About Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr.
Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr. (June 26, 1914 – March 31, 1997) was an American theoretical physicist and astronomer best known for his research in star formation, plasma physics, and in 1946, for conceiving the idea of telescopes operating in outer space. Spitzer invented the stellarator plasma device and is the namesake of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.
Early life and education
Spitzer was born in Toledo, Ohio, and graduated from Scott High School. He then attended Phillips Academy in 1929 and went on to Yale College, where he graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1935 and was a member of Skull and Bones. During a year of study at Cambridge University, he was influenced by Arthur Eddington and the young Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. Returning to the U.S., Spitzer earned his MA from Princeton University in 1937 and his PhD in 1939, under the direction of Henry Norris Russell.
Spitzer's brief time as a faculty member at Yale was interrupted by his wartime work on the development of sonar. In 1947, at the age of 33, he succeeded Russell as director of Princeton University Observatory, an institution that, virtually jointly with his contemporary Martin Schwarzschild, he continued to head until 1979.
Spitzer's research centered on the interstellar medium, to which he brought a deep understanding of plasma physics. In the 1930s and 1940s, he was among the first to recognize star formation as an ongoing contemporary process. His monographs, "Diffuse Matter in Space" (1968) and "Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium" (1978) consolidated decades of work, and themselves became the standard texts for some decades more.
Spitzer was the founding director of Project Matterhorn, Princeton University's pioneering program in controlled thermonuclear research, renamed in 1961 as Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. He was an early proponent of space optical astronomy in general, and in particular of the project that became Hubble Space Telescope.
Spitzer died suddenly on March 31, 1997 after having completed a regular working day at Princeton University. He was survived by wife Doreen Canaday Spitzer, four children, and ten grandchildren. Among Spitzer's four children is neurobiologist Nicholas C. Spitzer, who is currently the professor and vice chair in neurobiology at UC San Diego.
Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1953)
Henry Norris Russell Lectureship (1953)
Bruce Medal (1973)
Henry Draper Medal of the National Academy of Sciences (1974)
James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics (1975)
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1978)
National Medal of Science (1979)
Franklin Medal (1980)
Prix Jules Janssen of the French Astronomical Society (1980)
Crafoord Prize (1985)
Named after him:
Asteroid 2160 Spitzer
Spitzer Space Telescope
Lyman Spitzer Library in Davenport College, Yale University
Lyman Spitzer Building at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in Princeton, NJ
Answer to the final question on NTN Buzztime's Showdown on September 16, 2008.