|Nicknames:||"the Scot", "l'Ecossais"|
|Birthplace:||Aunis, Charente-Maritime, La Rochelle, France|
|Death:||Died in Québec, Quebec, Canada|
|Occupation:||masterpilot, pilot, maître pilote et plus tard, pilote royal du St-Laurent en plus d'agriculteur, Maître pilote, Pilote de bateau, master pilot, Maitre Pilote, River Pilot, Pilot (Naval), Maître-pilote, Ship Pilot, Maitre pilote|
|Managed by:||joshua rediker|
About Abraham Martin dit l'Ecossais
Arrived in Quebec in 1617. masterpilot some records say married 1620 in France, some say from Dieppe Abraham Martin arrived in Quebec in the summer of 1617--probably making the voyage in the same ship as Louis HÉBERT. His family accompanied him: his wife Marguerite LANGLOIS [translator's note: Jette gives their date of marriage c 1620 'in France'], her sister Francoise and Francoise's husband Pierre DESPORTES. This couple would have a daughter Helene, who would become the goddaughter of Quebec's founder. This same Helene would marry, as a second husband, Medard Chouart des Groseillers, the colorful explorer, fur trader and co-founder of the Hudson's Bay Company. Sources: "Les Plaines d'Abraham, le culte de l'idéal" de Jacques Mathieu et Eugen Kedl; le dictionnaire biographique du Canada, tome 1; Les Cahiers des Dix, no 42; la Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique français, no XVII.
Text publié dans le Soleil du dimanche le 4 mai 1997 et ecrit part Louis Guy Lemieux. Voir Internet http://www.lesoleil.com
http://larryvoyer.com/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I111123&tree=v7_28 -------------------- By Yolande St-Arneault
Société de Généalogie des Laurentides
Volume XVII, #1, spring 2001
Translated by Lorelei Maison Rockwell, May 2002
Text Box: This insignificant historical person nevertheless gave his name to the Plains of Abraham and Abraham's Coast. He was one of the trivial actors in the history of New France. An obscure character. An antihero. Paradoxically he gave his name in perpetuity to two properties that are part of Champlain's city.
On 15 February 1649 the little colony was in shock. Abraham Martin, age 60, a companion of Champlain and the head of a large and respected family was thrown in prison. The accusation: he had forfeited the honor of a strapping young girl of 16 [translator's note: statutory rape?]. Certainly it would be said that this old pig Abraham had debauched a fine 'young thing.' Three months later his wife gave him his ninth, and last, child.
Abraham Martin arrived in Quebec in the summer of 1617--probably making the voyage in the same ship as Louis HÉBERT. His family accompanied him: his wife Marguerite LANGLOIS [translator's note: Jette gives their date of marriage c 1620 'in France'], her sister Francoise and Francoise's husband Pierre DESPORTES. This couple would have a daughter Helene, who would become the goddaughter of Quebec's founder. This same Helene would marry, as a second husband, Medard Chouart des Groseillers, the colorful explorer, fur trader and co-founder of the Hudson's Bay Company.
From his arrival onwards our Abraham MARTIN was in no hurry to disappear into nameless obscurity in the tiny world of the first colony.
Years later historians found his trail in the local, popular culture where his name was inscribed--first in the topography of Quebec under the French regime and then in notarial records making reference to Abraham's Coast.
A street named Abraham appears in a 1734 Quebec City map. Then, later, we find his name preserved in reports of the celebrated historic battles of 1759 and 1760. There were accounts signed by English officers and published in London as well as in the journal of New France's Chevalier de Levi.
The name Abraham MARTIN also appears in the controversial will Champlain signed in November 1635, two months before his death. Canadian history was young then and still in the making. The original will was not discovered until 324 years later, in August 1959 to be exact, by the historian and archivist Olga Jurgens, and published in 1963. In his will, Champlain "gives to Abraham and his wife 600 livres with the charge of using it to clear land in this country of New France." The founder also gave 600 livres to Marguerite, daughter of Abraham, "to support her in marrying a man of this country--New France--and no other."
The original will stated clearly that if Champlain should leave little or nothing in goods and Quebec properties to his widow, he wanted her to have the largest part of his inheritance in France.
In 1863 the historian, J. B. A. Ferland began to follow the track of the great curate Thomas Maguire. M. Maguire 'suggested that a part of the Plains had belonged to an individual by the name of Abraham."
In consulting civil registers for the parish of Notre Dame de Quebec during the time of the French regime, Ferland found only one person with the first name Abraham: Abraham Martin, called l'Ecossais [the Scot], who was shown as a royal pilot. He was our man.
In 1635 Abraham Martin accepted, from the Company of New France, a land grant of 12 arpents in Quebec. Another parcel of 20 arpents was added 10 years later. The combined land was well-situated in the upper town, but north of the present Grand Allée, on what was at that time called St-Genevieve Hill. For this reason Abraham Martin's land should not be confused with the Plains today.
What may also be seen from this little history is that should a man take his animals down to the Charles River to drink, in taking the road of descent he would come to the Coast of Abraham.
We discover in a notarial act dated 16 October 1675 the name Charles-Amador Martin, only surviving son of Abraham. Priest and co-inheritor, Charles-Amador cedes to the religious order of Ursulines 32 arpents of land situated in a place called Claire-Fontaine in exchange for the sum of 1200 livres, a small fortune at the time.
In the decisive battles of 1759 and 1760 French and English soldiers played a prominent role in insuring that the topographical name Abraham was engraved in the historical record.
The Chevalier de Levi mentioned in his journal on 19 July 1759 that the English "have four ships passing above the town and in consequence will be able to send dispatches via the Heights of Abraham and as far as Cap Rouge."
On the same day the troops of Wolfe and Montcalm clashed, 13 September 1759, a Captain in an English regiment, John Knox, wrote in his journal, later published under the title The Siege of Quebec, that once landed at the foot of the cliff, they did not stop, "till we comes to the Plains of Abraham."
Another English officer, John Montresor, wrote a book published in London and titled The General Battle of the Heights of Abraham.
If the land of Abraham Martin was not contiguous with the present Plains, the battle of 1759, on the other hand, really and truly was fought on the Plains of Abraham and on the ancient property of Abraham Martin.
The great historic battle raged all over the upper town. The French and English troops had taken position on the cliff as far as the Sainte-Foy Road and Parliamentary Hill--today approximately up to Rue Belvedere.
Reckoning from the beginning of the English regime, local cartography considerably expanded the dimensions of the Coast of Abraham and the Plains. Abraham's hillside covered the continuation west of St. Genevieve's Hill up to Rue Suéte which leads to St-Foye at Lorette.
Regarding the Plains of Abraham, more often called the "Heights of Abraham," the topographical name usually appeared on maps designating a large part of the upper town outside the ramparts. It was not until 1879 that city maps delineated exactly as it is known today.
In 1908 the federal government created Battlefield Park. But for the people of Quebec it will always be the Plains of Abraham or simply the Plains. An affectionate name. A popular and gratuitous tribute to the earliest setters of the country.
Each time has its own history. After the Conquest, the British Empire could not abandon the location of its victory to anonymity. The place name had to be in accord with the importance of the event.
Historians Jacques Mathieu and Alain Beaulieu advance an interesting theory in their monumental history of the Plains published in 1993 by Septentrion. For them, the 1759 conqueror preserved the popular name believing that it referred to the Biblical patriarch. They write: For people of the Protestant faith, strongly imbued with Biblical tradition, the designation "Abraham" makes use of a major symbolic power. The conquerors could not fail to see themselves in the image of the great prophet. It was in this way, through a series of misunderstandings, that a colorless colonist had his name immortalized. History has kept the secret!
Sources: "Les Plaines d'Abraham, le culte de l'idéal" de Jacques Mathieu et Eugen Kedl; le dictionnaire biographique du Canada, tome 1; Les Cahiers des Dix, no 42; la Revue d'histoire de l'Amérique français, no XVII.
Text publié dans le Soleil du dimanche le 4 mai 1997 et ecrit part Louis Guy Lemieux. Voir Internet http://www.lesoleil.com
Abraham Martin is Yolande St-Arneault's ancestor through 3 of his daughters: Anne, Marie, and Marguerite [more available here].Text Box: Charles-Amador Martin was the second Canadian priest. He was born at Quebec where he was baptized 7 March 1648 by Father LeJeune. He was the 9th child of Abraham Martin and Marguerite Langlois and he had as his godfather: Charles-Amador de St-Etienne, sieur de la Tour, who was famous for his bravery and loyalty to France during the wars in Acadia. In 1672 he built the first stone chapel at Beauport to replace the old wooden one. He continued to serve this parish until 1677, when he went to Sainte-Famille. On the erection of the Chapter House at Quebec, he became canon. He was named parish priest of Chateau-Richer in 1685. On 19 September 1697 he resigned the honor of canon and on the following 18 October he was named parish priest of Notre-Dame de Foye. He remained there until his death 19 June 1711 at the age of 63. A manuscript titled "On the devotion at Sainte-Famille by Mother Superior M-Andre Regnart-Duplessis de Sainte-Helene," we find that M. Martin was an expert chanter and that he composed the chant for the mass and divine service at Ste-Famille still used today. Taken from RÉPERTOIRE GÉNÉRAL du CLERGÉ CANADIEN, Cyprien Tanguay
I report the results of some of my research to flesh out the story of Abraham Martin. [Translator's note: Abraham Martin is also my ancestor through his daughter Marguerite].
The family of Abraham MARTIN, dit L'Ecossais
His origin is unknown. He was buried 08/09/1664 in Quebec, age 75; arrived Quebec 1619, returned to France after the capture of Quebec by Kirke 24/07/1629, and returned to Quebec in 1633 or 1634, master pilot. [MSGCF (129): 162-164, T-27, DBC I 506-507, J.J.]
Married about 1620, France
-------------------- Abraham was also know as the "Scotchman" on the 21st of January, 1648. The battle between the English forces (Wolfe) and the French army (Montcalm) for control of Quecbec, was fought on the former farmland of Abraham Martin anf the site is now known as "The Plains of Abraham". He owned two farm lands. The battle took place on September 12th, 1759. Wolfe scaled thre ramparts to the farms of Abraham Martin and met Montcalm on the battlefield that later became known as the "Plains of Abraham". (http://www.naples.net/~clutchey/summary.htm). -------------------- Name: Abraham Martin Sex: M Birth: 1569 Death: 8 SEP 1644 in Quebec
Father: Jean Martin Mother: Isabelle Ctti
Marriage 1 Marguerite Langlois b: ABT. 1600 Married: ABT. 1620 in France
Anne Martin b: 1614 Eustache Martin b: OCT 1621 Marguerite Martin b: 4 JAN 1623/24 Helene Martin b: 21 JUN 1627 Marie Martin b: 10 APR 1635 Adrien Martin b: 22 NOV 1638 Madeleine Martin b: 1640 in Quebec Barbe Martin b: 4 JAN 1642/43 Anne Martin b: 23 MAR 1644/45 in Quebec.Quebec Charles Amador Martin b: 7 MAR 1647/48
-------------------- Abraham Martin est né en 1589. Il arrive dans ce pays nouveau, vers 1622, avec son épouse Marguerite Langlois, sœur de Françoise Langlois, mariée à Pierre Desportes (parents d'Hélène Desportes).
Après la prise de Québec par Kirke, le 24 juillet 1629, ils sont retournés en France, puis revenus à Québec, en 1633.
Abraham est avec Louis Hébert l'un des premiers colons canadiens. Cet illustre colon, pilote royal et pilote de navire du Saint-Laurent, est à la source de notre marine nationale. C'est lui qui jette les rudiments de la première carte du fleuve.
La terre d'Abraham Martin, au sommet du Cap Diamants, reçoit le nom des "Plaines d'Abraham" nom ensuite étendu au plateau voisin, sur lequel est livré la célèbre bataille entre Wolfe et Montcalm.
Une anecdote pittoresque rapporte que la " Côte d'Abraham " était le sentier emprunté par Martin, pour descendre à la rivière Saint-Charles abreuver ses animaux.
Sa compagne, Marguerite Langlois, lui donne neuf enfants, dont Eustache Martin, le premier fils d'un Français, né en Nouvelle-France. C'est le premier baptême qui est inscrit sur le registre de Notre-Dame de Québec, en date du 21 octobre 1621. A part la mention de son baptême, nous n'avons aucune précision quelconque sur Eustache Martin, sûrement décédé très jeune. Abraham Martin a laissé par ses filles, une très nombreuse postérité.
Le second baptême qui a lieu à Québec, est celui de Marguerite Martin, soeur d'Eustache Martin.
Sa naissance est ainsi enregistrée à la date du 4 janvier 1624.
Marguerite Martin devient, le 22 mai 1638, la femme d'Étienne Racine, fils de René Racine et de Marie Loisel, de Fumichon, en Normandie.
Si le premier enfant du pionnier Français ne laisse pas de postérité, il n'en est pas de même de la première fille, car les descendants des dix enfants de Marguerite Martin, mariée à Étienne Racine se comptent aujourd'hui par milliers.
La deuxième fille Martin, Marie, née en 1635, épouse Jean Cloutier, né en 1620, à St-Jean de Mortagne, en France, fils des ancêtres Zacharie Cloutier et Xainte Dupont.
La troisième fille Martin, nommée Anne, née en 1645, épouse l'ancêtre Jacques Raté, né vers 1631, originaire de Laleu, dans La Rochelle, en Aunis, France.
L'ancêtre Abraham Martin, dit l'Écossais est inhumé à Québec, le 8 septembre 1664, vers l'âge de 75 ans. Sa veuve, Marguerite Langlois, épouse le 17 février 1665, René Branche, et est inhumée le 17 décembre, au cours de la même année. ________________ Erreur
MARTIN dit l'Écossais, Abraham (...) ne peut être le fils du couple (Abraham, chirurgien barbier fils de (Abraham, marchand, bourgeois de la ville de Metz & ...), d Dundee, Écosse 13-06-1673 à 57 ans & Sarah Auchinleck, d Dundee, Écosse 25-07-1665 à 40 ans) étant né vers vers 1589, ses parents ne peuvent être nés vers 1616 et 1625. Il pourrait, mais c'est hautement spéculatif, être le père de cet Abraham (et le beau-père de Sarah). Plusieurs ont pourtant indiqué que Sarah était la mère de notre Abraham.
- m vers 1620 France
_ -------------------- Abraham Martin, our first Canadian maternal grand father, was, with Louis Hébert, one of the first colonists of Canada. His name remains with us as it is attached to the famous Plains of Abraham. He was a pilot on the Saint-Lawrence river and, with his wife, Marguerite Langlois, left us through their daughters a long line of Canadians. In the archives the Dames Ursulines are stored the titles to two parcels of land which belonged to him. United, these lands were sold to the decendants of Master Abraham. Abraham Martin's land were known as the "Plains of Abraham" and this name was also attached to adjoining lands where Wolfe and Montcalm fought their famous battle.
Abraham, as the first pilot of the Saint Lawrence river, was the first to put together rudimentary maps of that landmark. It is interesting to note that the small ship that provides pilot services at Poite-aux-Père near Rimouski carried the name of this famous pilot Abraham Martin and its sister ship, the name of "Jalobert" the first French pilot who came here with Cartier.
First clearer of lands and first river pilot, Abraham Martin carved out, through his knowledge and courage, a reputation that will remain in our history. In 1923, the Historic Society of Quebec dedicated a monument to him in the old lower part of Québec city.
Abraham Martin ("The Scotsman" or "Master Abraham) pilot, born in France in 1589, died at Québec on the 8th of September 1664. Abraham Martin arrived in New France about 1620 with his wife, Marguerite Langlois, her sister Françoise and her brother in law Pierre Desportes (the parents of Hélene Desportes). Martin could have been of Scottish descent, or he may have taken on a nickname because he had served in the army or he may have belonged to a clandestine organization. Nicknames were used to hide identities of deserters or those members of illegal organizations in case their documents were seized. It is equally possible that he was named so because he had made numerous voyages to Scotland in his youth. We are not absolutely certain that he was made official pilot, even if the title "royal pilot" as given him during his lifetime. In any case, it is proven that he fished all along the Saint-Lawrence all the way to the gulf.
The plains of Abraham would also be named after him. An interesting anecdote tells us that "Abraham's hill" was a right of way that Martin used to bring his cattle to the waters of the Saint-Charles river. His lands were 32 arpents (about 48 acres) made up of 12 arpents granted by the Company of New France in 1635 and 20 more received as a gift from Sieur Adrien Du Chesne, naval surgeon to Pierre Legardeur de Repentigny in 1645.This property was sold by the Martin Family to the Ursuline Nuns in 1667. It is possible that this same Martin was employed by Jean de Biencourt and Du Gua de Monts as navigator on the Acadian coast while he was still very young.
When David Kirk took Québec in 1629 and left his brother Lewis as governor until 1632, Martin and his family stayed in Québec. Later, Martin lost face with the citizens when he was accused of attrocities towards a young girl from Québec. He was jailed on February 15th of 1649 for that act.
The archives show that Abraham Martin and Marguerite Langlois had nine or ten children. Anne Martin was born in France in 1635 and married to Jean Côté the 17th of November 1635. Eustache, baptized on October 24, 1621 is the godson of Eustache Boullé and was the first Canadian born. Marguerite, born January 4 1624 and married May 22 1638 to Etienne Racine had many descendants including the two Bishops Racine. Hélène, born June 21, 1627 was goddaughter of Samuel de Champlain. She married Claude Etienne in 1640 and then Médard Chouart des Groseillers on September 31 1647. Charles-Amador, born March 7 1648, godson of Charles de Saint-Etienne de La Tour, was the second priest ordained in Canada. It is possible that Brother Dominique Scot, mentioned in the Jesuite Relations, as having arrived in Huronia still a young man is equally one of his sons. We may also suppose that a young man identified as arriving in Huronia at the same time (1634-1635) was Eustache Martin.
The Plains of Abraham
According to Mr. P.-J.-O. Chauveau, this historical name applies to the vast plateau which extends below the ramparts of Québec and which terminates to the south by a steep hill on the Saint-Lawrence river and on the other side a smaller hill which separates it from the valley of the Saint-Charles river. Where does this name come from?
It is Abraham Martin who has left his name to the plains where the French and English forces met on September 13 1759 and again on April 28 1760. The first owner of this land was the surgeon, Adrien Duchesne, who gifted it to Mr. Martin as noted in the following document:
"We, the undersigned, certify to whom it may concern, that last year, 1645, Sieur Adrien Duchesne naval surgeon on the ship of Mr. De Repentigny, being in Québec, told us that he had given the land, which was given to him in the town of Québec, to Abraham Martin river pilot, and that he could work it as he saw fit. If time permitted to prepare a contract of the gift, he would have done so. This we attest to as the truth. Made this 15th day of August 1646."
The document was signed by six citizens of Québec: MMS Giffard, Tronquet, Latardif, Delaunay, Bissot and Guitet. A document notarized by Lacoustre, notary in Québec, dated December 1647, qualifies Abraham Martin as royal pilot in this country.
Abraham Martin died at Québec September 8 1664. June 1st 1667, the descendants of Abraham Martin sold to the Ursuline Nuns of Québec "a lot of 32 arpents of cleared land, situated within Québec city, with a house and a barn on that same land". This was the concessions that Abraham Martin had received from Duchesne along with more than 12 arpents given to him by the Company of New France May 16 1650. The Ursulines paid 1200 "livres" for their acquisition. In 1759, the nuns were still in possession of the Plains of Abraham.
In 1863, Mr. Chauveau described the Plains of Abraham:
"Even if historically there was nothing to them, this land merits to be know for its beauty. Two great roads parallel the lands. One follows the Saint-Lawrence, the other the Saint-Charles river. The first is named Grande-Allée or chemin Saint-Louis and the other chemin Sainte-Foy. Each position has its own monument as well. One raised to honor Wolfe, at the spot where he died, and the other to the brave of 1760, at the spot where the heat of battle was, on the site of the Dumont Mill.
(Extracted from "Ville de Québec" pp 133-134.
-------------------- Abraham arrived in New France (Canada) in 1620. -------------------- Abraham MARTIN dit L'écossais, fils de Anc. Jacques MARTIN et Suzanne COSTE ?-- Il est né en 1588 environ à Montpellier-de-Médillan, Poitou-Charentes, Fr. ??? ?-- Il est né probablement à Dundee, Écosse aux environs de 1589 ???
Maître pilote de rivières (Il pilotait les navires sur le fleuve St-Laurent) Il est arrivé à Québec en 1619. Abraham est avec Louis Hébert l'un des premiers colons canadiens. Cet illustre colon, pilote royal et pilote de navire du Saint-Laurent, est à la source de notre marine nationale. C'est lui qui jette les rudiments de la première carte du fleuve.
Après la prise de Québec par Kirke, le 24 juillet 1629, ils sont retournés en France, puis revenus à Québec, en 1633.
La terre d'Abraham Martin, au sommet du Cap Diamants, reçoit le nom des "Plaines d'Abraham", nom ensuite étendu au plateau voisin, sur lequel est livré la célèbre bataille entre Wolfe et Montcalm. Une anecdote pittoresque rapporte que la"Côte d'Abraham" était le sentier emprunté par Martin, pour descendre à la rivière Saint-Charles abreuver ses animaux.
Sa compagne, Marguerite Langlois, lui donne neuf enfants, dont celui d'Eustache Martin, le premier fils d'un Français, né en Nouvelle-France. C'est le premier baptême qui est inscrit sur le registre de Notre-Dame de Québec, en date du 21 octobre 1621. A part la mention de son baptême, nous n'avons aucune précision quelconque sur Eustache Martin, sûrement décédé très jeune.
Si le premier enfant du pionnier Français ne laisse pas de postérité, il n'en est pas de même de la première fille, car les descendants des dix enfants de Marguerite Martin, mariée à Étienne Racine, se comptent aujourd'hui par milliers.
-------------------- Abraham Martin was the owner of the land wich was the subject of a major battle between the Brithish and French forces . That field is now a historical site in Québec City called ( The plaines of Abraham ). His trade was listed as Royal Pilot. -------------------- 2N 1624, LORS DE LA REDITION AUX FRERES KIRK, IL RESTA SUR SES PLAINES AVEC SA FAMILLE, LA OU EN 1759, LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE Y LIVRA SA DERNIERE BATAILLE, ET OU MONCALM SE RENDIT A WOLFE AVANT QUE LES 2 MEURENT DE LEURS BLESSURES. DE LA QUINZAIN E DE PIONNIERS VENANT DE COINS DE FRANCE DIFFERENTS ET PORTANT LE NOM DE MARTIN, ABRAHAM EST LE SEUL QUI ARRIVA AVEC SON EPOUSE,IL FUT PILOTE ROYAL ET SE FIXA SUR LE SOMMET DU CAP AU DIAMANTS, SUR CES PLAINES QUI PORTENT SON NOM DE PLAINES D'ABRAH AM. ON NE CONNAIT PAS DE DECENDANCE A SES FILS.