Maȟpíya Lúta ., Chief of the Oglala Lakota (1822 - 1909) MP

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Nicknames: "Red Cloud"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: North Platte, NE, USA
Death: Died in Shannon, South Dakota, USA
Occupation: Chief of the Oglala Lakota Sioux
Managed by: Catherine "Erin" Spiceland
Last Updated:

About Maȟpíya Lúta ., Chief of the Oglala Lakota

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Birth: 1822 Lincoln County Nebraska, USA

Death: Dec. 10, 1909 Pine Ridge Shannon County South Dakota, USA

Red Cloud, chief of the Oglala Lakota, for years frustrated efforts of the United States government to open up the West. From 1859 on he and his warriors, living near Fort Laramie, Wyoming attacked whites encroaching on Indian Territory along the North Platte River. By 1865 he was effectively discouraging white intrusion by way of the Bozeman trail. Red Cloud led the 1866 massacre of 80 troops from Fort Kearney, one of the posts built to protect the trail, an event that led to the abandonment of the trail by the whites in 1868. A peace treaty, which Red Cloud signed, seems to have been a turning point for the war chief. After visiting Washington, D.C., he agreed to settle down as a reservation chief. According to Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, he sold out to the whites, permitting corrupt and inadequate conditions on Sioux reservations. He lost his status as head chief in 1881. After the Wounded Knee massacre (1890) he lived quietly on Pine Ridge Reservation.


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  • Chief Red Cloud*


Burial: Red Cloud Cemetery Pine Ridge Shannon County South Dakota, USA

Red Cloud, Webster County, Nebraska

The region of present-day Red Cloud was intermittently occupied and used as hunting grounds by the Pawnees until 1833. In that year, a treaty was signed in which the Pawnees surrendered their lands south of the Platte River. According to George Hyde, it is likely that the Pawnees did not realize that they were thereby giving up their lands, and that they were led to believe that they were only granting the Delawares and other relocated tribes permission to hunt in the area.

In 1870, the area that is now Webster County was opened to homesteaders. In that year, Silas Garber and other settlers filed claims along Crooked Creek, just east of the present-day city. In 1871, the town, named after the renowned Oglala Lakota leader Red Cloud, was voted county seat of the newly formed county. The city was platted in 1872.

The author Willa Cather lived in Red Cloud for several years with her family, starting in 1884 at age nine. She used the town as inspiration for several in her novels, including Black Hawk in My Ántonia. Several 19th-century buildings described in her books are included in the Willa Cather Historic District, the largest district dedicated to an author that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Her family house is part of the district.

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Maȟpíya Lúta Red Cloud's Timeline

1822
1822
North Platte, NE, USA
1850
1850
Age 28
Lakota Territory, USA
1852
1852
Age 30
1909
December 10, 1909
Age 87
Shannon, South Dakota, USA
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Pine Ridge Reservation, Shannon, South Dakota, USA