothal of "Ingegerd the king's daughter" and "King Jarisleif…from Russia".
Her birth date range is estimated based on the birth of her oldest child in 1020, and her youngest known child in . The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of "sororem Olaui Sueonensis…Margaretam" and "rex Iarezlafus de Ruscia" at her brother's instigation, after her betrothal to Olav of Norway was terminated. It is more probable that she was the daughter rather than sister of King Olof if it is correct that she had ten children by her husband.
She is referred to as IRINA in Russian sources.
The Primary Chronicle records the death of "the Princess wife of Yaroslav" 10 Feb [1048/50].
Grand Prince Iaroslav & his first wife had one child:
1. [ILIYA Iaroslavich (-1020).
Baumgarten names him but cites only one secondary source in support. He is not named in the Primary Chronicle.
Prince of Novgorod 1015.]
Grand Prince Iaroslav & his second wife had ten children:
2. VLADIMIR Iaroslavich (1020-Novgorod 1052, bur Novgorod Church of St Sophia).
The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vladimir son of Iaroslav in 1020. Snorre names "Valdemar, Vissivald and Holte the Bold" as the children of "King Jarisleif" & his wife.
His father installed him in 1043 as Prince of Novgorod. He subjugated the Finnic tribe of Yam to secure Novgorod's control over the Gulf of Finland.
Psellos records that Vladimir led an attack on Constantinople in , apparently in revenge for the death of some Scythian noble in a brawl, but was defeated and forced to retreat.
The Primary Chronicle records the death of Vladimir "Yaroslav's eldest son" at Novgorod in 1052 and his place of burial. As he predeceased his father, his descendants were ignored in the latter's testament and were subsequently considered ineligible to succeed as Grand Princes of Kiev.
m --- (-1066). The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known. Baumgarten identifies the wife of Vladimir as Oda, daughter of Luitpold Graf von Stade & his wife Ida von Elstorf [Brunswick]. This is based partially on the Annales Stadenses which name "Odam sanctimonialem de Rinthelen" as daughter of "Lippoldo filio domiine Glismodis" and "Ida [de Elsthorpe]", specifying that she married "regi Ruzie" by whom she had a son "Warteslaw", returned to Saxony with her son after her husband died.
Vladimir & his wife had one child, Rostislav, Prince of Rostov, Novgorod, and Volynia (1056-1064), Prince of Tmutorokan (1064-1065).
3. ANASTASIA Iaroslavna (-[1074/1096], bur Admont Abbey).
Baumgarten names the second wife of King András and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.
After her husband's death in 1060, she and her sons took refuge at the court of Heinrich IV King of Germany but, leaving her elder son there, she and her younger son went to Austria. The Annals of Lambert record that "regina Ungariorum, mater Salomonis regis" presented the sword of "rex Hunnorum Attila" to "duci Baioriorum Ottoni" after her son was restored as king of Hungary.
She became a nun at Admont in 1074 as AGMUNDA.
m () as his second wife, ANDRÁS of Hungary, son of VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] Prince of Hungary Duke between March and Gran & --- of the Bulgarians (-Zirc autumn 1060, bur Tihany, Abbey of St Anian). He succeeded in 1047 as ANDRÁS I "the Catholic" King of Hungary.
4. IZIASLAV Iaroslavich (1024-killed in battle Nezhatinaia Niva 3 Oct 1078 bur Kiev).
The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Izyaslav "a second son" to Vladimir in 1024.
He succeeded in 1054 as IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev.
5. IELIZAVETA Iaroslavna (-after 25 Sep 1066).
Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and Elisabeth "called by the Northmen Ellisif" daughter of "King Jarisleif", specifying in a later passage that "the Swedish king Olaf…was brother of [her] mother". Morkinskinna records the marriage of “Haraldr Sigurdarson” and “King Yaroslav and Queen Ingigerdr…daughter…Elisabeth, the Norsemen call her Ellisif”. Snorre records that "Queen Ellisif came from the West…with her stepson Olaf and her daughter Ingegerd" after her husband was killed.
m (1044) HARALD Sigurdson, son of SIGURD Syr King of Ringeringe & his wife Asta Gudbrandsdatter (1015-killed in battle Stamfordbridge 25 Sep 1066). He succeeded in 1047 as HARALD III "Hardråde" King of Norway.
6. SVIATOSLAV Iaroslavich (1027-27 Dec 1076, bur Chernigov, Church of the Saviour).
The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Svyatoslav "a third son" to Vladimir in 1027. He succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Chernigov, and in 1073 as SVIATOSLAV II Grand Prince of Kiev.
7. VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich (1030-13 Apr 1093, bur Kiev St Sofia).
The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vsevolod "a fourth son" to Vladimir in 1030. Snorre names "Valdemar, Vissivald and Holte the Bold" as the children of "King Jarisleif" & his wife.
He succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Pereyaslavl, and in 1076 as VSEVOLOD I Grand Prince of Kiev.
8. VIACHESLAV Iaroslavich ([1033/36]-Smolensk [1055/57]).
The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vyacheslav son of Vladimir in [1034/36]. In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Smolensk. The Primary Chronicle records the death of Vyacheslav son of Yaroslav at Smolensk in [1056/57].
m ---. The name of Viacheslav´s wife is not known.
Viacheslav & his wife had one child, Boris, Prince of Chernigov (1077) and Prince of Tmutorokan (1077-1078)
9. ANNA Iaroslavna (1036-5 Sep ([1075/78], bur Abbaye Villiers near La-Ferté-Alais).
The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "filiam regis Russorum Annam" with King Henri. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Anna filia Georgii regis Sclavonum" as wife of King Henri.
She was consecrated Queen Consort at Reims on her wedding day.
Queen Anna caused a scandal in France by her second marriage and was forced to leave the court, although she returned after his death in 1074. The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "Anna, Henrici relicta" and "Rodulfo comitis". "Rodulphus…Ambianensis comes" donated property to Sainte-Marie d'Amiens, with the consent of "Simon filius meus et Gualterus, Gualteri Tyrelli natus", by charter dated 1069, subscribed by "Anna uxor eius".
m firstly (Reims 19 May 1051) as his second wife, HENRI I King of France, son of ROBERT II "le Pieux" King of France & his third wife Constance d'Arles [Provence] ([end 1009/May 1010]-Palais de Vitry-aux-Loges, forêt d’Orléans, Loiret 4 Aug 1060, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).
m secondly () as his third wife, RAOUL III “le Grand” Comte de Valois, son of RAOUL II Comte de Valois & his wife Aliénor de Champagne (-Péronne 23 Feb or 8 Sep 1074, bur Montdidier, later transferred to Crépy-en-Valois, église collégiale Saint-Arnoul).
10. IGOR Iaroslavich (-1060).
In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Volynia.
He succeeded his brother Viacheslav in 1057 as Prince of Smolensk.
The Primary Chronicle records the death of Igor son of Yaroslav in 1060.
m ---. The name of Igor´s wife is not known.
Igor & his wife had two children: David, Prince of Volynia (1085-1086, 1087-1113), Prince of Dorogobuzh (1100-1113).
From the Foundation of Medieval Genealogy page on Russia Rurikid (covering his family by marriage):
C. GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, descendants of IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev (third son of IAROSLAV I)
Although Iziaslav was his father's oldest surviving son, and succeeded as Grand Prince of Kiev in 1054 in accordance with his father's testament, only one of his sons, Sviatopolk II, succeeding as Grand Prince and none of his grandsons. In accordance with the family tradition, all later descendants were thereby effectively excluded from the succession.
IZIASLAV I 1054-1078
IZIASLAV Iaroslavich, son of IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev & his [second] wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (1024-killed in battle Nezhatinaia Niva 3 Oct 1078, bur Kiev Church of the Holy Virgin).
The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Izyaslav "a second son" to Vladimir in 1024.
Prince of Turov.
He succeeded on the death of his older brother in 1052 as Prince of Novgorod. In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev. It is also likely that his territories included Novgorod and Pskov.
He was deposed in Kiev by a mob which, dissatisfied with his refusal to attack the Kuman [Cumans], released Vseslav Prince of Polotsk from prison and proclaimed him Grand Prince of Kiev in Sep 1068, forcing Iziaslav to flee to Poland.
Iziaslav I was restored in 1069 with the help of Bolesław II King of Poland.
He was deposed again in Kiev in 1073 by his younger brother Sviatoslav, restored again in 1077 after Sviatoslav died.
He answered the call from his brother Prince Vsevolod for military support against their nephew Oleg Sviatoslavich, whom they defeated 3 Oct 1078 at Nezhatin Meadow near Chernigov. The Primary Chronicle records the death of Izyaslav son of Iaroslav in battle on the meadow of Nezhata 3 Oct 1078 and his place of burial.
m () GERTRUDA of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO II LAMBERT King of Poland & his wife Richeza [Ezzonen] (-4 Jan 1107).
Baumgarten names the wife of Grand Prince Iziaslav and gives her origin, citing primary sources in support. The Primary Chronicle records that "the Princess, Svyatopolk's mother" died 4 Jan 1107.
Grand Prince Iziaslav I & his wife had four children:
1. MSTISLAV Iziaslavich (-1069).
The Primary Chronicle names Mstislav son of Izyaslav, recording that his father established him as Prince of Polotsk in 1069 but that "he soon died".
He was installed as Prince of Novgorod by his father.
He was expelled from Novgorod by Vseslav Prince of Polotsk in [1066/67]. He was not restored in Novgorod when his father returned from exile in Poland, but was replaced by Gleb Sviatoslavich.
m ---. The name of Mstislav´s wife is not known.
Mstislav & his wife had one child, Rostislav.
2. IAROPOLK PIOTR Iziaslavich (-murdered 22 Nov 1086).
The Primary Chronicle names Iaropolk, son of Izyaslav, recording that he and his father attacked Chernigov together in 1078.
He was installed as Prince of Volynia and, maybe, Turov by his uncle Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev in 1078, but was expelled in 1085 by his cousin Vladimir "Monomakh" and found refuge in Poland. He was restored the following year but murdered soon after.
m () as her first husband, KUNIGUNDE von Weimar, daughter of OTTO Graf von Weimar Markgraf of Meissen & his wife Adela de Louvain (-8 Jun 1140). The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Odam, Cunigundam, Adelheidam" as the three daughters of Markgraf Otto & his wife, specifying that Kunigunde married firstly "regi Ruzorum", secondly "Cononi comiti de Bichlingge, filio ducis Ottonis de Northeim", and thirdly "Wipertus senior". The primary source which identifies her first husband more precisely has not yet been identified.
Baumgarten records her first marriage but cites only one secondary source in support. She married secondly Kuno von Northeim Graf von Beichlingen and thirdly (1110) as his second wife, Wiprecht [II] von Groitsch.
Iaropolk & his wife had four children: Anastasia, wife of Gleb, Prince of Minsk; Yaroslav (died imprisoned); Unknown Daughter, wife of Gunther I, Graf von Schwarzburg; and Vyacheslav.
3. SVIATOPOLK MIKHAIL Iziaslavich (1050-16 Apr 1113).
The Primary Chronicle names Svyatopolk son of Iziaslav, recording that his father established him as Prince of Polotsk in 1069 after the death of his brother Mstislav.
He succeeded his uncle in 1093 as SVIATOPOLK II Grand Prince of Kiev.
4. [EUDOXIA] Iziaslavna (-1089).
The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that in 1088 "Mesko uxorem duxit" without naming his wife. Baumgarten records the parentage of the wife of Mieszko and suggests that her name was Eudoxia, citing primary sources in support.
m (1088) MIESZKO Prince of Poland, son of BOLESŁAW II "Szczodry/the Liberal" King of Poland & his wife Vizeslava Sviatoslavna of Kiev (1069-1089).
 Franklin & Shepard (1998), pp. 186-87.
 Franklin & Shepard (1998), p. 207.
 Franklin & Shepard (1998), p. 187-88.
 Chirovsky (1973), pp. 144-5.
 Chirovsky (1973), p. 145.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1054, p. 143.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1054, p. 142.
 Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319.
 Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell), 1, p. 89.
 Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 95.
 Ekrem, I. and Mortensen, L. B. (eds.) Fisher, P. (trans.) (2003) Historia Norwegie (Copenhagen) XVIII, p. 104.
 Franklin & Shepard (1998), p. 202.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1048-1050, p. 139.
 Baumgarten (1927), p. 8, citing Karamzine Histoire de Russie, T. II note 20.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1020, p. 134.
 Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 95.
 Chirovsky (1973), p. 54.
 Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos (Penguin Books), p. 200, footnote 1, and p. 203.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1052, p. 142.
 Baumgarten (1927), p. 9, citing Baumgarten, N. de Oda de Stade et son fils Rostislaw, no page reference cited.
 Annales Stadenses 1112, MGH SS XVI, pp. 319 and 320.
 Baumgarten (1927), p. 9, citing Wertner, M. Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 117-23.
 Hóman, Geschichte, p. 269, cited in Kerbl, R. (1979) Byzantinische Prinzessinnen in Ungarn zwischen 1050-1200 und ihr Einfluß auf das Arpadenkönigreich (VWGÖ, Vienna), p. 14.
 Lamberti Annales 1071, MGH SS V, p. 185.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1024, p. 135.
 Snorre, King Harald's Saga, 17 and 18.
 Morkinskinna, 9, p. 131.
 Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1027, p. 136.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1030, p. 136.
 Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 95.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1034-1036, p. 136.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1056-1057, p. 143.
 Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 10, MGH SS IX, p. 388.
 Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1052, MGH SS XXIII, p. 789.
 Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 66.
 Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 11, MGH SS IX, p. 389.
 Cartulaire du chapitre de la cathédrale d´Amiens, Tome I, Mémoires de la société des antiquaires de la Picardie, Tome XIV (Amiens, 1905) ("Amiens") I, 5, p. 9, and Labanoff de Rostoff, Prince A. (ed.) (1825) Recueil de pieces historiques sur la reine Anne ou Agnès épouse de Henri 1er roi de France et fille de Iarosslaf 1er grand duc de Russie (Paris) ("Anne de France") XV, p. 34.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1060, p. 143.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1024, p. 135.
 Chirovsky (1973), p. 77.
 Franklin & Shepard (1998), p. 253, and Novgorod Chronicle 1073, p. 5.
 Novgorod Chronicle 1069, p. 5.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1078, p. 165.
 Baumgarten (1927), p. 9, citing chron. russes. V 138, VII 361, IX 83, chron. de Danilewicz, p. 116, and Monum. Polon. (Martin Gall) I 419.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1107, p. 204.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1069, p. 150.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1092, p. 179.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1093, p. 179.
 Annalista Saxo 1062.
 Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing Baumgarten, N. de ´Cunégonde d´Orlamünde´, Chronique de la société généalogique russe (Moscow, 1908).
 Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing Chron. russes, I 128, II 8, 82, 292 and 305, VII 67, IX 213.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1102, pp. 199 and 200.
 Annalista Saxo 1062.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1103, p. 200, and 1104, p. 202.
 Russian Primary Chronicle (1973), 1069, p. 150.
 Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1088, MGH SS XIX, p. 588.
 Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing Sommersberg, Silesiacarum Rerum Scriptores T. I, p. 300, Dlugosz Lib. IV, p. 312, and Monum. Polon. II 773, 796 and 874.
From "Dynastic Burials in Kiev before 1240" by Martin Dimnik
Two years later, on 3 October 1078, Izyaslav was killed in battle fighting against Svyatoslav’s son Oleg and the Polovtsy. His body was brought to Kiev and laid to rest in the Tithe Church .
Izyaslav was the first of Yaroslav’s descendants to die in battle and whose body was brought from the field for burial in a church. In retrieving his brother’s body Vsevolod adopted the practice initiated with the burials of SS. Boris and Gleb whose bodies had also been collected from the spots where they had been murdered.
Izyaslav was not entombed in the Cathedral of St. Sophia that his father Yaroslav had built. As we shall see, Vsevolod, who succeeded Izyaslav to the throne of Kiev and was responsible for his burial, was probably reserving that honour for himself.
Even more surprisingly, however, Vsevolod did not inter Izyaslav in the Church of St. Dmitry, in the monastery that he had founded in his district of Kiev . It has been suggested that Izyaslav’s Church of St. Dmitry was built of wood . If this was the case it may explain why Vsevolod did not bury him there but in the Tithe Church which, being built of stone, was a more lasting structure. What is more, since it contained the remains of their grandfather Vladimir the Christianizer of Rus’, it was also the more prestigious edifice.
35 PSRL 1: 201–202; PSRL 2: 193.
36 See under the year 1051, PSRL 1: 159; PSRL 2: 147. Karger points out that the Monastery of St. Dmitry was built by 1062 when Izyaslav appointed Abbot Varlaam to the institution (Karger, Drevniy Kiev, 2, 262). Concerning the location of the monastery, see Tolochko, Kiev i Kievskaya zemlya, 54–55, nr. 23.
37 Aseev, Arkhitektura drevnego Kieva, 93–94.
From the Russian Wikipedia page (English below):
Изясла́в Яросла́вич (в крещении Дими́трий, 1025, Новгород — 3 октября 1078, Нежатина Нива, близ Чернигова) — великий князь киевский в 1054—1068, 1069—1073 и с 1077, новгородский князь 1052—1054.
Родился в 1025 году в Новгороде, где в то время князем был его отец Ярослав Мудрый, а матерью его была жена Ярослава — Ирина (шведская принцесса Ингегерда), он был их вторым сыном после Владимира.
Получил от отца стол в Турове. После смерти в 1052 году старшего брата новгородского князя Владимира, стал новгородским князем и по тогдашним династическим правилам, стал наследником киевского стола (хотя Владимир и оставил сына). 20 февраля 1054 года, после кончины отца, стал великим князем киевским, а в Новгороде оставил князем своего сына Мстислава.
Русь в это времяБо́льшая часть княжения Изяслава характеризуется равным участием в государственном управлении великого князя и его младших братьев — черниговского князя Святослава и переяславского Всеволода. Братья вместе предприняли пересмотр «Русской правды» (приняв так называемую Правду Ярославичей), совместно принимали решения о замещении вакантных княжеских столов, а также учредили отдельные митрополии в своих княжествах. Историки называют эту систему триумвиратом Ярославичей. Вместе они приняли участие в походе на торков. В 1055 году торки совершили набег на Переяславль, и были разбиты, но в этом столкновении Русь впервые столкнулась с половцами хана Болуша, подписав с ним мирный договор о границах, установивший около 50 км нейтральной полосы между Русью и Землёй Половецкой. В 1057 году Русью была оказана Византии военная помощь в Армении против турок-сельджуков. В 1058 году Изяслав завоевал земли балтского племени голядь в бассейне реки Протва. Так же состоялся поход на торков в 1060 году и против Всеслава Чародея, князя Полоцкого в 1067 году.
В 1068 году Изяслав вместе с братьями потерпел поражение на р. Альте и был свергнут начавшимся в Киеве народным восстанием. Руководители восставших освободили из «поруба» (тюрьмы без дверей, выстроенной вокруг заключённого) арестованного ранее Изяславом князя Всеслава Полоцкого и возвели его на киевский престол. Изяслав бежал в Польшу, к своему племяннику князю Болеславу II, и, воспользовавшись помощью польских войск, в 1069 году вернулся, а впереди себя в Киев послал сына Мстислава, где тот учинил расправу над зачинщиками восстания, причём виновников изгнания Изяслава, перебил, либо ослепил.
Второе изгнание. Странствия по Европе
Однако уже к 1073 году (а, всего вероятнее, и несколько раньше) «триумвират» Ярославичей распался; младшие братья Святослав и Всеволод вступили в заговор против Изяслава, которому пришлось помириться со своим прежним оппонентом Всеславом Полоцким. В 1073 Святослав Черниговский захватил Киев, и Изяслав вновь бежал в Польшу, где на сей раз был выдворен польскими властями, заключившими союз со Святославом и Всеволодом. Изгнанник Изяслав направился в Германию к императору Генриху IV и потребовал у него помощи в борьбе против братьев, вручив ему гигантские богатства; однако император, силы которого были отвлечены внутренней борьбой в Германии, также не поддержал его. Изяслав отправил в 1075 году своего сына волынского князя Ярополка в Рим, где тот посетил папу Григория VII, будущего антагониста Генриха IV. Папа ограничился общими увещеваниями в адрес русских князей.
Возвращение и гибель
Конец скитаниям Изяслава положила внезапная кончина Святослава Ярославича 27 декабря 1076 года; ставший его единоличным преемником Всеволод примирился со старшим братом и вернул ему киевское княжение, а сам удалился в Чернигов (1077).
Однако уже в следующем году началась новая междоусобная война. Против дядей — Изяслава и Всеволода — восстали их племянники, сын Святослава князь тмутараканский Олег Святославич, претендовавший на черниговский стол, и князь-изгой Борис Вячеславич. В битве на Нежатиной Ниве под Черниговом 3 октября 1078 года коалиция Ярославичей одержала победу, Олег бежал, а Борис был убит, однако ближе к концу сражения Изяслав также погиб (неприятельский всадник ударил его копьём в плечо). Битва на Нежатиной Ниве и гибель Изяслава и Бориса упоминаются в «Слове о полку Игореве».
Похоронен Изяслав Ярославич в соборе Святой Софии в Киеве.
Браки и дети
Известно, что Изяслав был женат на Гертруде, дочери польского короля Мешко II Ламберта.
1. Ярополк — князь волынский и туровский, известно также, что Гертруда называет Ярополка в своём молитвеннике (так называемый кодекс Гертруды) своим «единственным сыном». По предположению А. В. Назаренко, от него происходят Всеволодковичи — правители Городенского княжества.
Возможно другая неизвестная женщина, возможно — жена Изяслава, была матерью двух его более известных сыновей:
1. Святополк (Святополк II) Изяславич (1050—1113) — князь полоцкий (1069—1071), новгородский (1078—1088), туровский (1088—1093), Великий князь киевский (1093—1113), а его потомки в XII—XIII веках продолжали княжить в родовом Турове.
2. Мстислав — князь новгородский (1054—1067)
Iziyaslav Yaroslavich (baptized as Dimitry, born in Novgorod in 1025, died October 3, 1078 in Nezhatina Niwa, near Chernihiv, Ukraine), was Grand Prince of Kiev 1054-1068, 1069-1073, and in 1077; and Prince of Novgorod in 1052-1054.
Son of Yaroslav
Iziyaslav was born in 1025 in Novgorod, where at the time his father was Prince Yaroslav the Wise and his mother was Irinia (Swedish princess Ingegerd). He was their second son, after Vladimir.
He received from his father a lordship in Turov (southern Belarus). After the death of his brother, Prince Vladimir of Novgorod in 1052, he succeeded him, and by dynastic rules, became heir to the throne of Kiev (even though Vladimir left behind a son) on February 20, 1054. After the death of his father, he was Grand Prince of Kiev, and he left as Prince of Novgorod his son Mstislav.
The Yaroslavich Triumvirate
Most of the reign of Iziyaslav was characterized by equal participation in the governance of the Grand Principality alongside his younger brothers - Prince of Chernigov Svyatoslav and Prince of Pereyaslav Vsevolod. The brothers together revised the legal code "Russkaya Pravda" (renaming it the "Yaroslavichskaya Pravda"), which required the brothers to jointly fill princely seats and set up separate Metropolitans in their principalities.
Historians call this the Yaroslavich Triumvirate. Together, they marched on the Torks after they raided Peryaslavl in 1055. The Torks were defeated, but the clash marked for the first time that the Rus confronted to Polovtsy Khan Bolusha - they forced him to sign a peace treaty to keep him outside of the borders, installing a 50 kilometer wide no-man's land between the neutral Rus and the Polovtsians.
In 1057, the Rus provided Byzantium with military assistance to protect Armenia from the Turkish Seljuks.
In 1058, Iziyaslav conquered the Baltic tribe of the Golyad on the Protva River.
In 1060, they marched against the Torks, and against the wizard Vseslav, Prince of Polotsk, in 1067.
The first overthrow
In 1068, Iziyaslav along with his brothers suffered a defeat in the Alta region, and were overthrown in a rebellion that probably started in a popular uprising in Kiev. Insurgent leaders were freed from dungeons (a cell built around the prisoner without a door), who were arrested earlier by Prince Iziyaslav. Vseslav of Polotsk was elevated to the throne of Kiev. Iziyaslav fled to Poland to the safety of his nephew Prince Boleslaw II. With the assistance of Polish troops, he returned in 1069. He sent ahead of him his son Mstislav, who brutally suppressed the instigators of the uprising, and had those who sent Iziyaslav into exile executed or blinded.
The Second Exile: Wandering through Europe
By 1073 (most likely somewhat earlier), the Yaroslavich Triumvirate disintegrated, as Iziyaslav's younger brothers Svyatoslav and Vsevelod conspired against him after reconciling with Vseslav of Polotsk.
In 1073, Svyatoslav of Chernigov captured Kiev, and Iziyaslav again fled to Poland where this time he was expelled by Polish authorities (who concluded an alliance with Svyatoslav and Vsevolod).
In exile, Iziyaslav went to Germany to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and asked for help to fight against his brothers, along with a large amount of money. The Emperor, however, was facing internal struggles on his own, and could not help.
In 1075, Iziyaslav sent his son, Duke Yaropolk of Volhynia, to Rome where he visited Pope Gregory VII, an antagonist of Emperor Henry IV. The Pope limited himself to general exhortations addressed against the Russian princes.
Return and death
Iziyaslav's wanderings came to an end with the sudden death of Svyatoslav on December 27, 1076, leaving behind Vsevolod as sole successor. The new Grand Prince reconciled with his older brother and gave him back the Kiev principality, while he himself went to Chernigov.
In the next year, however, a civil war started. The son of Prince Svyatoslav, Oleg of Chernigov (claiming the Chernigov throne) and exiled Prince Borish Vyacheslavich, rose up against their uncles. In the battle of Nezhatina Niwa near Chernigov on October 3, 1078,, the Yaroslavich coalition won - Oleg was forced to flee and Boris was killed. However, before the end of the battle, Iziyaslavich also died when an enemy rider hit him with a spear on his shoulder.
Iziyaslav Yaroslavich was buried in the Sophia Cathedral in Kiev.
Marriage and children
It is known that Iziyaslav was married to Gertrude, daughter of Polish King Mieszko II Lambert.
1. Yaropolk, Prince of Volyn and Turovsky. It is known that Gertrude called Yaropolk in his prayer book (the so-called Code Gertrude) as his "only son." Nazarenko assumes that from him came the Vsevolodkovich rulers of the Principality of Hrodno.
Perhaps from another unknown mistress, perhaps wife, Iziyaslav had two more famous sons:
1. Svyatopolk II Iziyaslavich (1050-1113), Prince of Polotsk (1069-1071), Prince of Novgorod (1078-1088), Prince of Turov (1088-1093), and Grand Prince of Kiev (1093-1113). His descendants in the 12th and 13th centuries continued to reign in Turov.
2. Mstislav, Prince of Novgorod (1054-1067).
1.↑ в западноевропейских хрониках — «король Руси по имени Димитрий» лат. rex Ruzorum Demetrio nomine
2.↑ «блудил по чужим землям, имения лишён» — в Повести временных лет
А. Г. Кушнир. Летопись фактов и событий отечественной истории
Изяслав Ярославич, Великий князь киевский
Izyaslav Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev
20 февраля 1054 — 1068
Предшественник: Ярослав Владимирович Мудрый
Преемник: Всеслав Брячиславич
1069 — 1073
Предшественник: Всеслав Брячиславич
Преемник: Святослав Ярославич
1077 — 3 октября 1078
Предшественник: Всеволод Ярославич
Преемник: Всеволод Ярославич
20 February 1054 - 1068
Predecessor: Yaroslav Vladimirovich "Mudriy/The Wise"
Successor: Vseslav Bryachislavich
1069 - 1073
Predecessor: Vseslav Bryachisalvich
Successor: Svyatoslav Yaroslavich
1077 - 3 October 1078
Predecessor: Vsevolod Yaroslavich
Successor: Vsevolod Yaroslavich
Prince of Turov
? — 1052
Title: New creation
Prince of Novgorod
1052 — 1054
Предшественник: Владимир Ярославич
Преемник: Мстислав Изяславич
Predecessor: Vladimir Yaroslavich
Successor: Mstislav Izyaslavich
Рождение: 1025 год - Новгород
Смерть: 3 октября 1078 - Нежатина Нива, близ Чернигова
Birth: 1025 - Novgorod
Death: 3 October 1078 - Nezhatina Niva, near Chernigov
Отец: Ярослав Владимирович Мудрый
Father: Yaroslav Vladimirovich "Mudriy/The Wise"
From the Russian Wikipedia page on the Battle of Nezhatin Niva:
Битва на Нежатиной Ниве — сражение в окрестностях Чернигова в 1078 году, в которой погиб великий князь Изяслав Ярославич.
В 1078 году против сыновей Ярослава Мудрого — киевского князя Изяслава и черниговского Всеволода восстали их племянники — Олег Святославович и Борис Вячеславич. Первый, наняв половцев, захватил у Всеволода Чернигов и принудил его бежать в Киев.
Всеволод обратился за помощью к брату. Четыре князя — Изяслав с сыном Ярополком и Всеволод с сыном Владимиром, собрав войско, осадили Чернигов. Олег и Борис находились в отсутствии, но город оборонялся. Владимир взял приступом внешние укрепления и стеснил осажденных внутри города. Узнав, что племянники идут с войском к Чернигову, Изяслав встретил их. Олег не надеялся победить четырех соединенных князей и советовал брату вступить в мирные переговоры, но Борис ответил ему: «Останься спокойным зрителем моей битвы с ними» и погиб в битве. Изяслав стоял среди пехоты и неприятельский всадник ударил его копьем в плечо, нанеся князю смертельную рану. Олег обратился в бегство и с небольшим числом воинов ушел в Тмутаракань.
Битва описана в «Слове о полку Игореве».
The Battle of Nezhatin Niva was fought in the vicinity of Chernigov in 1078. Grand Prince Izyaslav Yaroslavich died in that battle.
In 1078, the sons of Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev Izyaslav and Prince of Chernigov Vsevolod, faced a rebellion by their nephews, Oleg Svyatoslavovich and Boris Vyacheslavich. The nephews first captured Chernigov from Vsevolod, who fled to Kiev.
Vsevolod turned to his brother for help. Four princes - Izyaslav, his son Yaropolk, Vsevolod, and his son Vladimir - collected an army and laid siege to Chernigov. Oleg and Boris were not in the city, but nonetheless, the city resisted capture. Vladimir invested the city.
Upon learning that his nephew Oleg was marching upon Chernigov, Izyaslav set out to meet him. Oleg did not expect to win against the army of the four princes, and advised his brother to join in peace talks. Boris replied: "Stay calm and watch me fight them." Boris was killed.
Izyaslav stood amongst his infantry as it was attacked, and an enemy rider hit him with a spear in the shoulder, inflicting a mortal wound on the Grand Prince. Oleg fled with a small number of men to Tmutarakan.
The battle was described in "Words about Igor's Campaign" ("Слове о полку Игореве").
Стать в энциклопедии «Слова о полку Игореве» на сервере ФЭБ
Article in the encyclopedia "Words about Igor's Campaign" on the FEB (Fundamental Electronic Library) server:
«Нежатина Нива» в Энциклопедическом словаре Брокгауза и Ефрона
"Nezhatina Niva" in the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron:
From the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron:
Known as the site of a battle between the Russian Princes and the Polovtsy in 1078, during which fell Grand Prince Izyaslav Yaroslavich. It was probably on the Left Bank of the Dnieper River near Gorodets, a port from which the dead Grand Prince was brought back to Kiev by boat.
The city of Nezhatina was supposed to have been standing in the 12th century. The assumption that Nezhatina Neva was on the site of the present city of Nezhyn is not probable.
(No sources cited)
From the entry on "Words about Igor's Campaign" on the FEB (Fundamental Electronic Library) server:
НЕЖАТИНА НИВА — местность в окрестностях Чернигова. В 1078 на Н. Н. произошла битва между Олегом Святославичем и Борисом Вячеславичем, с одной стороны, и коалицией князей, в которую входили киевский князь Изяслав Ярославич, его сын Ярополк, Всеволод Ярославич и сын последнего — Владимир (Мономах). «И поидоста противу, и бывшим им на месте у села на Нежатине ниве, и сступившимся обоим, бысть сеча зла», — сообщает ПВЛ (С. 133). В этой битве погибли Изяслав Ярославич и Борис Вячеславич: «Первое убиша Бориса, сына Вячеславля, похвалившагося велми. Изяславу же стоящю в пешцих, и внезапу приехав един, удари и копьем за плече. Тако убьен бысть Изяслав, сын Ярославль» (Там же).
Битве на Н. Н. посвящен обширный фрагмент С., где, по мнению ряда исследователей, упоминаются все основные участники битвы: Олег Святославич, Борис Вячеславич, Всеволод Ярославич, Владимир Мономах и не названный по имени убитый Изяслав, тело которого, по тексту С. и вопреки летописи, везет в Киев не Ярополк, а др. его сын — Святополк Изяславич: «Ступаетъ (Олег. — М. К.) въ златъ стремень въ градѣ Тьмутороканѣ. То же звонъ слыша давный великый Ярославь сынъ Всеволожь (исправляют на Всеволод. — М. К.), а Владиміръ по вся утра уши закладаше въ Черниговѣ. Бориса же Вячеславлича слава на судъ приведе, и на канину (это слово понимают иногда как название ручья Канин. — М. К.) зелену паполому постла за обиду Олгову, храбра и млада князя. Съ тоя же Каялы Святоплъкь повелѣя отца своего... къ Кіеву» (С. 15—16).
Исследователи пытались определить место этой битвы. Были попытки по созвучию соотносить с Н. Н. г. Нежин (Гербель), но уже Максимович отверг это предположение из-за дальности от Чернигова и приуроченности к Нежину древнего названия Унеж.
В какой-то мере определению места Н. Н. помогает упоминание в С. и в Лавр. лет. под 1152 р. Канин (см. Канина), протекающей близ Чернигова. Кудряшов помещает ее между Свинью и Черниговом, где в 2 км восточнее Чернигова в Десну впадает небольшая
река. Он считает, что по своему геогр. положению Н. Н. тесно связана с Канином летописи: «Судя по Нежинскому перевозу, выводившему из южной части Чернигова через Десну на дорогу к г. Нежину, можно полагать, что Нежатина нива была расположена между Нежинским перевозом и Канином» (Про Игоря Северского... С. 55).
Nezhatina Niva (Fields of Nezhatin) - located in the vicinity of Chernigov. In 1078, there was a battle there between an army under Oleg Svyatoslavich and Boris Vyacheslavich on one side, and a coalition of princes into which entered Izyaslav Yaroslavich Grand Prince of Kiev, his son Yaropolk, Vsevolod Yaroslavich, and lastly Vladimir Monomakh.
"And the opposing sides met on a field at a village near Nezhatin, and both sides inflicted great harm on the other" - informs the PVL (Primary Chronicle, C. 133). In this fight was lost Izyaslav Yaroslavich and Borish Vyacheslavich: "The first to die was Boris, son of Vyacheslav. Izyaslav stood his ground without waivering, and took a spear in his shoulder. Thus died Izyaslav, son of Yaroslavl" (at the same location).
Continuing to fight were significant forces, in the opinion of some researchers, basic participants of which included: Oleg Svyatoslavich, Boris Vyacheslavich, Vsevolod Yaroslavich, and Vladimir Monomakh, and the unnamed person who killed Izyaslav, whose body, according to texts that contradict the annals, was not carried to Kiev by Yaropolk and others, but rather by Svyatopolk Izyaslavich, his son. (Text in Slavonic or Old Russian follows.)
Researchers have tried to define the location of the fight. There were attempts to correlate this with the modern location of Nezhin (Gerbel), but already Maximovich has refuted this assumption because of the distance from Chernigov and the reference to Nezhin by an earlier name of Unezh.
In order to define the location of N.N., it helps to understand the C. and the lavr. let. before 1152 river Kanin (see Kanin), which flows near Chernigov. Kudryashov places it between Svinya and Chernigov, 2 kilometers east of Chernigov where the small river Desna runs. He considers that this geographical position is closely related to the Kanin annals: "By Nezhin, determined to be to the south of Chernigov over the Desna on a road to Nezhin, it is possible to imagine that the Nezhatin field was located between Nezhin and Kanin. (From Igor Seversky C. 55).
(Ben M. Angel notes: A close inspection by Google Earth shows none of these locations as I've translated them. Nizhyn/Nezhin is located 65 kilometers southeast of Chernihiv/Chernigov. The Desna flows about 2-3 kilometers from Chernihiv town center - it acts as a city border for part of its stretch. The closest towns east of Chernihiv are Enkiv, Anysiv, and Pidhirne, all located about 5-8 kilometers away.)
Максимович М. А. Замечания на Песнь о полку Игореве в стихотворном переводе г. Гербеля // Москв. 1855.
Maximovich M. A. Zamechaniya on Pech about Igor's Campaign in poetic translation Gerbelya/Moscow 1855.
Ч. 2, кн. 2. С. 130—131;
Греков Б. Д. Киевская Русь. (Grekov B.D., Kievan Rus)
М., 1944. С. 290—293;
Соловьев. Полит. кругозор.
Solovyev. Political outlook.
Кудряшов К. В. 1) Половецкая степь.
Kudryashov K.V. 1) The Polovetskaya steppe.
М., 1948. С. 77—78; 2)
Про Игоря Северского, про землю Русскую.
About Igor Severskiy, about the Russian land.
М., 1959. С. 53—56;
Лихачев. Ист. и полит. кругозор. (Likhachev. Historical and Political Outlook) С. 12—13, 26
(то же: Лихачев. «Слово» и культура/also Likhachev. The "word" and culture. С. 86—87, 107);
Дмитриев Л. А. [Комм.] // Слово — 1952.
Dmitriyev L.A. (comm.) // "Word" - 1952.
Мещерский Н. А., Бурыкин А. А. [Комм.] // Слово — 1985.
Meschersky N. A., Burykin A.A. (comm.) // "Word" - 1985.
М. Д. Каган
Regarding the location of Nezhatin Niva:
Телефонный код: 04631
Районный центр Черниговской области, находится на реке Осетр. Город впервые упоминался в летописных источниках в 1147 г. под именем Унеж. Название Унежа происходит от словосочетания "нежатина нива", именно здесь в 1078 году состоялась битва русских князей и половецких орд, в которой пал великий князь Изяслав Ярославович. В 13 столетии город был разорен татарскими ордами.
Nizhin: A district center in the Chernihiv Oblast, located on the Osetr River. The city was first mentioned in the Chronicles in 1147 under the name Unezh. The title "Unezha" comes from the phrase "Nezhatina Niva", (Ben notes: U Nezha, or "By Nezha") where in 1078 was fought a battle between the Russian princes and the Polovtsian hordes, during which fell Grand Prince Izyaslav Yaroslavich. In the 13th century, the city was ravaged by Tatar hordes.
Ben M. Angel notes: Another source says that it was near the town of Gorodets on the Left Bank of the Dnieper River, as it was from this port that the body of Izyaslav was transported back to Kiev.
From the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies), Volume 2 (1989):
Iziaslav Yaroslavych [Iz'jaslav Jaroslavyč], b 1024, d 3 October 1078. Grand prince of Kyiv intermittently from 1054 to 1078; the eldest son of Yaroslav the Wise.
Before inheriting the throne of Kyiv from his father, Iziaslav Yaroslavych ruled Turiv. In the 1060s he brought most of the Rus’ territories west of the Dnieper River under his control.
For refusing them arms to fight invading Cumans, the inhabitants of Kyiv revolted in 1068 (see Kyiv Uprising of 1068–9). He fled to Poland and with the aid of his brother-in-law and cousin, Bolesław II the Bold, took Kyiv a year later from Vseslav Briachislavich of Polatsk.
When his brothers Sviatoslav II Yaroslavych and Vsevolod Yaroslavych of Chernihiv marched on Kyiv in 1073, its inhabitants refused to support Iziaslav Yaroslavych and he was forced to flee abroad. He sought help in 1075 from Emperor Henry IV of Germany and Pope Gregory VII, but his efforts were in vain.
In 1077, after Sviatoslav II Yaroslavych, who ruled Kyiv, died and was succeeded by Vsevolod Yaroslavych, Iziaslav Yaroslavych marched on Kyiv with Polish troops. Vsevolod Yaroslavych renounced his throne and retired to Chernihiv. Iziaslav Yaroslavych died in battle helping Vsevolod Yaroslavych recapture Chernihiv from Sviatoslav II Yaroslavych's son Oleh (Mykhail) Sviatoslavych and his Cuman allies.
(No sources cited.)
From the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies):
Kyiv Uprising of 1068–9. A popular uprising that took place in Kyiv after the defeat of the forces of Grand Prince Iziaslav Yaroslavych of Kyiv and his brothers Sviatoslav II Yaroslavych of Chernihiv and Vsevolod Yaroslavych of Pereiaslav by the Cumans at the Alta River in September 1068.
When Kyiv's commoners asked Iziaslav Yaroslavych to give them horses and arms to repel the Cumans, he refused, fearing the consequences of arming the population. The incensed populace turned against Kyiv's patricians, freed the inmates of Kyiv's prisons, including Prince Vseslav Briacheslavych of Polatsk, whom Iziaslav Yaroslavych had imprisoned in 1067, and elected Vseslav as their ruler. Iziaslav Yaroslavych's palace was plundered and he was forced to flee to Poland.
In April 1069 he returned with the forces of his nephew Prince Bolesław II the Bold of Cracow. Vseslav fled to Polatsk, and Iziaslav Yaroslavych and his son Mstyslav Iziaslavych brutally suppressed their opponents.
(No sources cited.)
From the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies), Volume 5 (1993) page on Vsevolod:
Fighting between the princes started in 1073, when Vsevolod rose up against Iziaslav at Sviatoslav’s bidding. Iziaslav then fled abroad, Sviatoslav emerged as the grand prince of Kyiv, and Vsevolod took the throne of Chernihiv.
Upon Sviatoslav's death in 1077, Iziaslav returned to Kyiv, but he died the following year while helping Vsevolod to defend Chernihiv from their nephew, Oleh (Mykhail) Sviatoslavych. Vsevolod Yaroslavych then ascended the Kyivan throne (1078) and placed his own son, Volodymyr Monomakh, in Chernihiv.
(No sources cited.)
From the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies):
Oleh (Mykhail) Sviatoslavych [Svjatoslavyč], b ca 1050 [in Chernihiv?], d 6 or 24 August 1115 in Novhorod-Siverskyi. Son of Sviatoslav II Yaroslavych and father of Vsevolod Olhovych and Ihor Olhovych.
After his father's death in 1076, Oleh inherited Chernihiv, but the new grand prince, Oleh's uncle Iziaslav Yaroslavych, gave Chernihiv to another uncle, Vsevolod Yaroslavych. Instead Oleh ruled Volodymyr-Volynskyi, but he was driven out in 1078 by Iziaslav and sought refuge with his brother, Roman (d 1079), in Tmutorokan.
In 1078 Oleh and his cousin Borys Viacheslavych tried, with Cuman help, to regain his patrimony in Chernihiv, but they were defeated by Iziaslav and Vsevolod's army at Nezhatyna Nyva. Oleh returned to Tmutorokan, where he was captured by the Khazars in 1079 and handed over to the Byzantines. He lived in exile on Rhodes until 1083, when he returned to Tmutorokan and regained it from his cousin Davyd Ihorovych.
(No sources cited.)
From the English Wikipedia page on Iziaslav I of Kiev (some parts contradict the Russian page - these parts may be inaccurate):
Iziaslav Yaroslavich (1024-3 October 1078), Kniaz' (Prince of Turov), Veliki Kniaz (the Grand Prince) of Kiev (from 1054).
Iziaslav was the oldest son of Yaroslav I the Wise by his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir.
Iziaslav succeeded his father, after Yaroslav's oldest child, Valdimir (the only child by Yaroslav's first wife), had predeceased his father. Iziaslav was one of the authors of "Pravda Yaroslavichiv" - a part of the first legal code of Rus, called Ruska Pravda.
He is also credited with the foundation of the Kiev Pechersk Monastery. Prince Iziaslav I of Kiev ceded the whole mountain to Antonite monks who founded a monastery built by architects from Constantinople.
According to the Primary Chronicle, in the early 11th century, Antony, a Greek Orthodox monk from Esphigmenon monastery on Mount Athos, originally from Liubech of the Principality of Chernigov, returned to Rus' and settled in Kiev as a missionary of the monastic tradition to Kievan Rus'. He chose a cave at the Berestov Mount that overlooked the Dnieper River and a community of disciples soon grew.
In 1043 his father Veliki Kniaz (Grand Prince) Yaroslav made an agreement with King Casimir I of Poland that recognized Cherven as part of Kiev. The agreement was sealed with a double marriage—Casimir to Dobronega, Yaroslav's sister; and Iziaslav to Gertrude, Casimir's sister. From this marriage were born three children: Iziaslav's son Yaropolk, Mstislav and Sviatopolk.
As a result of the popular uprising in 1068, Iziaslav was deposed and fled to Poland. In 1069 he retook Kiev with the help of the Polish army; however, he was ousted again by his brothers in 1073. Iziaslav turned to the German emperor, the Polish king and the Pope for help on several occasions.
In 1076 he succeeded in retaking Kiev once again, but soon died in an internecine war against Princes Oleg Sviatoslavich and Boris Vyacheslavich.
Martin, Janet. Medieval Russia, 980-1584 (Cambridge Medieval Textbooks)
Holy Dormition Kiev-Pechersk Lavra - Official site (Russian)
Iziaslav I Yaroslavich
Born: 1024 Died: 1078
Prince of Turov reestablished 1042-1078
Succeeded by Yaropolk Izyaslavich
Grand Prince of Kiev 1054-1073
Preceded by Yaroslav I
Succeeded by Sviatoslav II
Izjaslav I (1024–lokakuu 1078) oli Kiovan Venäjän ruhtinas. Lisäksi hänellä oli hallinnassaan pieniä ruhtinaskuntia. Izjaslav nousi valtaan vuonna 1054 Jaroslav I Viisaan jälkeen. Hän hallitsi Kiovaa 19 vuotta, kunnes vuonna 1073 luopui vallasta. Izjaslav nousi uudelleen valtaan kolme vuotta myöhemmin ja hallitsi maata vuoteen 1078, jolloin kuoli sodassa. Vuosina 1068–1069 Izjaslavin kanssahallitsijana oli Vsevlav.
Storfyrste Isjaslav I av Kiev. Født 1025. Død 03.10.1078. Han var sønn av Storfyrste Jaroslav I den Vise av Novgorod. Født omkring 988. Død 20.02.1054 i Vyshorod, og Fyrstinne Ingegjerd Olavsdatter. Død 10.02.1050 i Vyšhorod ved Kiev.
Isjaslav giftet seg omkring 1043 med Gjertrud av Polen. Født omkring 1025. Død 04.01.1107. De hadde sønnen, Storfyrste Sviatopolk II Michel av Novgorod. Født 1050. Død 16.04.1113.
Isjaslav var Storfyrste av Kiev 1054 - 1068, 1069 - 1073 og 1076 - 1078.
Isjaslav levde som landflyktig i Polen i 1068 - 69 og 1073 - 94.
Han ble drept i 1078. 1)
1). N. de Baumgarten: Généalogie et Mariage occidenteaux des Rurikides Russes du Xe au XIII Siècle. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 186. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 18, 90.
From the English Wikipedia page on Anthony of Kiev (covering some of the issues involving Izyaslav and the emerging Pecherska Lavra):
Anthony of Kiev (c. 983-1073) was a monk and the founder of the monastic tradition in the Kievan Rus'. Also called Anthony of the Caves (Russian: Антоний Печерский, Ukrainian: Антоній Печерський) he, together with Theodosius of Kiev, co-founded Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Kiev Monastery of the Caves).
St. Anthony is venerated as a saint and the founder of monasticism in Rus. His feast day falls on July 10. Since the Russian Orthodox Church follows the Julian Calendar, the day on which his feast is celebrated is currently July 23 on the modern Gregorian Calendar. His relics have never been found.
He was born in Lyubech in Chernigov Principality and was baptized with the name "Antipas". He was drawn to the spiritual life from an early age and, when he was of age, left for the Greek Orthodox Esphigmenou Monastery on Mount Athos to live as a hermit. He lived in a secluded cave there overlooking the sea, which is still shown to visitors. In circa 1011, the abbot gave Anthony the job of expanding monasticism in his native Kiev, which had only recently begun its conversion to Christianity.
Return to Kiev
Anthony returned to Kiev, and founded several monasteries on the Greek model on the order of local princes. These monasteries were not as austere as Anthony was used to from his time on Mount Athos. He instead chose to live in a small four-yard cave which had been dug by the presbyter Hilarion.
In 1015, his peaceful austerity was interrupted by the death of Vladimir I of Kiev, and the subsequent fratricidal war for the throne between Vladimir's sons Yaroslav and Sviatopolk, and Anthony returned to Mount Athos. When the conflict ended, the abbot sent Anthony back to Kiev, prophesying that many monks would join him on his return.
Establishment of Kiev Pechersk Lavra
On his return, Anthony found a small 4-yard cave which Hilarion had dug before his elevation as the first native Metropolitan of Kiev. Anthony became well known in the area for his strict asceticism. He ate rye bread every other day and drank only a little water. His fame soon spread beyond Kiev, and several people began to ask for his spiritual guidance or blessing. Soon, some people even offered to join him. Eventually, Anthony accepted the company of a few of them. The first was a priest named Nikon. The second was Theodosius of Kiev.
The new monastery enjoyed royal favor almost from the beginning, although there were occasional problems. When Iziaslav I of Kiev demanded that the son of a wealthy boyar and one of his own retainers be told to leave the monastery, Nikon said he could not take soldiers away from the King of Heaven. This did nothing to placate Iziaslav's anger, and Anthony decided that it might be expedient for him to leave. Anthony returned after Iziaslav's wife requested his return.
Shortly thereafter Anthony had gained twelve disciples. Anthony, devoted to the model of the solitary hermit set by his namesake Anthony the Great, left his cave for a nearby mountain so he could continue to live the solitary life. There he dug another cave for himself and lived in seclusion there. This cave became the first of what would later be known as the Far Caves.
In time, the first official abbot of the monastery, Barlaam of Kiev, was called by Iziaslav to head a new monastery, St. Demetrios, which had been built at the gates of the city. The monks requested Anthony to name the replacement, and he named Theodosius.
As the number of monks grew and crowding became a problem, Anthony requested that Iziaslav give them the hill in which the caves were located. He did so, and the monks built a wooden church and some cells there, encircling the area with a wooden fence. Theodosius continued to consult Anthony in the guidance of the community and, as the monastery grew, so did Anthony's reputation.
Exile and return
When Iziaslav and his brothers were facing a popular uprising involving the Cumans, they came to Anthony for his blessing. They did not get it. Anthony foretold that because of their sins they would be defeated, and that the brothers would be buried in a church they would build. Shortly thereafter Iziaslav left because of the rebellion. He suspected Anthony of sympathizing with the opposition and arranged to banish Anthony upon his return. Before he could do so, Iziaslav's brother, Sviatoslav, arranged for Anthony to be secretly taken to Chernigov. Anthony dug himself a cave there. The Eletsky Monastery there is said by some to be built on the site of Anthony's cave. Eventually Iziaslav was again reconciled to Anthony and asked that he return to Kiev.
On his return, Anthony and Theodosius decided to build a larger stone church to accommodate the ever increasing number of monks. Anthony himself did not live to see the church completed. He died in 1073, shortly after blessing the foundation of the new church, at 90 years old. Shortly before his death he called the monks together and consoled them about his coming death. He also asked them that his remains be hidden away forever. The monks carried out his request. He was reportedly buried in his cave, but no relics have ever been found. Many however have subsequently come to the cave to pray and many of them have reported being healed there.
Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-140-51312-4.
Anthony of Kiev article in Encyclopædia Britannica
The Fathers of Russian Monasticism at roca.com
Saint Anthony of Pechersk on the official Kiev Caves Lavra Website (English)
(Outdated link): http://www.lavra.kiev.ua/en/main.php?t=nearcaves
Venerable Anthony of the Kiev Far Caves, Founder of Monasticism in Russia Orthodox icon and synaxarion
From the Kievan Rus database maintained by Bonnie Smyre:
Monastery: Monastery of the Caves
Relations with princes:
Regular intercourse was established between the Monastery and the prince's court.
From the moment of its foundation the monastery supported Yaroslav's efforts to secure the independence of the Church.
Izyaslav Yaroslavich was wont to come to the monastery with his men-at-arms to ask Anthony for his prayers and blessing before taking any steps of political importance.
The monastery and probably Anthony himself participated in the uprising of of the people of Kiev against Izyaslav Yaroslavich in 1068.
When Izyaslav, with the help of Polish feudal lords, regained the Kiev throne, Anthony, fearing the prince's wrath, was compelled to leave the city by night. He was taken away by Sviatoslav Yaroslavich.
Feodosij likewise did not remain passive, although his attitude towards Izyaslav Yaroslavich was different. He recognized Izyaslav, but he was uneasy about Izyaslav's attraction to Catholicism and Poland.
Feodosij was a very staunch defender of Izyaslav's rights to the Kiev throne when it was occupied by his brother Sviatoslav. Relations between Feodosij and the court were almost severed.
Sviatoslav was on the point of imprisoning Feodosij. Feodosij was saved by the intervention of the notables and the brethren. Feodosij made his peace with Sviatoslav and allowed him to be mentioned in the church services, but only after Izyaslav.
12th Century: The death of Gleb Vseslavich's widow was marked, the chronicle reveals, by an enormous contribution of land and money to Pechera Monastery. Her father, Yaropolk Izyaslavich, who died in 1087, gave the monastery the volosts of Nebl, Derevskaya and Lutsk, and those "near Kiev."
Unsure why this is included, but in case it is the result of a mistaken merge, the material is saved (Izyaslav is not Vladislav i Herman):
Född omkring 1043. Död 1102-06-04. Vladislav I Herman, född cirka 1043 i Polen, död 4 juni 1102, kung av Polen. Son till Kasimir I av Polen och Dobronega av Kiev. Gift 1080 med Judyta av Böhmen Barn Boleslav III av Polen, född 1085-08-20. Dotter. G m hertig Jaroslaw I Swjatopolkowitsch. Agnes, född 1090 cirka Abbedissa i Gandersheim.
Władysław I Herman
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born c. 1044
Died June 4, 1102 [aged 58]
Place of death Płock, Poland
Buried Masovian Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral, Płock, Poland
Predecessor Bolesław II the Bold
Successor Bolesław III Wrymouth
Wives Przecława (Prawdzic?)
Judith of Bohemia
Judith of Swabia
Offspring With Przecława:
With Judith of Bohemia:
Bolesław III Wrymouth
With Judith of Swabia:
Sophia, Princess of Vladimir-Volynia
Agnes, Abbess of Gandersheim and Quedlinburg
Adelaide, Countess of Vohburg
A daughter, Polish Lady
Royal House Piast
Father Casimir I the Restorer
Mother Maria Dobroniega of Kiev
From the English Wikipedia page on Wladyslaw I Herman (Forrás / Source):
Władysław I Herman (b. ca. 1044 - d. 4 June 1102), was a Duke of Poland from 1079 until his death.
He was the second son of Casimir I the Restorer by his wife Maria Dobroniega, daughter of Vladimir the Great, Grand Duke of Kiev.
As the second son, Władysław was not destined for the throne. However, because of the flight from Poland of his older brother Bolesław II the Bold in 1079, he was elevated to the rank of Duke of Poland.
Opinions vary on whether Władysław played an active role in the plot to depose his brother or whether he was handed the authority simply because he was the most proper person, being the next in line in the absence of the king and his son Mieszko Bolesławowic.
Marriages and Issue
Before Władysław took the title of Duke of Poland, probably during the 1070s, he had a relationship with certain Przecława, whose exact origins are unknown, although some sources stated that she belonged to the Prawdzic clan. Her status is also a matter of dispute among the historians: some believed that she only was Władysław's mistress and others asserted that she was his wife, but this union was performed under pagan rituals and in consequence not recognized by the Church as a valid marriage.
By 1080, one year after Władysław ascended to the Polish throne, Przecława either died or was sent away; it's believed by some sources that after she was dismissed by the Duke, Przecława took the veil under the name of Christina (Polish: Krystyna) and died around 1092. This union produced a son, Zbigniew (b. ca. 1070/73 - d. ca. 1112/14), who was considered illegitimate.
In 1080 Władysław married firstly with Judith (b. ca. 1056 - d. 25 December 1086), daughter of Duke (and since 1085 King) Vratislaus II of Bohemia. They had one son:
-1. Bolesław III Wrymouth (b. 20 August 1086 – d. 28 October 1138).
In 1089 Władysław married secondly with Judith (b. ca. 1054 - d. 14 March ca. 1105), daughter of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor and widow of King Solomon of Hungary. They had four daughters:
-1. Sophia (b. ca. 1089 - d. bef. 12 May 1112), married bef. 1108 to Yaroslav I, Prince of Vladimir-Volynia.
-2. Agnes (b. ca. 1090 - d. 29 December 1127), Abbess of Quedlinburg (1110) and Gandersheim (1111).
-3. Adelaide (b. ca. 1091 - d. 25/26 March 1127), married bef. 1118 to Dietrich III, Count of Vohburg and Margrave of the Northern March.
-4. A daughter (b. ca. 1092 - d. bef. 1111), married ca. 1111 with a Polish lord.
From Darryl Lundy's Peerage page on Wladislaw I Herman (Forrás):
Wladislaw I Herman, Duke of Poland (1)
M, #114577, b. 1043, d. 1102
Last Edited=30 Jul 2005
Wladislaw I Herman, Duke of Poland was born in 1043. (1) He was the son of Casimir I, Duke of Poland and Dobronega Maria of Kiev. (1) He married, firstly, Judith of Bohemia, daughter of Vladislav I, Duke of Bohemia, circa 1080. (1) He married, secondly, Judith Salian, daughter of Heinrich III, Holy Roman Emperor and Agnes de Poitou, circa 1089. (1) He died in 1102. (19
Wladislaw I Herman, Duke of Poland was a member of the House of Piast. (2) He succeeded to the title of Duke of Poland in 1080. (1)
Children of Wladislaw I Herman, Duke of Poland and Judith of Bohemia
-1. Zbigniew, Duke of Poland d. 1107 (2)
-2. Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland+ b. 1085, d. 1138 (1)
-------------------- -------------------- Prince of Turov, Prince of Novgorod 1052-54, Great Prince of Kiev 1054-68 + 1069-73 + 1077-78. Killed in battle
Izyaslav Yaroslavich, князь's Timeline
Вели́кий Но́вгород (Great Novgorod), Новгородская земля (Land of Novgorod), Ки́евская русь (Kievan Rus, within present Russia)
Krakow, Krakow, Poland
Of, Vladimir Volynskij, Volyn, Ukraine
Vladimir-Volynsk (Ukraine) Russia
November 8, 1050
Kiev, Kiev, Ukraine
Of, Turov, Polbesye, Byelorussia
October 3, 1078
Чернигов (Chernigov/Chernihiv), Черниговское княжество (Principality of Chernigov), Ки́евская русь (Kievan Rus, within present Ukraine)