Admor Hatzemach Tzedek מנחם מנדל שניאורסון, הצמח צדק

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Menachem Mendel Schneerson [3rd ADMOR of CHABAD], מנחם מנדל שניאורסון, הצמח צדק

Nicknames: "of Shklov", "צמח צדק", "Tzemach Tzedek", "3rd Admor of Chabad Lubavitch", ""צמח צדק"", ""Zemach Zedek"", ""Цемах-Цедек""
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Lizna, Belarus
Death: Died in Lyubavichi, Province of Smolensk, Russian Federation
Place of Burial: Lyubavichi, Province of Smolensk, Russian Federation
Immediate Family:

Son of Shalom Shachna Altschuler [father Tzemach Tzedek] שלום שכנא אלטשולר; Shalom Шолом Shachna Шахна Altschuler Альтшуллер; Dvorah דבורה Leah לאה Altschuler אלטשולר and Двора Лея Шнеерсон Dvora Lea Shneerson
Husband of Chaya Mushka Schneerson [3rd CHABAD Rbzn] חיה מושקה שנאורסון and chaya mushka schneersohn
Father of Rabbi Baruch Shalom Schneerson (RABASH); Yehuda Leib Schneersohn, of Kapust; Rabbi Israel Noach Schneerson [HaRin of Nizhin] ישראל נח שניאורסון - הרי"ן; Chaim Shneur Zalman Schneerson [of Liadi] חיים שניאור זלמן שניאורסון; Yosef Yitzchak Schneerson [of Ovruch] יוסף יצחק שניאורסון and 7 others
Half brother of Menachem Mendel Schneerson; Debora of Karlin Shakhna and Ester Hadass Altschuller

Occupation: 3rd ADMOR of CHABAD, 3rd Lubavicher Rebbe, Third Chabad Rebbe, раввин, третий цадик Хабада
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Menachem Mendel Schneerson [3rd ADMOR of CHABAD], מנחם מנדל שניאורסון, הצמח צדק

Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (1789-09-09 - 1866-03-17 OS) also known as the Tzemach Tzedek was an Orthodox rabbi and the third Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch chasidic movement.

Biography

The Tzemach Tzedek was born in Liozna, on 29 Elul 5549. His mother Devorah Leah died just three years later, and her father Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi raised him as his own son. He married his first cousin Chaya Mushka, daughter of Rabbi Dovber Schneuri. After his father-in-law/uncle's death, and a three-year interregnum during which he tried to persuade the hasidim to accept his brother-in-law Menachem-Nachum Schneuri or his uncle Chaim-Avraham Boruchovitch as their leader, he assumed the leadership of Lubavitch on the eve of Shavuot 5591 (1831-05-05 OS).

He was known as the Tzemach Tzedek ("Righteous Sprout" or "Righteous Scion"), after the title of a voluminous compendium of halakha (Jewish law) that he authored. He also authored Derech Mitzvotecha ("Way of Your Commandments"), a mystical exposition of the Mitzvos. He compiled major works of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi for publication, including the Siddur Mi'Kol Ha'Shanah (commonly known as Siddur Im Dach), Likutei Torah and Torah Ohr. He also authored a philosophical text entitled "Sefer Chakira: Derech Emuna" (Book of Philosophy: The way of Faith).

The Tzemach Tzedek had close ties with other Jewish leaders. In the course of his battle against the Haskalah in Russia, he forged a close alliance with Rabbi Yitzchak of Volozhin, a major leader of the misnagdim, which led to warmer relations between them and the hasidim.

His close friendship with professor I Berstenson, the Tsar's court physician often helped the delicate negotiation relating to the welfare of the community.

He set up an organisation called Hevras Techiyas Hameisim to assist Jewish boy-soldiers who were being recruited and converted to Christianity by the Russian army. These soldiers known as Cantonists were taken away from the Jewish community to other villages. Schneersohn arranged for his students to pay them regular visits to keep up their spirits and discourage them from converting.

In 1844-45 he took steps to increase the enrollment and viability of the Chabad Yeshivas in Dubrovno and Kalisk, expanding their enrollment to around 600 students in total. Repeated attempts by the authorities to entrap him using informers such as Hershel Hodesh, Benjamin the Apostate and Lipman Feldman failed.

He died in Lubavitch on 13 Nissan 5626, leaving seven sons and two daughters.

The sons were:

1. Rabbi Baruch Shalom (1805-1869) never became a Rebbe. He led his life in a very humble way despite his greatness. His great-great-grandson is the Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the seventh Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch.

2. Rabbi Yehuda Leib Schneersohn (Maharil) (1808-1866) settled in Kopust. A few months after the death of his father (and the brothers were not able to reach an agreement), he moved to Kopust as Rebbe. He died two months later. He had three sons:

   * Rabbi Shlomo Zalman (1830-1900), who assumed his father’s position in Kopust. He left no worthy successor. He is the author of Magen Avos.
   * Rabbi Shalom Duber (-1908) served as rabbi in Retzitza. He had a following after the death of his brother Rabbi Shlomo Zalman. He had no successor.
   * Rabbi Shmaryahu Noach (1842-1924) was Rav in Babroisk. He had a following after the death of his brother Rabbi Shlomo Zalman. He and his son had a Yeshiva in Babroisk. He is the author of Shemen La'maor. He had no successor.

3. Rabbi Chaim Schneur Zalman (1814-1880) was Rebbe in Lyady after his father, the Tzemach Tzedek died. He was succeeded by his son, Rabbi Yitzchak Duber (1835-1910) of Liadi, author of Siddur Maharid, and his son-in-law, Rabbi Levi Yitzchak (-1905) of Siratin, a scion of the Rebbe of Radzimin.

4. Rabbi Yisroel Noach (1815-1883) of Nizhyn, although officially a Rebbe, had only a small following. His son was Rabbi Avraham Schneerson of Kischinev, whose daughter, Nechama Dina Schneersohn, married Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, the sixth Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch.

5. Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak (1822-1876) was a Rebbe in Ovruch. He was compelled to assume this position by his father-in-law, Rabbi Yaakov Yisroel of Cherkas (son of Rabbi Mordechai of Chernobyl and son-in-law of the Mitteler Rebbe) against his father’s wishes.

6. Rabbi Yaakov, although leaving descendants, died at quite a young age. Little is known about him.

7. Rabbi Shmuel (Maharash) (1834-1882) of Lubavitch, his youngest son succeeded him as the Rebbe of Lubavitch.

רבי מנחם מנדל שניאורסון (כ"ט באלול תקמ"ט - י"ג בניסן תרכ"ו; 20 בספטמבר 1789 - 29 במרץ 1866), מכונה "הצמח צדק" (על שם ספרו). האדמו"ר השלישי בשושלת אדמו"רי חסידות חב"ד,

שעמד בראשה משנת 1827 ועד לפטירתו בשנת 1866

קורות חייו

נולד בעיירה ליוזנא שבבלארוס להוריו רבי שלום שכנא אלטשולר , ואמו הרבנית דבורה לאה בתו של רבי שניאור זלמן שניאורסון מלאדי - בעל התניא. כשהיה בן שלוש התייתם מאמו, ועל פי צוואתה עבר להתגורר עם סבו "בעל התניא", שמאז גדלו ולמדו. בשנת 1803 (בגיל 14) התחתן עם בת דודו, חיה מושקא, בתו של "אדמו"ר האמצעי" (בן בעל התניא). פעל רבות להצלת בחורים יהודים מגזירת הקנטוניסטים. עקב מלחמותיו הרבות נגד המשכילים היהודים, ישב במעצר עשרים ושתיים פעמים. ה"צמח צדק" נחשב לתלמיד חכם עצום, ומכל קצות רוסיה נשלחו אליו שאלות הלכתיות. תשובותיו וחידושיו קובצו בספרים "צמח צדק" הנלמדים עד היום. מסופר עליו כי החל מגיל 12 החל לכתוב חידושי תורה, וכי במשך חייו כתב כמות אדירה של חידושי תורה. חלק מכתביו יצא לאור, הן מהנגלה שבתורה והן מפנימיות התורה, עד עתה קרוב למאה כרכים. וכמות כתבי היד שלו הנמצאת בספריית חב"ד, עולה בכמותה על הכמות שנדפסה עד עתה. כתבי יד רבים משל אדמו"ר ה"צמח-צדק", אבדו במשך השנים, חלקם נמצאו וכבר יצאו לאור עולם, וחלקם עדיין לא נמצאו

חיבוריו

שו"ת צמח צדק, מהדורה ראשונה, וילנא, תרל"ב

צמח צדק - שאלות ותשובות הלכתיות, פסקי דינים, וחידושים על הש"ס. שם ספר בא לרמז על שם המחבר (בכתיב המקובל בשפת היידיש) - "מנחם מענדל" בגימטריה "צמח צדק".

דרך מצוותיך - טעמי המצוות על-פי תורת החסידות.

ביאורי הזוהר- ביאור מאמרים מהזוהר.

ספר החקירה - דרך אמונה - ספר פילוסופי-מחקרי בסגנון "מורה הנבוכים" של ה"רמב"ם", ספר העיקרים, ועוד. (הספר נכתב לערך בשנת תר"ג, שנה שבה הרבה הרבי הצמח צדק להתווכח עם אלה שניסו לשנות חוקים ברוסיא בנוגע לדת ישראל).

אור התורה - ארבעים ושניים כרכים של ביאורי חסידות על התורה, המועדים והנ"ך (נביאים וכתובים).

ספר הליקוטים - סדרה בת כמה עשרות כרכים, על בסיס אנציקלופדיה, שהודפסה על ספריו.

יורשיו

לצמח צדק היו שבעה בנים, ושתי בנות (בן אחד (ר' יעקב) נפטר בגיל צעיר).

בנו הבכור, רבי ברוך שלום, נשאר אחר פטירת אביו בעיירה ליובאוויטש, וסירב לקבל משרת אדמו"ר (רבי מנחם מנדל שניאורסון - הרבי מליובאוויטש הוא נכד נכדו. בנו של רבי לוי יצחק בנו של רבי ברוך שניאור בנו של רבי לוי יצחק בנו של רבי ברוך שלום).

בנו השני, רבי יהודה לייב (המהרי"ל), הקים אחר פטירת אביו את חצר "חב"ד - קאפוסט", הוא עצמו נפטר חצי שנה אחרי אביו, אך בניו המשיכו לנהל את החצר.

בנו השלישי, רבי ישראל נח (המהרי"ן), הקים אחר פטירת אביו את חצר "חב"ד - ניעז'ין", אך לחצר זו לא היה המשך.

בנו הרביעי, רבי חיים שניאור זלמן, הקים אחר פטירת אביו את חצר "חב"ד - לאדי", את החצר הזו ניהל אחריו בנו, אך אחר-כך התפרקה החסידות.

בנו החמישי, רבי יוסף יצחק, הקים אחר פטירת אביו את חצר "אוורוטש", חצר זו לא הייתה חצר בסגנון חב"די, אלא בסגנון חסידות צ'רנוביל.

בנו השישי, רבי שמואל (מהר"ש), מילא את מקום אביו בליובאוויטש, והמשיך את שולשלת חב"ד ליובאוויטש.

--------------------

God's Middlemen - A Habad Retrospective

by

Bezalel Naor

Rabbi Menahem Mendel Schneersohn - Tzemach Tzedek

Orphaned at an early age and raised in the Alter Rebbe's home, R. Menahem Mendel benefited from an unusually close relationship with his maternal grandfather. Until his marriage, his grandfather would take his beloved grandson under his tallis during Birchat Cohanim.

What sets the grandfather, Shneur Zalman and grandson, Menahem Mendel apart from the other members of the Schneersohn dynasty is the fact that they alone, on account of their halakhic genius and output, were embraced universally (even, begrudgingly, by mitnagdim) as authorities on Halacha.  In fact, Menaham Mendel in generally referred to as Tzemah Tzedek after the title of his collection of halakhic responsa.

Rabbi Menahem Mendel was as eclectic as he was prolific. ( He was able to fill a page of 35 lines in 5 minutes flat, and in the course of a lifetime penned 24,0000 signatures, or 192,000 pages!). As his grandfather before him, he was equally adept at Jewish Law, Philosophy and Kabbalah. But whereas the Alter Rebbe for the most part keeps the two disciplines of halakah (law and kabbalah (mysticism) separate, his grandson attempts a fascinating fusion of the two.

==========

Admorim of Chabad Lubavitch Chassidic Dynasty

1)

http://www.geni.com/people/Admor-Shneur-Zalman-of-Liadi-Boruchovitch-שניאור-זלמן-מליאדי-מייסד-חב-ד/6000000001480663764#/tab/overview

2)

http://www.geni.com/people/Dov-Ber-Shneuri-The-Mittler-Rebbe-דב-בער-שניאורי-האדמור-האמצעי/6000000001481205017#/tab/overview

3)

http://www.geni.com/people/Admor-Hatzemach-Tzedek-מנחם-מנדל-שניאורסון-הצמח-צדק/6000000001481810190#/tab/overview

4)

http://www.geni.com/people/Shmuel-Schneerson-4th-Admor-of-CHABAD-MaHaRash-שמואל-שניאורסון-מהר-ש/6000000001482805762#/tab/overview

5)

http://www.geni.com/people/Shalom-Dovber-Schneerson-RaShab-5th-Admor-of-CHABAD-הרש-אב/6000000001483207218#/tab/overview

6)

http://www.geni.com/people/Admor-Yosef-Yitzchok-Schneerson-Rayatz-6th-Admor-of-CHABAD-הרי-יץ/6000000001483982111#/tab/overview

7)

http://www.geni.com/people/Menachem-Mendel-Schneerson-7th-ADMOR-of-CHABAD-The-Lubavitcher-הלובביצ-ר/6000000001484129751#/tab/overview

-------------------- Family book of Rabbi from Ladi, ref #44 -------------------- Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (1789-09-09 - 1866-03-17 OS) also known as the Tzemach Tzedek was an Orthodox rabbi and the third Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch chasidic movement. The Tzemach Tzedek was born in Liozna, on 29 Elul 5549. His mother Devorah Leah died just three years later, and her father Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi raised him as his own son. He married his first cousin Chaya Mushka, daughter of Rabbi Dovber Schneuri. After his father-in-law/uncle's death, and a three-year interregnum during which he tried to persuade the hasidim to accept his brother-in-law Menachem-Nachum Schneuri or his uncle Chaim-Avraham Boruchovitch as their leader[1], he assumed the leadership of Lubavitch on the eve of Shavuot 5591 (1831-05-05 OS).

He was known as the Tzemach Tzedek ("Righteous Sprout" or "Righteous Scion"), after the title of a voluminous compendium of halakha (Jewish law) that he authored.[2] He also authored Derech Mitzvotecha ("Way of Your Commandments"), a mystical exposition of the Mitzvos. He compiled major works of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi for publication, including the Siddur Mi'Kol Ha'Shanah (commonly known as Siddur Im Dach), Likutei Torah and Torah Ohr. He also authored a philosophical text entitled "Sefer Chakira: Derech Emuna" (Book of Philosophy: The way of Faith).

The Tzemach Tzedek had close ties with other Jewish leaders. In the course of his battle against the Haskalah in Russia, he forged a close alliance with Rabbi Yitzchak of Volozhin, a major leader of the misnagdim, which led to warmer relations between them and the hasidim.[3]

According to Baruch Epstein, his father Rabbi Yechiel Michel Epstein spent six months under the Tzemach Tzedek's tutelage, and learned most of his mystical knowledge during that time. This story is disputed.[4]

His close friendship with professor I Berstenson, the Tsar's court physician often helped the delicate negotiation relating to the welfare of the community.[1]

He set up an organisation called Hevras Techiyas Hameisim to assist Jewish boy-soldiers who were being recruited and converted to Christianity by the Russian army. These soldiers known as Cantonists were taken away from the Jewish community to other villages. Schneersohn arranged for his students to pay them regular visits to keep up their spirits and discourage them from converting.[1]

In 1844-45 he took steps to increase the enrollment and viability of the Chabad Yeshivas in Dubrovna and Kalisz, expanding their enrollment to around 600 students in total.[1] Repeated attempts by the authorities to entrap him using informers such as Hershel Hodesh, Benjamin the Apostate and Lipman Feldman failed.[5]

He died in Lubavitch on 13 Nissan 5626, leaving seven sons and two daughters.

[edit] Sons

The Tzemach Tzedek had seven sons.[6] They were:

1. Rabbi Baruch Shalom (1805-1869) never became a Rebbe. He led his life in a very humble way despite his greatness. His great-great-grandson is the Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the seventh Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch.

Part of a series on

770

Chabad Hasidism

Rebbes of Lubavitch

1. Shneur Zalman of Liadi

2. Dovber Schneuri

3. Menachem Mendel Schneersohn

4. Shmuel Schneersohn

5. Sholom Dovber Schneersohn

6. Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn

7. Menachem Mendel Schneerson

History

770 Eastern Parkway · 19 Kislev · Ohel

Chabad library · Crown Heights Riot · 11 Nissan

Brooklyn Bridge Shooting · 3 Tammuz

Organisations

Agudas Chasidei Chabad · Chabad on Campus

Tzivos Hashem · Chabad.org · Kehos · Library

Gan Israel · Sheloh · Jewish Relief Agency

Children's Museum · JLI · Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch

Ohr Avner · Colel Chabad · Kol Menachem

Notable figures

Hillel Paritcher · S. Z. Fradkin · Itche Der Masmid

C. M. A. Hodakov · L. Y. Schneerson · Nissan Neminov

Leib Groner · C. M. Schneerson· Shemaryahu Gurary

Manis Friedman · Yehuda Chitrik · Berel Lazar

Yehuda Krinsky · Z. M. HaYitzchaki · Yoel Kahn

Herman Branover · Yitzchak Ginsburgh

Communities

Crown Heights · Kfar Chabad

Texts

Hayom Yom · Igrot Kodesh · Tanya · Likkutei Sichos

Tehillat HaShem · Shulchan Aruch HaRav

Schools

Bais Rivka · Hadar Hatorah · Yeshivah College

Oholei Torah · Tomchei Temimim · Ohel Chana

Yeshivah Gedolah · Beth Rivkah · Machon Chana

Rabbinical College · Ohr Avner · Mayanot

Outreach

Mitzvah Campaigns · Chabad house · Mitzvah tank

Tefillin · Noahide laws · Shliach · Letter in Sefer Torah

Terminology

Chitas · Mashpia · Meiniach · Farbrengen

Nusach Ari · Choizer · Chabadnitze

Related Topics

Strashelye · Kapust · Controversies · Messianism

v • d • e

2. Rabbi Yehuda Leib Schneersohn (Maharil) (1808-1866) settled in Kopust. A few months after the death of his father (and the brothers were not able to reach an agreement), he moved to Kopust as Rebbe. He died two months later. He had three sons:

   * Rabbi Shlomo Zalman (1830-1900), who assumed his father’s position in Kopust. He left no worthy successor. He is the author of Magen Avos.
   * Rabbi Shalom Duber (-1908) served as rabbi in Retzitza. He had a following after the death of his brother Rabbi Shlomo Zalman. He had no successor.
   * Rabbi Shmaryahu Noach (1842-1924) was Rav in Babroisk. He had a following after the death of his brother Rabbi Shlomo Zalman. He and his son had a Yeshiva in Babroisk. He is the author of Shemen La'maor. He had no successor.

3. Rabbi Chaim Schneur Zalman (1814-1880) was Rebbe in Lyady after his father, the Tzemach Tzedek died. He was succeeded by his son, Rabbi Yitzchak Duber (1835-1910) of Liadi, author of Siddur Maharid, and his son-in-law, Rabbi Levi Yitzchak (-1905) of Siratin, a scion of the Rebbe of Radzimin.

4. Rabbi Yisroel Noach (1815-1883) of Nizhyn, although officially a Rebbe, had only a small following. His son was Rabbi Avraham Schneerson of Kischinev, whose daughter, Nechama Dina Schneersohn, married Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, the sixth Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch.

5. Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak (1822-1876) was a Rebbe in Ovruch. He was compelled to assume this position by his father-in-law, Rabbi Yaakov Yisroel of Cherkas (son of Rabbi Mordechai of Chernobyl and son-in-law of the Mitteler Rebbe) against his father’s wishes.

6. Rabbi Yaakov, although leaving descendants, died at quite a young age. Little is known about him.

7. Rabbi Shmuel (Maharash) (1834-1882) of Lubavitch, his youngest son succeeded him as the Rebbe of Lubavitch.[1]

Ohr HaTorah

Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson said of the Tzemach Tzedek's work "Ohr HaTorah" that it contains all the previous and future teachings of the Chabad Rebbes.[7]

Noted students
   * Rabbi Hillel Paritcher
   * Rabbi Shneur Zalman Fradkin of Lublin
Works
   * Ohr HaTorah - Chassidic discourses[8]
   * Sefer HaLikkutim - A Chassidic encyclopedia[9]
   * Derech Mitzvosecha - An explanation of the mystical reasons for the Mitzvos[10]
   * Responsa Tzemach Tzedek - 8 vols.
   * Sefer Chakira: Derech Emunah - exposition of Jewish philosophy
External links
   * A brief biography of Rabbi Menachem Mendel, the "Tzemach Tzedek"
   * The Tzemach Tzedek and the Haskalah movement in hebrew
   * The Tzemach Tzedek Family Tree
   * Many Published Works of the Tzemach Tzedek (Hebrew)
Footnotes
  1. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of Hasidism, entry: Schneersohn, Menachem Mendel. Naftali Lowenthal. Aronson, London 1996. ISBN 1568211236
  2. ^ "Tzemach" (צמח) has the same gematria as "Menachem" (מנחם), and "Tzedek" (צדק) has the same as "Mendel" (מענדל). The original responsa Tzemach Tzedek were those of Menachem Mendel Krochmal. Schneersohn's responsa are known as Shu"t Tzemach Tzedek Hachadashot, "the new Tzemach Tzedek responsa". Rabbi Menachem Mendil Hager, the first Viznhitzer Rebbe, called his commentary on the Torah Tzemach Tzadik (צמח צדיק), because he spelled his name with an extra yod (מענדיל).
  3. ^ The Tzemach Tzedek and the Haskalah Movement, Official Chabad history.
  4. ^ The claim is in Mekor Baruch, chapter 20. But see Mekor Baruch - Mekor Hakzavim by Yehoshua Mondshein.
  5. ^ Sefer HaToldos Rav Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn MiLubavitch, Glitzenstein, A. H.
  6. ^ The introduction to Hayom Yom, written by Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson.
  7. ^ Sefer HaSichos 5752, Vol. 1, p. 6
  8. ^ Ohr HaTorah at the Kehot website
  9. ^ Sefer HaLikkutim at the Kehot website
 10. ^ In English: Part one Part two In Hebrew

Preceded by

Dovber Schneuri Rebbe of Lubavitch

1831—1866 Succeeded by

Shmuel Schneersohn -------------------- http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A6%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%85-%D0%A6%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BA

Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (1789-09-09 - 1866-03-17 OS) also known as the Tzemach Tzedek was an Orthodox rabbi and the third Rebbe (spiritual leader) of the Chabad Lubavitch chasidic movement.

Biography

The Tzemach Tzedek was born in Liozna, on 29 Elul 5549. His mother Devorah Leah died just three years later, and her father Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi raised him as his own son. He married his first cousin Chaya Mushka, daughter of Rabbi Dovber Schneuri. After his father-in-law/uncle's death, and a three-year interregnum during which he tried to persuade the hasidim to accept his brother-in-law Menachem-Nachum Schneuri or his uncle Chaim-Avraham Boruchovitch as their leader, he assumed the leadership of Lubavitch on the eve of Shavuot 5591 (1831-05-05 OS).

He was known as the Tzemach Tzedek ("Righteous Sprout" or "Righteous Scion"), after the title of a voluminous compendium of halakha (Jewish law) that he authored. He also authored Derech Mitzvotecha ("Way of Your Commandments"), a mystical exposition of the Mitzvos. He compiled major works of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi for publication, including the Siddur Mi'Kol Ha'Shanah (commonly known as Siddur Im Dach), Likutei Torah and Torah Ohr. He also authored a philosophical text entitled "Sefer Chakira: Derech Emuna" (Book of Philosophy: The way of Faith).

The Tzemach Tzedek had close ties with other Jewish leaders. In the course of his battle against the Haskalah in Russia, he forged a close alliance with Rabbi Yitzchak of Volozhin, a major leader of the misnagdim, which led to warmer relations between them and the hasidim.

His close friendship with professor I Berstenson, the Tsar's court physician often helped the delicate negotiation relating to the welfare of the community.

He set up an organisation called Hevras Techiyas Hameisim to assist Jewish boy-soldiers who were being recruited and converted to Christianity by the Russian army. These soldiers known as Cantonists were taken away from the Jewish community to other villages. Schneersohn arranged for his students to pay them regular visits to keep up their spirits and discourage them from converting.

In 1844-45 he took steps to increase the enrollment and viability of the Chabad Yeshivas in Dubrovno and Kalisk, expanding their enrollment to around 600 students in total. Repeated attempts by the authorities to entrap him using informers such as Hershel Hodesh, Benjamin the Apostate and Lipman Feldman failed.

He died in Lubavitch on 13 Nissan 5626, leaving seven sons and two daughters.

The sons were:

1. Rabbi Baruch Shalom (1805-1869) never became a Rebbe. He led his life in a very humble way despite his greatness. His great-great-grandson is the Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the seventh Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch.

2. Rabbi Yehuda Leib Schneersohn (Maharil) (1808-1866) settled in Kopust. A few months after the death of his father (and the brothers were not able to reach an agreement), he moved to Kopust as Rebbe. He died two months later. He had three sons:

  * Rabbi Shlomo Zalman (1830-1900), who assumed his father’s position in Kopust. He left no worthy successor. He is the author of Magen Avos.
  * Rabbi Shalom Duber (-1908) served as rabbi in Retzitza. He had a following after the death of his brother Rabbi Shlomo Zalman. He had no successor.
  * Rabbi Shmaryahu Noach (1842-1924) was Rav in Babroisk. He had a following after the death of his brother Rabbi Shlomo Zalman. He and his son had a Yeshiva in Babroisk. He is the author of Shemen La'maor. He had no successor.

3. Rabbi Chaim Schneur Zalman (1814-1880) was Rebbe in Lyady after his father, the Tzemach Tzedek died. He was succeeded by his son, Rabbi Yitzchak Duber (1835-1910) of Liadi, author of Siddur Maharid, and his son-in-law, Rabbi Levi Yitzchak (-1905) of Siratin, a scion of the Rebbe of Radzimin.

4. Rabbi Yisroel Noach (1815-1883) of Nizhyn, although officially a Rebbe, had only a small following. His son was Rabbi Avraham Schneerson of Kischinev, whose daughter, Nechama Dina Schneersohn, married Rabbi Yosef Yitzchok Schneersohn, the sixth Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch.

5. Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak (1822-1876) was a Rebbe in Ovruch. He was compelled to assume this position by his father-in-law, Rabbi Yaakov Yisroel of Cherkas (son of Rabbi Mordechai of Chernobyl and son-in-law of the Mitteler Rebbe) against his father’s wishes.

6. Rabbi Yaakov, although leaving descendants, died at quite a young age. Little is known about him.

7. Rabbi Shmuel (Maharash) (1834-1882) of Lubavitch, his youngest son succeeded him as the Rebbe of Lubavitch.

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Admor Hatzemach Tzedek מנחם מנדל שניאורסון, הצמח צדק's Timeline

1789
September 20, 1789
Lizna, Belarus
1803
1803
Age 13
Belarus
1805
1805
Age 15
1811
1811
Age 21
1814
1814
Age 24
1816
1816
Age 26
Lubawitch
1822
1822
Age 32
Lubawitch, Belarus
1831
May 5, 1831
- March 17, 1866
Age 41
Lubawitch, Belarus
1834
May 11, 1834
Age 44
Lyubavichi, Province of Smolensk, Russian Federation
1866
March 29, 1866
Age 76
Lyubavichi, Province of Smolensk, Russian Federation