'Abd al-'Aziz Musa al-Bekir, 1st Wali of al-Andalus (c.680 - 717)

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Nicknames: "عبد العزيز بن موسى"
Birthplace: Egypt
Death: Died in Egypt
Cause of death: Killed
Managed by: Juan Carlos Griffin Albarracin
Last Updated:

About 'Abd al-'Aziz Musa al-Bekir, 1st Wali of al-Andalus

Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusair (en árabe, عبد العزيز بن موسى) fue el primer valí de Al-Ándalus, gobernando entre los años 714 al 716. Residió en Ishbiliya (Sevilla).

Era hijo del Musa ibn Nusair, quien le había encargado diversas misiones en el Magreb. Cuando en 714, el padre marchó a Damasco al ser llamado por el Califa Walid I, designó a su hijo Abd al-Aziz como gobernador de Al-Ándalus. Se casó con Egilona, viuda de Rodrigo para intentar atraer a la nobleza visigoda.

Su figura y actuación, a pesar de su breve mandato, ha sido vista de forma muy diferente por la historiografía. Para unos, fue un modelo de gobernante; para otros, todo lo contrario, y lo acusan de apóstasta y de relbe, con lo que justifican su asesinato.

Musa le puso como asesor a Habib ibn Abi 'Ubayda al-Fihri, una persona de gran prestigio entre el yund árabe que permaneció en Al-Ándalus. Como gobernante, Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa, trató de completar y consolidar la política iniciada por su padre de afianzar el dominio musulmán en la Península Ibérica. Para ello siempre se encontró con la dificultad de la escasez de efectivos militares, por lo que tuvo que traer nuevos contingentes a los que prometió dar tierras.

Dicha política de reclutamiento tuvo como consecuencia diversas tensiones económicas y sociales entre los primeros conquistadores que acompañaron a Musa a la Península y que allí se quedaron, pues debían repartir sus ganancias y bienes con los recién llegados. En su mayoría, los nuevos efectivos eran bereberes o mawali (clientes o libertos omeyas). Estos conflictos han sido vistos como la causa del asesinato de Abd al-Aziz, que fue promovido por el yund árabe dirigido por su cabecilla Habib ibn Abi 'Ubayda al-Fihri, el asesor puesto por su padre.

A finales de 714, al conocerse la renuncia a la corona del rey Agila II, los visigodos aliados se rebelaron y proclamaron rey a Ardón. Abd al-Aziz intentó que obedecieran al Califa en 715, pero al no conseguirlo decidió conquistar militarmente la Tarraconense nororiental y la Septimania. Pero antes de conseguir reunir el ejército que tenía que marchar a la zona fue asesinado en la primavera de 716. Fuentes cristianas achacan su muerte a una orden directa del califa de Damasco, Solimán, al ser denunciado por haberse convertido al cristianismo a instancias de su esposa.

Para conseguir más fácilmente el dominio musulmán en la Península, Abd-al-Aziz siguió una política de pactos o tratados, mediante capitulaciones, con los mandatarios visigodos. Esta política fue la más frecuente y generalizada. Uno de los tratados mejor documentados -recogido por diversos autores como al-Dabbi, al-Razi, al-'Udri y al-Himyari- fue el que hizo (abril de 713) con Teodomiro, mandatario visigodo de la zona suroriental de la Península -Orihuela, Mula, Lorca, Alicante, Elche, Balantala y Ello-. En él y entre otras catorce importantes y significativas disposiciones, se permitía a Teodomiro poder seguir gobernando en dicha zona tras la conquista.

Tras su asesinato, fue sucedido interinamente por Ayyub Habib al-Lajmi.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr (عبد العزيز بن موسى) was the first governor of Al-Andalus, in modern-day Spain and Portugual.[1] He was the son of Musa ibn Nusayr, the governor of Ifriqiya. ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr had a long history of political and military involvement along with his father.

Contents [hide]

1 Origins of Power

2 Conquest and reign of Spain

3 Personal life and influences

4 Assassination and Al-Andalus after

5 References


[edit] Origins of Power

‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr accompanied his father in 712 to aid the Berber general, Tariq, in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.[2] It has been speculated that Musa ibn Nusayr and his son, both Arabs, did not want the glory of conquest to be claimed by a Berber.[3] The conquest of the area was progressing smoothly under Tariq, Musa ibn Nusayr and ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr. With the success of the conquest apparent, Tariq and Musa ibn Nusayr were called back to Syria by the Umayyad caliph, Sulayman, in 714. ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr was given the governorship of Al-Andalus by his father.[4] Musa ibn Nusayr, upon his return to Damascus, fell into disfavor with the caliph and ended his days in Medina as an “old and broken man.”[5] ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr outlived his son, ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa.

[edit] Conquest and reign of Spain

‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr chose the town of Seville as his capital city.[6] Seville, located in the modern day province of Andalucía in southern Spain on the Guadalquivir River.[7] Under ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr’s leadership after the departure of his father and Tariq, Islamic power, in what came to be known as Al-Andalus, expanded into modern day Portugal in the west and the sub-Pyrenean regions in the north.[8] In one of the newly conquered lands, ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr signed a treaty with the Gothic lord of Murcia, Theodemir. His name in Arabic is Tudmir. The treaty, known as the Treaty of Tudmir, gave Visigothic Christians the right to continue to practice their religion, as long as they paid a special tax and remained loyal to their Muslim overlords.[9]

[edit] Personal life and influences

‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr remained in power and even married the widow Egilon, the wife of the last Visigothic king, Roderic. Egilon took the name Umm ‘Asim upon her marriage and conversion to Islam.[9] In his marriage to Egilon, ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr set a trend of espousing local Visigothic women, due to the lack of Arab and Berber women. This lack was because Arab and Berber women did not accompany the army into Al-Andalus at the beginning of the conquest of Spain. The practice of taking conquered women as wives almost became a general rule for conquering Muslim leaders.[10] Egilon’s influence over ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr was not common. Some felt that she held too much influence and sway over ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr.[11] Egilon coaxed ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr to wear a crown, and lower entrance ways to promote veneration of him and people bowing to him. Egilon even had ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr make the entrance to his audience chamber lower, so that upon entering, he would be bowing to her. These links to the Visigothic royalty and the influence of Egilon led to the misconception and rumors that ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr had converted to Christianity. These rumors even reached the Umayyad Caliph Sulaymān in Damascus. Troubled by these rumors, the caliph ordered ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr to be killed. [12]

[edit] Assassination and Al-Andalus after

Sources differ on the year, but ‘Abd al-Aziz Ibn Musa ibn Nusayr was assassinated by Ziyad ibn ‘Udhra al-Balawi on order of the Caliph Sulayman.[13] However, Ibn Khaldun reports the order was received and carried out by Habib ibn Abi Obeida al-Fihri [14] The caliph feared that he wanted to establish his own personal monarchy in Spain, separate from the Umayyad caliphate based in Damascus.[15] Dates of his assassination vary between the years 715 ,[16] 716 ,[17] or 718 .[18] ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa was beheaded in the monastery of Santa Rufina, used during the time as a mosque.[19] After his death, ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa’s head was brought to Damascus and displayed publicly to an audience where the caliph knew that his father, Ibn Musa ibn Nusayr, was in attendance.[20] ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr was succeeded by his cousin, Ayyub ibn Habib al-Lakhmi, who is thought to have played a role in his assassination.[21] His tenure as governor did not last long and for a period of forty years following his assassination, Al-Andalus was filled with chaos and turmoil. Rival Arab factions continuously fought to gain power, and also to expand Islamic control in the area. Governors were appointed or chosen, but there were often deposed by rival groups or by the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. This pattern continued until 758, when an Umayyad caliphate was established in Córdoba.[22] Islamic power remained in the region until 1492, when Ferdinand and Isabella conquered the Islamic kingdom of Granada. [23]

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ʿAbd Allāh b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr

by Farzaneh, Babak;  Lahouti, Hassan 

ʿAbd Allāh b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr followed his father Mūsā in becoming the governor of Ifrīqiya, and conquered the Maghrib and al-Andalus. Little is known of his life. Two facts are clear: when his father established his power in various parts of North Africa, he dispatched ʿAbd Allāh to the neighbouring islands to extend his conquests, and the son achieved considerable victories during this mission (Ibn al-Athīr, 4/539–540; ʿInān, 1/25–26). In addition, after Ṭāriq b. Ziyād's conquests, when Mūsā b. Nuṣayr set out for al-Andalus in 93/712, he appointed his son ʿAbd Allāh as the governor of al-Qayrawān before proceeding (Ibn ʿIdhārī, 1/43; al-Maqqarī, 1/277; al-Rikābī, 12–13; al-Balādhurī, 323; Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam, 207). According to Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (p. 210), after two years and some months, Mūsā b. Nuṣayr was recalled by the Umayyad caliph al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik to Damascus, and he appointed his sons to govern in his stead: Marwān as the governor of Ṭanja (today known as Tangier in northern Morocco); ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz to govern al-Andalus; and ¶ ʿAbd Allāh to govern Ifrīqiya (Farrūkh, 4/38). Although Mūsā b. Nuṣayr was insulted and punished by the new Umayyad caliph, Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, his sons were confirmed in their positions, which they held for some time (ʿInān, 1/57; cf. Farrūkh 4/38). In 97/716 ʿAbd Allāh was dismissed from his position as governor of Ifrīqiya on the orders of Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, who appointed Muḥammad b. Yazīd al-Qurashī as governor there instead (see Ibn al-Athīr, 5/23). Reports regarding ʿAbd Allāh's subsequent fate are somewhat vague: Ibn ʿIdhārī (1/47) says that Muḥammad b. Yazīd imprisoned and killed ʿAbd Allāh. Ibn Ḥabīb (p. 492) states that when Bishr b. Ṣafwān al-Kalbī was appointed to govern Ifrīqiya, in 102/721, he accused ʿAbd Allāh of the murder of Yazīd b. Abī Muslim. He had ʿAbd Allāh put to death as a result of this accusation and sent his head to Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik in Syria (see also Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam, 213–215; al-Balādhurī, 324).

Babak Farzaneh Tr. Hassan Lahouti

Bibliography

al-Balādhurī, Aḥmad, Futūḥ al-buldān, ed. ʿAbd Allāh Anīs al-Ṭabbāʿ and ʿUmar Anīs al-Ṭabbāʿ (Beirut, 1407/1987)

Farrūkh, ʿUmar, Taʾrīkh al-adab al-ʿArabī (Beirut, 1984)

Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, Futūḥ Miṣr wa akhbāruhā (Baghdad, 1920)

Ibn al-Athīr, al-Kāmil

Ibn Ḥabīb, Muḥammad, al-Muḥabbar, ed. Ilse Lichtenstädter (Hyderabad, 1361/1942)

Ibn ʿIdhārī, al-Bayān al-mughrib fī akhbār al-Maghrib, ed. G. S. Colin and E. Lévi-Provençal (Beirut, 1983)

ʿInān, Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh, Dawlat al-Islām fī al-Andalus (Cairo, 1408/1988)

al-Maqqarī, Aḥmad, Nafḥ al-ṭib, ed. Iḥsān ʿAbbās (Beirut, 1388/1968)

al-Rikābī, Jawdat, Fī al-adab al-Andalusī (Cairo, 1970).

Citation Farzaneh, Babak; Lahouti, Hassan. " ʿAbd Allāh b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr." Encyclopaedia Islamica. Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary. Brill Online , 2013. Reference. Jim Harlow. 01 February 2013 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-islamica/abd-allah-b-musa-b-nusayr-SIM_0038>

-------------------- عبد العزيز بن موسى -------------------- Governor of Egypt?

Governor of al-Andalus (later Andalucia), or maybe only of Spalis (later Ishbiliyah, now Seville) (0712-0717)