Adelaide del Vasto, signora di Savona

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Adelaide (Adelisa) del Vasto (di Savona)

Also Known As: "Adelasia", "Azalaïs", "Adeliza"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Piedmont, Italy
Death: Died in Patti, Messina, Sicilia, Italy
Place of Burial: Queen Consort
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Manfredo del Vasto, marchese di Savona and Adelasia ?
Wife of Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem and Ruggero I il Gran, conte di Sicilia
Mother of Mathilde de Hauteville, dame de Sicile; Simon de Hauteville, Gran Conte di Sicilia; Ruggero II, Re di Sicilia and Maximilla de Hauteville
Sister of Enrico del Vasto

Occupation: régente de Sicile, reine de Jérusalem, Concubine
Managed by: Douglas John Nimmo
Last Updated:

About Adelaide del Vasto, signora di Savona

I've been sorting out a bunch of commonly mis-merged 11th c Adeliza/Adelaides/Alices and similar names. Keep this list for reference! The correct spouses *should* be:

-Adeliza Fitz Osulf m. Robert de Toeny/Tosny

-Adeliza/Alice de Beaumont m. Hugh I Grentmesnil and Robert Estuteville

-Adeliza de Bohun m. Main d'Aubigny

-Adeliza di Savona (del Vasto) m. Roger I of Sicily and Baldwin of Jerusalem [NOT the wife of Robert de Toeni/Tony/Tosny]

-Avice de Clare m. Robert de Stafford (sometimes mismerged with Robert de Tosny/Toni since they were cousins)

-Avelina de Crepon m Osbern Giffard de Bolbec

-Adele of Meaux m Geoffrey d'Anjou

etc.

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Adelaide del Vasto

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adelaide del Vasto (Adelasia, Azalaïs) (c. 1075 – April 16, 1118) was the third wife of Roger I of Sicily and mother of Roger II of Sicily, as well as Queen consort of Jerusalem due to her later marriage to Baldwin I of Jerusalem, as his third wife.

Family

She was the daughter of Boniface del Vasto, marquess of Western Liguria, and Agnes of Vermandois. Her father's family was a branch of the Aleramici, sharing a common descent from Aleramo of Montferrat with the Marquesses of Montferrat. Her brothers founded the lines of the Marquesses of Saluzzo, of Busca, of Lancia, of Ceva, and of Savona.

Her maternal grandparents were Hugh of Vermandois and Adele of Vermandois. Adele was a daughter of Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Valois.

[edit]Countess consort of Sicily

She married Roger I in 1089, as his third wife, while her sister married Roger's illegitimate son Jordan. Roger I died in 1101, and Adelaide ruled as regent of Sicily for her young sons Simon and Roger II. During her tenure, the emir Christodulus rose to preeminence at the court and Palermo was settled as the capital of the realm.

Either through her influence or under her regency, her brother Henry del Vasto was granted Paternò and Butera.

[edit]Queen consort of Jerusalem

Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, after the death of Baldwin's first wife Godehilde during the First Crusade, Baldwin married an Armenian noblewoman traditionally known as Arda. Arda was useful in an alliance with the Armenians while Baldwin was Count of Edessa, but when he became King of Jerusalem in 1100 he seemed to have little use for an Armenian wife, and Arda was forced into a convent around 1105.

In 1112 a new marriage was sought for the king. Arnulf of Chocques, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, suggested that Baldwin marry Adelaide, as Roger II was now old enough to rule Sicily alone. Baldwin sent ambassadors to Sicily, and somewhat hastily agreed to any terms which Adelaide might have; Adelaide demanded that their son, should they have one, inherit Jerusalem, and if they had no children, the kingdom would pass to her own son Roger II. Adelaide brought with her an enormous amount of badly-needed money, as well as some Muslim archers and a thousand other Sicilian soldiers.

Adelaide was already well into middle age and no new heir was immediately forthcoming. The king was blamed for a bigamous marriage (as Arda was still alive) and the Patriarch Arnulf was deposed. Pope Paschal II agreed to reinstate him in 1116, provided that he annul the marriage between Baldwin and Adelaide. Baldwin agreed, after falling ill and assuming that renouncing his sin of bigamy would cure him. In 1117 the annulment was performed at Acre, and Adelaide sailed back to Sicily.

Adelaide died on April 16, 1118 and was buried in Patti. Roger II was outraged at the treatment of his mother and never forgave the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Almost thirty years later, Roger still refused to give assistance to the Crusader states during the Second Crusade.

Sources

Bernard Hamilton, "Women in the Crusader States: The Queens of Jerusalem", in Medieval Women, edited by Derek Baker. Ecclesiastical History Society, 1978.

Pasquale Hamel, Adelaide del Vasto, Regina di Gerusalemme. Palermo: Sellerio Editore, 1997.

Alan V. Murray, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History, 1099-1125. Prosopographica and Genealogica, 2000.

-------------------- Adelaide del Vasto (Adelasia, Azalaïs) (c. 1075 – April 16, 1118) was the third wife of Roger I of Sicily and mother of Roger II of Sicily, as well as Queen consort of Jerusalem due to her later marriage to Baldwin I of Jerusalem, as his third wife.

]Family

She was the daughter of Manfred del Vasto (brother of Boniface del Vasto, marquess of Western Liguria, and Anselm del Vasto). Her father's family was a branch of the Aleramici, sharing a common descent from Aleramo of Montferrat with the Marquesses of Montferrat. Her brothers founded the lines of the Marquesses of Saluzzo, of Busca, of Lancia, of Ceva, and of Savona.

Her paternal grandparents were Teto II del Vasto, and his wife Berta, daughter of margrave Odalrico of Turin.

[edit]Countess consort of Sicily

She married Roger I in 1089, as his third wife, while her sister married Roger's illegitimate son Jordan. Roger I died in 1101, and Adelaide ruled as regent of Sicily for her young sons Simon and Roger II. During her tenure, the emir Christodulus rose to preeminence at the court and Palermo was settled as the capital of the realm.

Either through her influence or under her regency, her brother Henry del Vasto was granted Paternò and Butera. Henry (Enrico) was married to Flandina daughter of Count Roger I. of Calabria and Sicily.

[edit]Queen consort of Jerusalem

Meanwhile, in Jerusalem, after the death of Baldwin's first wife Godehilde during the First Crusade, Baldwin married an Armenian noblewoman traditionally known as Arda. Arda was useful in an alliance with the Armenians while Baldwin was Count of Edessa, but when he became King of Jerusalem in 1100 he seemed to have little use for an Armenian wife, and Arda was forced into a convent around 1105.

In 1112 a new marriage was sought for the king. Arnulf of Chocques, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, suggested that Baldwin marry Adelaide, as Roger II was now old enough to rule Sicily alone. Baldwin sent ambassadors to Sicily, and somewhat hastily agreed to any terms which Adelaide might have; Adelaide demanded that their son, should they have one, inherit Jerusalem, and if they had no children, the kingdom would pass to her own son Roger II. Adelaide brought with her an enormous amount of badly-needed money, as well as some Muslim archers and a thousand other Sicilian soldiers.

Adelaide was already well into middle age and no new heir was immediately forthcoming. The king was blamed for a bigamous marriage (as Arda was still alive) and the Patriarch Arnulf was deposed. Pope Paschal II agreed to reinstate him in 1116, provided that he annul the marriage between Baldwin and Adelaide. Baldwin agreed, after falling ill and assuming that renouncing his sin of bigamy would cure him. In 1117 the annulment was performed at Acre, and Adelaide sailed back to Sicily.

Adelaide died on April 16, 1118 and was buried in Patti. Roger II was outraged at the treatment of his mother and never forgave the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Almost thirty years later, Roger still refused to give assistance to the Crusader states during the Second Crusade. -------------------- Adelais and her husband, Robert de Tosny of Belvoir, founded Belvoir priory around the time of the Domesday Book circa 1084.

See "My Lines" ( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p243.htm#i27462 ) from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA ( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) -------------------- Adelisa's father was Manfredo. Her paternal grandparents were Teto De Savona and Berta de Turin. She was an only child. She died at the age of 83 on April 16th, 1118 in Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, England.

--------------------

Adelasia del Vasto

Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelasia_del_Vasto

Adelasia del Vasto, nota anche come Adelaide, Azalaïs o Adelasia Incisa del Vasto (Piemonte, 1074 – Patti, 16 aprile 1118), fu la terza moglie di Ruggero I di Sicilia e la madre di Ruggero II.

Adelasia del Vasto (o Adelaide del Vasto) era figlia dell'aleramico Manfredi (o Manfredo), fratello di Bonifacio del Vasto, marchese di Savona e della Liguria Occidentale.

Nel 1089 Adelasia sposò a Mileto, in Calabria, il gran conte normanno Ruggero, suggellando così un'alleanza tra aleramici e normanni.[1]

Adelasia giunse al porto di Messina in pompa magna su navi da cui sbarcarono dote, scorta e un nutrito seguito di suoi conterranei piemontesi che l'avevano seguita per insediarsi nella parte centro-orientale dell'isola. Fu una prima avanguardia di un flusso migratorio poi massicciamente favorito per decenni fino al XIII secolo, ancora oggi testimoniato dall'esistenza di alcune isole linguistiche alloglotte nel cuore della Sicilia, chiamate colonie lombarde, dove si parla un antico dialetto Gallo-Italico.

Dopo la morte del marito, Adelasia divenne reggente del regno fino alla maggiore età del figlio (dal 1101 sino al 1112). Nel periodo di reggenza si circondò di consiglieri conterranei, tra cui il fratello Enrico del Vasto (che aveva sposato Flandina, figlia del marito) e di Cristobulo.

L'anno successivo sposò in seconde nozze Baldovino I di Gerusalemme, divenendo Regina di Gerusalemme. Ripudiata per motivi politici nel 1117, tornò in Sicilia e si ritirò nella cittadina di Patti dove morì il 16 aprile dell'anno seguente.

Le spoglie di Adelasia vennero tumulate nella cattedrale di Patti, dove ancora oggi si ammira la tomba in stile rinascimentale.

Matrimoni e discendenza

Adelasia del Vasto sposò nel 1087 Ruggero I di Sicilia, del quale fu la terza ed ultima moglie ed al quale diede quattro figli:

  • Simone (1093 - 1105), Conte di Sicilia;
  • Matilde, che sposò Rainulfo di Alife;
  • Ruggero (1095 - 1154), futuro Re di Sicilia e successore del padre;
  • Maximilla (+ post 1137), che sposò Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi
  • Da Baldovino I di Gerusalemme, sposato nel 1113, non ebbe figli (il matrimonio fu annullato).

La disputa sulle origini familiari

Le sue origini familiari sono state oggetto di molte controversie fra gli studiosi di genealogie. Già il normanno Orderico Vitale la diceva erroneamente filia Bonefacii Liguris. Gli storici danno però credito a Goffredo Malaterra, biografo ufficiale del conte Ruggero d'Altavilla, che la indica come: nepotem Bonifacii, famosissimi Italorum marchionis, filiam videlicet fratris eius. Secondo le cronache siciliane Adelasia sarebbe stata spogliata dei suoi beni dallo zio e sarebbe fuggita in Sicilia. La vicenda del re, che sposa una povera orfanella, potrebbe però essere leggendaria. Sembra più verosimile che dopo la morte nel (1079) di Manfredi del Vasto, padre di Adelasia, e di Anselmo, fratello di Manfredi, Bonifacio sia diventato tutore di Adelasia e ne abbia combinato il matrimonio nel 1089 (e per questo Orderico lo indica come padre). Per il matrimonio sarà stata versata una congrua dote in quanto esso era parte di ampi rapporti diplomatici, commerciali e militari fra gli Aleramici e i Normanni.

Tuttavia, secondo la legge salica, seguita dagli aleramici Del Vasto, la terra era proprietà (spesso indivisa) dei soli figli maschi; Adelasia non poté quindi portare in dote feudi piemontesi e ciò spiegherebbe la leggenda della sua spoliazione. Il fratello di Adelasia, Enrico del Vasto compare nel 1097 assieme a Bonifacio in una donazione alla canonica di Ferrania nel retroterra savonese, dimostrando, così che i propri diritti ereditari erano ancora in vigore. Una sua sorella sposò Giordano, figlio illegittimo di Ruggero I, suo marito.

Note

^ «Alla conclusione di tali matrimoni non furono estranei moventi di ordine politico: Ruggero I veniva insediando gli immigrati in una zona della Sicilia gravitante intorno all'Etna, zona che stava a cavaliere tra l'area occidentale abitata da Arabi e quella orientale popolata da Greco-Bizantini. Era suo interesse legare alla dinastia e ai conquistatori franco-normanni l'affine elemento italico, in cui primeggiavano i del Vasto, e fare di questi elementi etnici di origine latino-germanica un contrappeso agli altri due elementi, l'arabo e il greco, esistenti nell'isola». E. Pontieri da Adelasia del Vasto, ad vocem, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani.

Bibliografia

Renato Bordone, Il «Famosissimo marchese Bonifacio». Spunti per una storia degli Aleramici detti del Vasto, "Bollettino storico-bibliografico subalpino", LXXXI (1983), pp. 586–602. Vera von Falkenhausen, Zur Regentschaft der Gräfin Adelasia del Vasto in Kalabrien und Sizilien (1101-1112), in Studies in honour of Cyril Mango presented to him on April 14, 1998, edited by Ihor Shevchenko and Irmgard Hutter, Stuttgart-Leipzig 1998, pp. 87–115. Carlo Alberto Garufi, Gli Aleramici e i Normanni in Sicilia e nelle Puglie, in Centenario della nascita di Michele Amari, I, Palermo 1910 Pasquale Hamel, Adelaide del Vasto, Regina di Gerusalemme, Sellerio, Palermo, 1997. Hubert Houben, Adelaide «del Vasto» nella storia del regno di Sicilia in "Itinerari di ricerca storica. Pubblicazione annuale del Dipartimento di Studi Storici dal Medioevo all‘Età Contemporanea dell‘Università di Lecce", 4, 1990 [= 1991], pp. 9–40. Ernesto Pontieri, Adelaide del Vasto, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume I (1960) Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana Treccani Ernesto Pontieri, La madre di re Ruggero: Adelasia del Vasto, contessa di Sicilia, regina di Gerusalemme, in Atti del Convegno internazionale di Studi Ruggeriani, I, Palermo 1955, pp. 327–432. Vincenzo Fallica, Adelasia del Vasto, Paternò 2013 - [1]

Voci correlate

Storia della Sicilia normanna Gallo-italico di Sicilia Patti

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Adelaide del Vasto, signora di Savona's Timeline

1070
1070
Albon, Ardeche, Rhone-Alpes, France
1074
1074
Piedmont, Italy
1089
1089
Age 15
1093
1093
Age 19
1095
December 22, 1095
Age 21
Mileto, Vibo Valentia, Calabria, Italy
1113
September 1113
Age 39
Akko, , , , Israël,
1118
April 16, 1118
Age 44
Patti, Messina, Sicilia, Italy
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SUBMITTED
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SUBMITTED