Adelheid of Italy

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Adelheid

Also Known As: "Adélaïde", "Alda", "Adelheid", "Itta", "Aeda", "Adela", "Attala", "Atala"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Italy
Death: Died in Sachsen (Saxony), Carolingian Empire (Present Germany)
Place of Burial: Abbaye Saint-Arnould, Metz, (Present Lorraine), (Present France)
Immediate Family:

Daughter of "Pépin" Carloman, King of Italy, son of Charlemagne & Hildegard and Bertha de Toulouse, Queen of Italy
Wife of Lambert I, duca di Spoleto and Guido , duke of Spoleto
Mother of Guido de Nantes, duca di Spoleto; Avelina de Nantes; Werner, comte de Nantes; Lambert II, comte de Nantes; Itta di Spoleto and 4 others
Sister of Bertraide / Berthais d'Italia; Jenna or Genna Countess d'Italy and Senegonde
Half sister of Theodoric Count De Vermandois, Bourgogne; Theodrate d'Italie; Athalia; Bernard, King of Lombardy; Adula and 2 others

Occupation: morte jeune - Adelais (Pippinide)
Managed by: Michael Bonter
Last Updated:

About Adelheid of Italy

Ben M. Angel summary:

Relationships:

Parents:

Pepin I, King of Italy (born Carloman, 777-810)

Unknown mistress (for now, same as Bernard, though this is unproven)

Siblings (some or all of these may be half-siblings, all with father of Pepin):

1. Bernard (c.797-818)

3. Adula (800/810 - after 810)

4. Gundrada (800/810 - after 810)

5. Bertraide (800/810 - after 810)

6. Theodrada (800/810 - after 810)

Spouse:

(Unknown) Billung, Prince in Sachsen

Children:

Ode (d. 913), possible founder of Kloster Calbe an der Milde, wife of Liudolf (d. 866), progenitor of the Liudolfingers.

Basic information and justification:

Born c. 798/810 (conceived after her father's 796 campaign against the Avars) in presumably Milan, Italy (her father's capital).

Died in Saxony

Married (Unknown) Billung, Prince in Sachsen after 807. Note, this is not the same Billung as the father of Hermann Billung. She was not his mother.

Alternate names: Adelais, Adailhaid

---

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy Kings (covering her birth family with Pepin I of Italy):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#PepinIItalyB

CARLOMAN [Pepin], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (777-Milan 8 Jul 810, bur Verona, San Zeno Maggiore).

"Pippinus" is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' second son[614].

He was baptised "PEPIN" in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian, Settipani commenting that his name was changed from Carloman[615] but the primary source which identifies him by this name has not so far been identified.

He was crowned PEPIN King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome[616], named King of the Lombards and installed at Pavia, ruling under the regency of Adalhard. He invaded the duchy of Benevento in early 793.

The 796 victory of "rex Pippinus" against the Avars led by "Cacanus rex" (which reflects the title "Khagan" not his name) is commemorated in a contemporary poem[617]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Ehericum ducem Foroiuliensem, deinde…Pippinum filium regis" captured the camp of "Hunorum…Hringum" in 796, specifying that "Cagan et Iugurro principibus Hunorum" were killed by their own people[618].

At the partition of the empire agreed at Thionville in 806, Pepin was designated sovereign of Italy, Bavaria, Carinthia (except Nordgau) and Alemannia south of the River Danube. He subjugated Istria, the towns of Dalmatia, and Venice in [810][619].

The Annales Fuldenses record the death "810 VIII Id Iul" of "Pippinum filius eius regem Italiæ"[620]. The Annales Sancti Emmerammi record the death "810 Id Iul" of "Pippinus"[621].

Mistress (1): (from [795]) --- .

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Pepin's son Bernard was born "…ex concubina"[622]. However, other sources do not refer to the fact that he was illegitimate. The question is not beyond doubt.

Assuming that he was illegitimate, the name of King Pepin's mistress is not known. Settipani quotes a name list in the Liber confraternitatum augiensis which reads "Karolus maior domus, Pippin rex, Karlomannus maior domus, Karolus imperator, Karolus rex, Pippin rex, Bernardus rex, Ruadtrud, Ruadheid, Svanahild regina, Bertha regina, Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina, Ruadheid, Hirminkar regina"[623]. He makes the obvious links between "Karolus maior domus…Svanahild regina", "Pippin rex…Bertha regina" and "Karolus imperator…Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina", deducing that the last named "Ruadheid" must be linked logically to "Pippin rex".

However, this link is not inevitable. It is based on three assumptions: firstly that the second "Pippin rex" was Pepin King of Italy (he is the most likely candidate, but it could also be Pepin King of Aquitaine, son of Emperor Louis I); secondly that there are no female names linked either to "Karolus rex" or to "Bernardus rex", which cannot be proved; and thirdly, that all the females listed were partners of the males listed, which is certainly not the case in view of the absence of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" who is assumed to be the husband of "Hirminkar regina".

Rösch suggests Bertha as the possible name of King Pepin's wife, citing Stromeyer[624]. Settipani suggests that she was a close relative of Adalhard Abbé de Corbie and his half-brother Wala to explain the appointment of the former as regent for her son Bernard King of Italy in 813.

King Pepin had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

1. BERNARD ([797]-Milan 17 Aug 818, bur Milan, San Ambrosio).

Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina"[625].

He was confirmed 11 Sep 813 at Aix-la-Chapelle as BERNARD I King of Italy.

---

King Pepin had five [illegitimate] children by [Mistress (1)]. Einhard, who names these daughters, makes no mention of whether they were legitimate or not. If they were illegitimate, it is not known whether they were full sisters of Bernard.

2. ADELAIS ([798]-after 810).

"Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[626]. She was taken from Italy to the imperial court in 807[627].

same person as…? AEDA . The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[628]. Her precise origin is mentioned in the charter dated 885 by which "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, although the accuracy of this document is not known[629].

m BILLUNG, son of ---.

---

3. ADULA ([800/810]-after 810).

"Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[630]. She arrived at the imperial court before 814.

4. GUNTRADA ([800/810]-after 810).

"Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[631]. She arrived at the imperial court before 814.

5. BERTAIDE ([800/810]-after 810).

"Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[632]. She arrived at the imperial court before 814.

6. THEODRADA ([800/810]-after 810).

"Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[633].  She arrived at the imperial court before 814.  

[According to Winkhaus[634], one of the last four daughters married LAMBERT I Comte de Nantes, son of WIDO Comte et Marquis de Nantes & his wife --- (-Ticino 30 Dec 836), but the source on which this is based has not been identified.]

References:

[614] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265.

[615] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 211.

[616] RFA 781, p. 59.

[617] Tituli Sæculi VIII, XI De Pippini regis Victoria Avarica, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 116.

[618] Annales Fuldenses 796, MGH SS I, p. 351.

[619] Settipani (1993), p. 211.

[620] Annales Fuldenses 810, MGH SS I, p. 355.

[621] Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis maiores 810, MGH SS I, p. 93.

[622] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 22, MGH SS II, p. 596.

[623] Settipani (1993), pp. 167-8, quoting Liber confraternitatum augiensis, MGH Lib Confr II, 460, p. 292.

[624] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 67, citing Stromeyer, M. (1963/67) Merian-Ahnen aus dreizehn Jahrhunderten (C.A. Starke).

[625] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 22, MGH SS II, p. 596.

[626] Einhard 19, p. 454.

[627] Settipani (1993), p. 212.

[628] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306.

[629] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Raumer, G. W. von (1836) Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, Tome I (Berlin), p. 24.

[630] Einhard 19, p. 454.

[631] Einhard 19, p. 454.

[632] Einhard 19, p. 454.

[633] Einhard 19, p. 454.

[634] Winkhaus, E. 'Ahnen zu Karl dem Großen und Widukind' in 765 (773) Ahnenstämmen (1950-53), cited in Rösch (1977), p. 67. This marriage is not in Settipani (1993), p. 212.

---

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Saxony (covering her marriage with Billung):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#BillungMAeda

BILLUNG . Princeps.

---

m AEDA, daughter of --- & his wife --- [daughter of Pepin King of Italy] ([798/810]-).

The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[179]. Her precise origin is mentioned in the charter dated 885 by which "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, although the accuracy of this document is not known[180].

---

Billung & his wife had one child:

a) ODA (-17 May 913).

The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[181].

"Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, by charter dated 885[182].

"Arnolfus…rex" confirmed donations of his predecessor of land "in pago Nordthuringa dicto in comitatu Liudulfi in loco Uuanzleua" to Kloster Gandersheim naming "fideli costræ in sanctimoniali habitu constitutæ…Odæ" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92], which names "filia eius Gerberga abbatissa"[183]. "Otto…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Gandersheim "avo illius Sigihardo comiti in pago Chiemihgovue in comitatu Sigihardi" to "comiti nostro Eberhart" by charter dated 4 May 947 in which he names "proavo nostro Liutulfo…et eius coniuge Oda…et avo nostro Ottone" recalling their involvement in the foundation of the monastery[184].

m LIUDOLF, son of [BRUN[HART] & his wife ---] (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen).

References:

[179] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306.

[180] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, p. 24.

[181] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306.

[182] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, p. 24.

[183] D Arn 107, p. 157.

[184] D O I 89, p. 171.

--------------------

Not to be confused with:

The family of Guy de SPOLÈTE and Adélaïde d'ITALIE

[133904] SPOLÈTE (de), Guy (Lambert II .. & ..)

  • married 829

ITALIE (d'), Adélaïde (Pépin Ier & .. [10412])

     1) Rothilde, married about 851 Adalbert Ier de TOSCANE

Bibliographie : Le Sang de Charlemagne

http://www.francogene.com/quebec--genealogy/133/133904.php -------------------- According to the Wikipedia page of her father, Pepin the Short: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pepin_the_Short

Adelais died young and was buried at Metz. --------------------- From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Carolingian Kings (covering Adelais and parents): http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955191

PEPIN, son of CHARLES "Martel" & his first wife Chrothrudis (715-Saint-Denis 24 Sep 768, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).

Einhard names "Karlomannum…et Pippinum atque Grifonem" as the three sons of "Karlus maior domus" when recording the latter's death[1].

He succeeded his father as maior domus jointly with his brother Carloman. They deprived their half-brother Grifo of his inheritance and defeated him after he rebelled against them. In the division of territories agreed with his brother Carloman, Pepin governed Neustria, Burgundy, Provence, Metz and Trier.

The brothers were faced with revolts in Frisia, Bavaria, Alemannia and Aquitaine. As a symbolic assertion of their authority, they nominated Childeric III as Merovingian king in 743.

In 745, Pepin appropriated the province of Alemannia for himself. He deposed King Childeric III at Soissons in Nov 751, with approval from Pope Zacharius[2], and succeeded as PEPIN “le Bref” King of the Franks. He was anointed king at Saint-Denis 28 Jul 754 by Pope Stephen III [II], who had come to France to seek Pepin's help against the Lombards[3].

During his expedition to Italy the following year, Pepin obliged the Lombards to accept the independence of Rome, marking the beginning of the Papal State.

He captured Narbonne from the Muslim invaders in [759], and finally conquered Aquitaine after the death of Duke Waifar in 768.

The necrology of Prüm records the death "768 VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus vir illuster"[4]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pipinus rex"[5]. The Annales Metenses record the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Pippinus" and his burial "in basilica beati Dionysii"[6].

His burial place is confirmed by the Annales Laurissenses which record that the body of "domna Berta regina" was transferred to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[7].

m ([743/44]) BERTRADA [Berta] "au Grand Pied", daughter of CHARIBERT Comte de Laon & his wife --- ([720]-Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne 12 Jul 783[8], bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).

The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 749 of "Bertradem cognomine Bertam, Cariberti Laudunensis comitis filiam" and "Pippinus"[9]. "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus"[10].

Pepin planned to divorce his wife, but was convinced otherwise by Pope Paul I in 762.

After the death of her husband, she assumed a prominent role in government. She tried unsuccessfully to reconcile her two sons, meeting with Carloman at Seltz and also travelling to Italy in 770[11]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[12].

The Annales Laurissenses record the death "783 IV Id Jul" of "domna Berta regina", her burial "in Cauciaco", and the subsequent transfer of her body to "ecclesia sancti Dionysii martiris" next to her husband[13]. The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "IV Id Jul" of "Bertrada regina"[14].

King Pepin & his wife had six children:

6. ADELAIS (-young, bur Metz, Saint Arnoul).

"Adelaid" is named daughter of King Pepin in the Pauli Gesta, when recording her place of burial[47]. Paulus Diaconus wrote a poem in memory of "Adheleidis filiæ [Pippini regis]"[48].

References:

[1] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. [2] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 749, p. 39. [3] RFA 753 and 754, p. 40. [4] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. [5] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 327. [6] Annales Metenses 768, MGH SS I, p. 335. [7] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. [8] RFA 783, p. 61. [9] Annales Laurissenses 749, MGH SS I, p. 136. [10] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. [11] RFA 770, p. 48. [12] Annales Fuldenses 770, MGH SS I, p. 348. [13] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. [14] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 348. [47] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. [48] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, XXI Epitaphium Adheleidis filiæ cuius supra, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 57. ------------------------- From the Annales ecclesiastici francorum, Volume 5: http://books.google.cl/books?id=TvU-AAAAcAAJ&pg=RA1-PA265&lpg=RA1-PA265&dq=Paulus+Diaconus+Adheleidis&source=bl&ots=3orzV4byeR&sig=lEgicR7QLPdcD0ii9CncuELu_aA&hl=es&ei=kL_fTLGJOYG0lQf6t8TIAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Paulus%20Diaconus%20Adheleidis&f=false

Paulus Diaconus' poem:

Sequitut epitaphium Adheleidis:

Perpetualu amor capienda et caufa falutu

  Pectore quem vigili huc properare facit.

Neffe cupu, cur bufta facer numerofa retentet

  Hic locus, afirigeri qua patet aula poli ?

Iste facer Domini qui poft fermauit onile,

  Legitimi fuerat germinis ante pater

Cuius pofteritas atano confifa Patrono,

  Hoc cupit in fancto ponere membra loco.

Pippini hic proles Adheleid pia virgo quiefcit,

  Quam fimul et reliques facte tuere Pater.

Temus V.

(Latin-English translation, anyone?)

view all 35

Adelheid of Italy's Timeline

785
785
Nantes, Loire Atlantique, Anjou Pays De La Loire, France
787
787
West Francia
795
795
Nantes, Pays de la Loire, France
807
807
Italy
808
808
Age 1
Nantes, Anjou, Loire-Atlantique, Pays-De-La-Loire, France
810
810
Age 3
Sachsen (Saxony), Carolingian Empire (Present Germany)
815
815
Age 3
820
820
Age 3
822
822
Age 3
Italy
830
830
Age 3