Aethelwulf, King of Wessex

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Æþelwulf

Nicknames: "Noble Wolf", "King Ethelwulf of Wessex - Sussex - Kent - /Essex/", "King Ethelwulf /Of Wussex/", "Aethelwulf", "Ethelwulf", "King Æthelwulf of /England/", "Ethelwulf King Of /WESSEX/", "Ethelwulf King of /Wessex/", "King of Wessex /Aethelwulf/", "AEthelwulf", "beowulf"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Wessex Kingdom, England
Death: Died in England
Place of Burial: Winchester, Hampshire, England
Immediate Family:

Son of Egbert, King of Wessex and Rædburh, Queen Consort of Wessex
Husband of Osburga, Queen Consort of Wessex and Judith, Queen of Wessex, Countess of Flanders
Father of Æthelstan of Wessex, King of Kent; Ethelswith, Queen of Mercia; Aethelbald, King of Wessex; Aethelbert, King of Wessex, Essex & Kent; Ethelred I 'the Pious', King of Wessex & Kent and 1 other

Occupation: King of Wessex 839-855, King of England, King, Galliard, King of Wessex, Konge
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Æþelwulf

ETHELWULF, died June 13, 858 in Stamridge, Wessex, England; King of England in 839; married (1st) OSBURH, born about 810 in Wessex, England; daughter of OSLAC, descendant of the Jutes of Wight;

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Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

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Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles, of which Æthelwulf partook. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", probably Ockley or Oakley in Surrey. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Ethelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[1] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile."

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.]

In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.

Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on January 13, 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions- all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 515.]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral.

The gold ring, depicted in the picture, is about an inch across, richly decorated with religious symbols, is inscribed Æthelwulf Rex and was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in 1780; it was believed to have been a gift from Æthelwulf to a loyal follower.

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Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

for more info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf_of_Wessex

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LINEAGE

ADAM, mortal creation about 4000 BC; died about 3070 BC

SETH, born about 3870 BC; died about 2978 BC

ENOSH, born about 3765 BC; died about 2860 BC

CAINAN (KENAN), born about 3675 BC; died about 2765 BC

MAHALALEEL (MAHALALEL), born about 3605 BC; died about 2710 BC

JARED, born about 3540 BC; died about 2578 BC

ENOCH, born about 3378 BC; walked with God about 3013 BC

METHUSELAH, born about 3313 BC; died about 2344 BC

LAMECH, born about 3126 BC; died about 2349 BC

NOAH, born about2944 BC; died about 1994 BC

SHEM, born about 2442 BC; died about 1842 BC

ARPHAXAD, born about 2342 BC; died about 1904 BC

SALAH, born about 2307 BC; died about 1874 BC

EBER, born about 2277 BC; died about 1814 BC

PELEG, born about 2244 BC; died about 2004 BC

REU, born about 2213 BC; died about 1973 BC

SERUG, born about 2181 BC; died about 1951 BC

NAHOR, born about 2152 BC; died about 2003 BC

TERAH, born about 2122 BC; died about 1917 BC

ABRAHAM, born about 2046 BC; died about 1872 BC; married SARAH

ISSAC, born about 1946 BC; died about 1766 BC; married REBEKAH

JACOB or ISRAEL, born about 1886 BC; died about 1739 BC

JUDAH

ZARAH

DARDA

ERICHTHONIUS

TROS

ILUS

LACMEDON

PRIAM, King of Troy

Daughter of PRIAM married MENNON

TROR or THOR

VINGENER

HLORITHA

EIARIDI

VINGETHORR

WINGENER

MODA

MAGI

SESKEF

BEDWEG

HWALA

ATHRA

ITORMANN

HEREMOD

SCEAF

SCEALDEA

BEOWA

TECTI

GEATA

GODWULF

FLOCWALD

FINN, born about 140 in Asia or Eastern Europe; married Mrs. FINN, born about 143; their son

FREOTHELAF, born about 165 in Asia or Eastern Europe; married Mrs. FREOTHELAF, born about 169, their son

FRITHUWALD or BOR OF ASGARD, born about 190 in Asia or Eastern Europe; married BELTSA, born about 194; their son

ODIN or WODEN or WUOTAN OF ASGARD, born about 215 in Asia or Eastern Europe; married (4th) Mrs. ODIN, born about 223; their son

BELDEG or BALDER, born about 243 in Scandinavia; married NANNA, born about 247; daughter of GEWAR, King of Norway; their son

BRAND or BROND, born about 271 in Scandinavia; married Mrs. BRAND, born about 275 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

FRITHOGAR, born about 299 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; married Mrs. GRITHOGAR, born about 303 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

FREAWINE, born about 327 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; married Mrs. FREAWINE, born about 331 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

WIG, born about 355 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; married Mrs. WIG, born about 359 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

GEWIS, born about 383 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; married Mrs. GEWIS, born about 387 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

ESLA, born about 411 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; married Mrs. ESLA, born about 415 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

ELESA, born about 439 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; married Mrs. ELESA, born about 443 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

CERDIC, born about 467 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; died about 534 in Wessex, England, King of Wessex; married Mrs. CERDIC, born about 471 in Ancient Saxony, Northern Germany; their son

CRIDOA, born about 493 in Wessex, England; Prince of Wessex; married Mrs. CRIODA, born about 497 in Wessex, England, their son

CYNRIC, born about 525 in Wessex, England; died 560; King of Wessex; married Mrs. CYNRIC, born about 527 in Wessex, England; their son

CEAWLIN, born about 547 in Wessex, England; King of Wessex; married Mrs. CEAWLIN, born about 548 in Wessex, England; their son

CUTHWINE, born about 564 in Wessex, England; Prince of Wessex; married Mrs. CUTWINE, born about 568 in Wessex, England; their son

CUTHWULF or CUTHA, born about 600 in Wessex, England; married Mrs. CUTWULF, born about 604 in Wessex, England; their son

CEOLWALD, born about 622 in Wessex, England; married Mrs. CEOLWALD, born about 626 in Wessex, England; their son

CENRED, born about 644 in Wessex, England; married Mrs. CENRED, born about 648 in Wessex, England; their son

INGILD, born about 680 in Wessex, England; married Mrs. INGILD, born about 684 in Wessex, England; their son

EOPPA, born about 706 in Wessex, England; married Mrs. EOPPA, born about 710 in Wessex, England; their son

EABA, born about 732 in Wessex, England; married Mrs. EABA, born about 736 in Wessex, England; their son

EALHMUND, born about 758 in Wessex, England; Under-King of Kent; married Mrs. EALHMUND, born about 762 in Wessex, England; their son

EGBERT, born about 784 in Wessex, England; died after November 19, 838 in Wessex, England; King of Wessex in 800; reduced the other kingdoms and rendered them dependent upon him in 829 and thus is considered the first king of all England; married REDBURH, born about 788 in Wessex, England; their son

ETHELWULF, born about 806 in Wessex, England; died June 13, 858 in Wessex, England; King of England in 839; married (1st) OSBURH, born about 810 in Wessex, England; daughter of OSLAC, descendant of the Jutes of Wight; their son

ALFRED "THE GREAT", born about 848 in Wantage, Berkshire, England; died October 28, 901 at Hyde Abbey, England; King of England in 871; buried in Winchester, Hampshire, England; in 868 married EALHSWITH, born about 852 in Mercia, England; died December 5, 905 in England; daughter of ETHELRED "Mucel", the Ealdorman of Gainas and his wife EADBURH; their son

EDWARD "THE ELDER", born about 871 in Wessex, England; died July 17, 924 at Farrington, Berkshire, England; on the Whitsunday following October 28, 901 was crowned King of England; married (3rd) EDGIVA, born about 896 in Kent, England; daughter of SIGEHELM, Earl of Kent; their son

EDMUND I "THE MANIFICENT", born about 922 in Wessex, England; died May 26, 946 at Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire, England; was crowned King of England on October 27, 940; killed at a banquet by an exiled outlaw, LEOFA; buried at Glastonbury, England; married ELGIVA, born about 922, in Wessex, England; died 944 in England; after her death she was hallowed as a saint and miracles were worked at her tomb at Shaftesbury, England; their son

EDGAR "THE PEACEFUL", born about 943 in Wessex, England; died July 8, 975 in Wessex, England; King of England in 959; in 964 married (3rd) ELFRIDA or ELFTHRYTH, born about 947 in Devonshire, England; died 1000 in England; daughter of ORDGAR, Ealdorman of Devon; window of ETHELWOLD, Ealdorman of East Anglia; their son

ETHELRED II "THE UNREADY", born about 968 in Wessex, England; died April 23, 1016 in London, England; on April 14, 978 crowned King of England; buried at St. Paul's, London England; in 985 married ALFGIFU or AELFLAED, born 968 in Wessex, England; daughter of THORED GUNNARSSON; their son

EDMUND II "IRONSIDES", born about 988 in Wessex, England; died November 30, 1016 in London, England; was crowned King of England on April 23, 1016; in August 1015 married ELDGYTH, born about 986 in Wessex, England; widow of SIGEFERTH, a Danish Earl; their son

EDWARD "ATHELING", born about 1016 in Wessex, England; died 1057 in London, England; Prince of England; buried at St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England; in 1035 married AGATHA, born about 1018 in Bavaria, Germany; daughter of BRUNO, Bishop of Augsburg; their daughter

MARGARET, born bat. 1043 in England; died November 16, 1093 at Edinburgh Castle, Mid-Lothian, Scotland; Princess of England; canonized as a Saint by Pope Innocent IV in 1251; buried at Dunferline, Fife, Scotland; in 1068 married MALCOLM III "CEANNMOR", born about 1031 in Scotland; died November 13, 1093 near Alnwick, Northumberland, England; their daughter

MATILDA, born about 1082 in Scotland; died May 1, 1118 at Winchester, Hampshire, England; baptized EDITH of SCOTLAND, Princess of Scotland; on November 11, 1100 married HENRY I "BEAUCLERC", born about 1068 at Selby, Yorkshire, England; died December 1, 1135 at Angers, Maine-et-Loire, France; youngest son of WILLIAM "THE CONQUEROR", King of England; was crowned King of England on August 5, 1100 at Westminster; buried at Readding Abbey, Berkshire, England on January 4, 1136; their daughter

MATILDA, born about 1104 in England; died September 10, 1167 at Notre-Dame Des Pres, France; Princess of England; buried at Abbey et Bec, Eure, France; on January 7, 1114 married (1st) HEINRICH V, Emperor of Germany, who died on May 23, 1125 at Utrecht, Netherlands; no issue by this marriage; on April 3 or 22, 1127 married (2nd) GEOFFREY V "PLANTAGENET", born August 24, 1113 at Anjou, France; died September 7, 1151 at Chateau, Eure-et-Loire, France; son of FOULQUES, Count of Anjou and Ermentrude; their son

HENRY II "FITZEMPRESS", born March 5, 1133 in Le Mans, Sarthe, France; died July 6, 1189 at Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, France; was crowned King of England on December 19, 1154; buried at Abbey-et-Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, France; on May 11, 1152 married ELEANORE, born about 1122 in Aquitaine, France; died June 26, 1202 at Mirabell Castle, France; daughter of GUILLAUME X, Duke of Aquitaine, and his wife ELEANOR; previously married to LOUIS VII, King of France, on July 4 or 22, 1137 but was divorced by him on March 21, 1152; buried at the Monastery of Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, France; their son

JOHN "LACKLAND", born December 24, 1166 at King's Manor House, Oxford, England; died October 19, 1216 at Newark, Nottinghamshire, England; was crowned King of England on May 27, 1199; required to sign the Magna Carta on June 15, 1215; buried at Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, England; on August 24, 1200 married ISABELLA, born about 1180 at Angouleme, Charente, France; died May 31, 1246 at Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, France and was also buried there; daughter of AYMER TAILLEFER, Count of Angouleme, and ALICE COURTENAY; their son

HENRY III, born October 10, 1206 in Winchester, Hampshire, England; died November 16, 1272 in Westminster, London, England; was crowned King of England on October 18, 1216; buried on November 20, 1272 at Westminster Abbey, London, England; on January 14, 1236 at Canterbury, Kent, England married ELEANOR, born about 1217 in Provence, France; died June 24, 1291 at Ambresbury, England; daughter of RAYMOND BERENGAR IV, Count of Provence, and his wife BEATRIX; sister of AMADEUS III of Savor; buried on September 8, 1291 at Ambresbury, England; their son

EDWARD I "LONGSHANKS", born June 17, 1239 at Westminster, London, England; died July 7, 1307 at Burgh-on-the-Sands, Cumberland, England; christened on June 22, 1239; made ruler of Ireland and Wales in 1254; was crowned King of England on August 19, 1274; shortly after August 5, 1254 at Burgos, Spain married ELEANOR, born about 1244 in Castile, Spain; died November 29, 1290 at Herdeby, Lincoln, England; daughter of FERDINAND III, King of Castile and his second wife JOANA; Princess of Castile; buried on December 16, 1290 at Westminster Abbey, London, England; their daughter

JOAN "OF ACRE", born in the spring of 1272 at Acre, Galilee, Israel; died April 23, 1307 at Stoke Clare, Suffolk, England; Princess of England; second daughter born to her parents while they participated in the Crusades; buried in the Augustine priory at Stoke Clare; on April 30, 1290 at Westminster Abbey, London, England married GILBERT DE CLARE, born September 2, 1243 at Christchurch, Hampshire, England; died December 7, 1295 at Monmouth, England; 9th Earl of Clare; 7th Earl of Hertford; 8th Earl of Gloucester; House of Clare had vast estates extending over 23 English countries as well as immense possessions in Wales and Ireland; their daughter

LADY ELEANOR DE CLARE, born October 1292 at Caerphilly Castle, County of Glamorgan; died June 30, 1337; buried in Tewkesbury Abbey; in 1306, after June 14, at Westminster married HUGH LE DESPENSER, THE YOUNGER, born March 1, 1262; died November 24, 1326 at Hereford; son of Hugh le Despencer, the Elder; knighted by the Prince of Wales on May 22, 1306 at Westminster; made Baron Hugh le Despenser in 1326; captured near Llantrisant, County of Glamorgan, with King Edward II on November 16, 1326; taken to Hereford, tried without being allowed to speak in his own defense, condemned to death as a traitor, hanged on a gallows 50 feet high on November 24, 1326; on December 4, 1326, his had was set up on London Bridge and his quarters were hung up in Dover, Bristol, York and Newcastle; several hundred years later his bones were collected and buried in Tewkesbury Abbey per permit given on December 15, 1330; their daughter

LADY ISABELLA LE DESPENSER, born about 1305-1312; died unknown; on February 9, 1320/1 in King's Chapel at Havering-atte-Bower married RICHARD FITZALAN, born about 1306-1313; died January 24, 1375/6 at Arundel; buried at Lewes; 3rd Earl of Arundel; son of Edmund Fitzalan, 2nd Earl of Arundel, and Alice de Warrenne; Justicar of North Wales for life in 1334; Governor of Carnarvon Castle in 1339; Sheriff of Shropshire for life in 1345; on December 4, 1344 obtained a Papal Mandate for the annulment of their marriage (see footnote below); their daughter

(Footnote: Annulment was requested on the basis that their marriage was not by mutual consent as it was arranged by their parents when they were minors, but they were forced by blows to cohabit, so that a son was born. This story breaks down since they had two daughters as well as a son. Of course the daughters are not mentioned in the request for annulment. Since a divorce for a valid reason could not be obtained, this was the method used by the powerful Earl to get rid of his wife, who no longer had any influence or importance since the execution of her father as a traitor, and to enable him to marry Eleanor, Dowager Baroness Beaumont, daughter of Henry (Plantagenet) Earl of Lancaster, by Maud, daughter and heir of Sir Patrick Chaworth with whom he was already living. On February 5, 1344/5 he married her at Ditton. There was no male issue from this marriage. She died at Arundel on January 11, 1372 and was buried at Lewes.)

LADY PHILIPPA FITZALAN, born unknown; died unknown; married SIR RICHARD SERGIEUX, born unknown; died September 30, 1393; knight of Carminow, Cornwall; their daughter

LADY PHILIPPA SERGIEUX, born about 1373; died July 11 or 13, 1420; by June 1397 married SIR ROBERT PASHLEY, born unknown; died before February 12, 1406/7; Lord of Thevegate; son of SIR ROBERT PASHLEY and ANNE HOWARD, who was the daughter of SIR JOHN HOWARD, of Norfolk, knight; their son

SIR JOHN PASHLEY, born 1397/8; died June 8, 1453; in 1424 married ELIZABETH WOODVILLE, born unknown; died unknown; daughter of SIR RICHARD WOODVILLE of Maidstone and MARIE BODULGATE, daughter of JOHN BODULGATE, Esquire; aunt to the QUEEN of EDWARD IV of England; their son

SIR JOHN PASHLEY, born 1431/2; died November 20, 1468; Lord of Thevegate; married LOWYS GOWER, born unknown; died before 1458; daughter of THOMAS GOWER; sister of JOHN GOWER of Clapham, Surrey; their daughter

ELIZABETH PASHLEY, born unknown; died before 1485; memorial in Nettlested Church; in 1480 married REGINALD DE PYMPE, born 1448/9; died March 21, 1530/1; son of JOHN DE PYMPE; their daughter

ANNE DE PYMPE, born about 1484; died about 1539/40; on November 22, 1506 married SIR JOHN SCOTT, born 1484; died October 7, 1533; son of SIR WILLIAM SCOTT and SYBILLA LEWKNOR, daughter of SIR JOHN LEWKNOR, knight of Goring and West Dean in Sussex; bodyguard of Henry VIII 1515-18; knighted about 1520 by the Prince of Castile for signal services rendered against the Duke of Guelders; Sheriff of Kent 1528; their son

SIR REGINALD SCOTT, born 1512, died December 16, 1554; Captain of Castles of Calais and Sangatte; High Sheriff of Kent 1541/2; buried at Bradbourne; in 1542/3 married (2nd) MARY TUKE, born unknown; died after 1555; daughter of SIR BRYAN TUKE, knight, and GRISELDA BOUGHTON, daughter of NICHOLAS BOUGHTON of Woolwich; her father was secretary to Cardinal Wolsey; their daughter

MARY SCOTT, born 1546 at East Sutton, Kent County; died 1605; in 1570 married (1st) RICHARD ARGALL, born about 1536; died 1588; son of THOMAS ARGALL; buried at East Sutton Church, East Sutton, Kent County; their daughter

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AEthelwulf, King of England

Born: ABT 800

Died: 13 JAN 858

Interred: Winchester Cathedral, London, England

Reigned 839-856

Renown for his military prowess, he reputedly defeated 350 viking ships (851). He reduced taxation, endowed the Church, made lay lands inheritable, and provided systems of poor relief.

Father: Ecgbert III of Wessex, King of Wessex, b. ABT 775

Mother: Redburga

Married Osburga

Child 1: , Athelstan, King of Kent

Child 2: , AEthelbald, King of England, b. ABT 834

Child 3: , AEthelbert, King of England, b. ABT 836

Child 4: , AEthelred I, King of England, b. CIR 840

Child 5: , Alfred the Great, King West Saxons, b. 849

Child 6: , AEthelswyth, Nun

Married 1 OCT 856, Verberie sur Oise, France to , Judith, Princess

Æthelwulf was the son of Egbert and a sub-king of Kent. He assumed the throne of Wessex upon his father's death in 839. His reign is characterized by the usual Viking invasions and repulsions common to all English rulers of the time, but the making of war was not his chief claim to fame. Æthelwulf is remembered, however dimly, as a highly religious man who cared about the establishment and preservation of the church. He was also a wealthy man and controlled vast resources. Out of these resources, he gave generously, to Rome and to religious houses that were in need.

He was an only child, but had fathered five sons, by his first wife, Osburga. He recognized that there could be difficulties with contention over the succession. He devised a scheme which would guarantee (insofar as it was possible to do so) that each child would have his turn on the throne without having to worry about rival claims from his siblings. Æthelwulf provided that the oldest living child would succeed to the throne and would control all the resources of the crown, without having them divided among the others, so that he would have adequate resources to rule. That he was able to provide for the continuation of his dynasty is a matter of record, but he was not able to guarantee familial harmony with his plan. This is proved by what we know of the foul plottings of his son, Æthelbald, while Æthelwulf was on pilgrimage to Rome in 855.

Æthelwulf was a wise and capable ruler, whose vision made possible the beneficial reign of his youngest son, Alfred the Great.

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Æthelwulf, King of Wessex.


Reign July, 839 - 856

Born 795

Birthplace Aachen, Germany

Died 13 January 858

Place of death Stamridge, Wessex

Buried Steyning Church, then the Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

Consort Osburga and Judith

Father Egbert

Mother Redburga


Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles, of which Æthelwulf partook. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", probably Ockley or Oakley in Surrey. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Ethelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north. Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile."

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane."

In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.


Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on January 13, 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions- all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace.

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral.

--------------------

B: Abt 806

 of, Wessex, England 

M: Abt 837

D: 13 Jan 858

 , , , England 

Family: [Group Sheet]

1 Osburh (Osburga) Queen of Wessex

 Children: 
 • Athelstan Prince of Wessex  
 • Ethelbald King of Wessex  
 • Ethelbert King of Wessex  
 • Ethelred I King of Wessex  
 • Ethelswith Queen of Mercia  
 • Alfred King of England, [The Great]  

Family: [Group Sheet]

2 Judith Queen of Wessex

--------------------

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

Reign July 839 – 856

Spouse Osburga

Judith

Father Egbert

Mother Redburga

Born 795

Aachen, Germany

Died 13 January 858

Stamridge, Wessex

Burial Stanbridge Earls then the Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

References

   * Ashley, Maurice. Great Britain to 1688: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1961.
   * Garmonsway, GN. Translation of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: JM Dent & Sons, 1953.
   * Hindley, Geoffrey. The Anglo-Saxons. London: Robinson, 2006.
   * Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935.
   * Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980.
  1. ^ Ashley, Maurice. Great Britain to 1688: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1961. 34.
  2. ^ Hindley, Geoffrey. The Anglo-Saxons. London: Robinson, 2006. 186
  3. ^ a b Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.
  4. ^ Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.
  5. ^ Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 515.
  6. ^ a b Person and Factoid Information
  7. ^ D. P. Kirby, The Earliest English Kings (1991, 2000), pages 147–149.
  8. ^ Weir, Alison (1999), Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy, London, U.K., p. 6

--------------------

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles, of which Æthelwulf partook. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", possibly Ockley in Surrey or Oakley in Berkshire. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Ethelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[1] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile." [2]

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.]

In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.


Æthelwulf's ring, depicted in Cassell's History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on January 13, 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions- all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 515.]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral.

The gold ring, depicted in the picture, is about an inch across, richly decorated with religious symbols, is inscribed Æthelwulf Rex and was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in 1780; it was believed to have been a gift from Æthelwulf to a loyal follower.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf_of_Wessex

http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethelwulf_av_Wessex

-----------

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

Reign July, 839 - 856

Born 795

Birthplace Aachen, Germany

Died 13 January 858

Place of death Stamridge, Wessex

Buried Steyning Church, then the Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

Consort Osburga and Judith

Father Egbert

Mother Redburga

--------------------

According to later chroniclers, St. Svithun was spiritual adviser to Egbert and Ethelwuf, kings of the West Saxons. The first Christian influence to coastal Norway came mainly from England. Stavanger became a bishopric in 11th during the periode of King Sigurd Jorsalfare (1090-1130). Jòrsalfarier comes from old norse language, meaning someone that have been a colorful Pilgrim to Jerusalem (Jòsalir, Jòrsalaborg).

http://park.org/Guests/Stavanger/sg05.htm

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethelwulf_of_Wessex

Æthelwulf of Wessex

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Æthelwulf

King of Wessex

Reign July, 839 - 856

Spouses Osburga & Judith

Father Egbert

Mother Redburga

Born 795

Aachen, Germany

Died 13 January 858

Stamridge, Wessex

Burial Steyning Church, then the Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

Sources

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles, of which Æthelwulf partook. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", possibly Ockley in Surrey or Oakley in Berkshire. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Ethelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[1] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile." [2]

Family life

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

Religion

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.]

In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.

Æthelwulf's ring, depicted in Cassell's History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902

Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on January 13, 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

   That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions- all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 515.]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral.

Regnal titles

Preceded by Egbert King of Wessex 839 - 856

Succeeded by Ethelbald King of Kent 839 - 856

Issue

Æthelwulf married firstly Osburh, daughter of Osric. They had six children, four of whom became kings of Wessex

Name Birth Death Notes

Æthelstan

Æthelswith Married, Burgred of Mercia; no issue.

Æthelbald 860 Married, Judith; annulled.

Æthelbert 866

Æthelred

Alfred 849 26 October 899 Married 868, Ealhswith; had issue.

Æthelwulf married a second time to Judith of Flanders and had no issue

References

   * Ashley, Maurice. Great Britain to 1688: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1961.
   * Garmonsway, GN. Translation of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: JM Dent & Sons, 1953.
   * Hindley, Geoffrey. The Anglo-Saxons. London: Robinson, 2006.
   * Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935.
   * Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980.
  1. ^ Ashley, Maurice. Great Britain to 1688: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1961. 34.
  2. ^ Hindley, Geoffrey. The Anglo-Saxons. London: Robinson, 2006. 186

Æthelwulf (reigned 839-58 AD)

................................................................

Æthelwulf was the son of Egbert and a sub-king of Kent. He assumed the throne of Wessex upon his father's death in 839. His reign is characterized by the usual Viking invasions and repulsions common to all English rulers of the time, but the making of war was not his chief claim to fame. Æthelwulf is remembered, however dimly, as a highly religious man who cared about the establishment and preservation of the church. He was also a wealthy man and controlled vast resources. Out of these resources, he gave generously, to Rome and to religious houses that were in need.

He was an only child, but had fathered five sons, by his first wife, Osburga. He recognized that there could be difficulties with contention over the succession. He devised a scheme which would guarantee (insofar as it was possible to do so) that each child would have his turn on the throne without having to worry about rival claims from his siblings. Æthelwulf provided that the oldest living child would succeed to the throne and would control all the resources of the crown, without having them divided among the others, so that he would have adequate resources to rule. That he was able to provide for the continuation of his dynasty is a matter of record, but he was not able to guarantee familial harmony with his plan. This is proved by what we know of the foul plottings of his son, Æthelbald, while Æthelwulf was on pilgrimage to Rome in 855.

Æthelwulf was a wise and capable ruler, whose vision made possible the beneficial reign of his youngest son, Alfred the Great.

Source: Brittania http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon2.html

--------------------

Name Aethelwulf

Birth 0800

Death 13 Jan 0858

Burial Winchester Cathedral, England

Occupation King of West Saxons, King of England 839-856

Father Ecgbert (0775-0839)

Mother Redburga

Other spouses Judith Of France

Marriage 0830

Divorce 0853

Spouse Osburga

Father Oslac

Children

1 M Aethelbert

Birth 0836

2 M Aethelbald

Birth 0834

3 M Aethelred I

Birth 0840

4 M Alfred the Great

Birth 0848, Wantage, Berkshire

Death 26 Oct 0899

Spouse Lady Ealhswith of Mercia

5 F Aethelswyth

Notes for Aethelwulf

abdicated 856

Research

Æthelwulf reigned from 839 to 856 at which point he abdicated in favour of his son Æthelbald after returning from a lengthy pilgrimmage. He was Under-king of Kent 825 - 839 and 856 - 858. Renown for his military prowess, he reputedly defeated 350 viking ships. He reduced taxation, endowed the Church, made lay lands inheritable, and provided systems of poor relief.

KING AETHELWULF13 OF WESSEX (Egbert of ENGLAND12, Eahlmund of KENT11, Eafa10, Eoppa9, Ingild8, Cenred7, Ceolwald6, Cutha5, Cuthwine4, Cealwine of WESSEX3, Cynric2, Cerdic1) of Wessex, son of (14) King Egbert12 and Raedburga, was born circa 795/800[63], and died on 13 Jan. 858[63]. He married (1st) (UI-2) OSBURGA, daughter of (UI-1) Oslac of the ISLE OF WIGHT. He married (2nd) in 856, (JU-38) JUDITH OF FRANCE[63], daughter of (JU-31) Emperor Charles II the Bald and (ACT-2) Ermentrude (of ORLEANS), who was born circa 844[63], and died after 870[63]. [68, 16, 46]

King of Wessex 839-858 [2]

Children of: King Aethelwulf13 of WESSEX and Osburga:

+ 16 i. KING ALFRED THE GREAT14 OF ENGLAND, b. in 849 in Wantage, Berkshire, England, d. on 26 Oct. 899 in England; m. (PP-2) EALHSWITH in 869.

+ 17 ii. KING AETHELRED I, b. before 868, d. in 872.

Æðelwulf, King of Wessex was born between 795 and 810.3 He was the son of Ecgbeorht, King of Wessex and Redburga (?).2 He married, firstly, Osburga (?), daughter of Oslac of Hampshire, circa 830.3 He married, secondly, Judith, Princesse de France, daughter of Charles I, Roi de France and Ermentrude d'Orléans, on 1 October 856 at Verberie sur Oise, France.3 He died after 13 January 858.4 He was buried at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England.4 He was buried at Steyning, Sussex, England.5
    Æðelwulf, King of Wessex gained the title of Subregulus of Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey between 825 and 828.3 He succeeded to the title of King Æðelwulf of Wessex on 4 February 839.6 He was crowned King of Wessex in 839 at Kingston-upon-Thames, London, England.3 He abdicated as King of Wessex between 855 and 856.3
    Ethelwulf was the son of King Egbert and had previously ruled Kent and adjoining minor kingdoms. He continued wars against the Danes and had a victory at the mouth of the Parret in Somerset in 845 and again in 851 when he beat a force of 350 ships' companies who attacked Canterbury. Ethelwulf helped the Mercians against the Welsh and then married the Mercian king's daughter. He was a religious man and in 855 undertook a pilgrimage to Rome, leaving the country in charge of Ethelbald his eldest son. On his return, to avoid civil war, he allowed Ethelbald to retain Wessex while he ruled Kent and other parts of south eastern England.

Children of Æðelwulf, King of Wessex and Osburga (?)

   * Judith (?)+ d. c 910
   * Æðelswyð (?)+ d. bt 888 - 889
   * Æthelbald, King of Wessex2 b. c 834, d. 20 Dec 860
   * Æðelbeorht, King of Wessex+ b. c 836, d. bt 865 - 866
   * Æthelstan, Sub-King in Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey5 b. c 839, d. c 850
   * Æthelred I, King of Wessex+2 b. c 840, d. 23 Apr 871
   * Ælfræd, King of Wessex+ b. bt 846 - 849, d. bt 25 Oct 899 - 28 Oct 899

Citations

  1. [S215] Unknown article title, Journal of the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Chobham, Surrey, U.K., volume 1, issue 6, page 409. Hereinafter cited as Foundation for Medieval Genealogy.
  2. [S52] G. S. P. Freeman-Grencville, The Queen's Lineage: from A.D. 495 to the Silver Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (London , U.K.: Rex Collings, 1977), page 4. Hereinafter cited as The Queen's Lineage.
  3. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 5. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.
  4. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 6.
  5. [S58] E. B. Fryde, D. E. Greenway, S. Porter and I. Roy, editors, Handbook of British Chronology, 3rd edition (London, U.K.: Royal Historical Society, 1986), page 23. Hereinafter cited as Handbook of British Chronology.
  6. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 4.

--------------------

  1. ID: I1855
  2. Name: Ethelwulf (Æthelwulf) DE WESSEX King of Wessex
  3. Sex: M
  4. Birth: ABT 0806 in 0790Wessex, England
  5. Death: 13 JAN 0857 in Stamridge, England
  6. REFR: 0839
  7. RETO: 0838
  8. Occupation: King of Wessex
  9. Religion: Sources: Microsoft Encarta 1994 ed.
  10. Note:
   Note: Merged General Note: From BRITAIN'S KINGS AND QUEENS By SirGeorge Bellow Kvoc Ethelwulf, son of King Egbert, was a maninclined to piety and mildness, and for a time Bishop ofWinchester. He came to the throne an experienced ruler, for hisfather had made him 'sub-king' of Kent nine years before. Thoughhe had such a promising training we know little of his actualreign. Most of his time seems to have been spent in fightingthe Danes, who occupied the north and east parts of England; andtwo at least of his vicories are recorded; one at Oakley andanother at sea. In 855 Ethelwulf took his youngest son Alfred(later to be called the Great) on a pilgrimage to Rome. On threturn journey he made a profitable alliance by marryingCharlemagne's grand-daughter Judith, the daughter of Charles theBald, King of France and Emperor of the Romans. On his arrivalin England with his thirteen-year old bride, he found that hisson, Ethelbald, had usurped his throne, but, rather than cause acivil war, he was content to take second place, reverting; tohis former kingdom of Kent. Two years later, in 858, he died.William Seymour, SOVEREIGN LEGACY: An Historicla Guide to theBritish Monarchy, p. 19: "... he meaintained the supremacy ofWessex and had his successes against the Danes, notably at abattle near Basingstoke in 851, where he 'inflicted the greatestslaughter upon the heathen host that ever we have heard tell ofup to the present day.' "
   --Other Fields
   Ref Number: +
  1. Change Date: 21 MAR 1999

Father: Ecgbert III DE WESSEX King of Wessex b: ABT 0784 in 0775 Wessex, England

Mother: Redburh,Raedburh or Ida DE TOULOUSE b: ABT 0788 in Wessex, England

Marriage 1 Osburh DE WESSEX Queen of Wessex b: ABT 0810 in Wessex, England

Children

  1. Has No Children Ethelbald (Æthelbald) DE WESSEX King of Wessex
  2. Has No Children Ethelbert (Æthelbert) DE KENT Sub King of Kent
  3. Has No Children Ethelswith (Æthelswith) DE WESSEX
  4. Has No Children Athelstan DE WESSEX
  5. Has Children Ethelred (Æthelred) I DE WESSEX King of Wessex b: ABT 0845
  6. Has Children Alfred the Great King of the West b: 0849 in Wantage, England
  7. Has Children Ethelred I (Æthelred) DE WESSEX King of Wessex b: ABT 0844 in Wantage, Berkshire, England

Marriage 2 Judith de France b: 0843 in France

   * Married: 0856

--------------------

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons.[2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

Martial career

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle refers to Æthelwulf's presence at some important battles. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", possibly Ockley in Surrey or Oakley in Berkshire. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Æthelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[3] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile." [4]

[edit]Family life

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come to the throne of Wessex by inheritance. He proved to be intensely religious, cursed with little political sense, and with too many able and ambitious sons.[5] One of the first of Æthelwulf's acts as King was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Æthelbald, Æthelbert, Æthelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Æthelswith, was married as a child to king Burgred of Mercia.

[edit]Pilgrimage to Rome, marriage, conspiracy of Æthelbald, death

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [5]

In 853, Æthelwulf sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered them chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work.[6] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.

Æthelwulf's ring, depicted in Cassell's History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902

Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest surviving son Æthelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. Æthelwulf mustered enough support to fight a civil war, or to banish Æthelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on 13 January 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions - all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace.[7]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several "mortuary chests" in Winchester Cathedral.

The gold ring depicted in the picture is about an inch across, richly decorated with religious symbols, and inscribed Æthelwulf Rex. It was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in 1780; it is believed to have been a gift from Æthelwulf to a loyal follower.

--------------------

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

Sources

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles, of which Æthelwulf partook. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", probably Ockley or Oakley in Surrey. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Ethelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[1] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile." [2]

Family life

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

Religion

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.]

In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.

Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on January 13, 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions- all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 515.]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral.

The gold ring, depicted in the picture, is about an inch across, richly decorated with religious symbols, is inscribed Æthelwulf Rex and was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in 1780; it was believed to have been a gift from Æthelwulf to a loyal follower.

Issue

Æthelwulf married firstly Osburh, daughter of Osric. They had six children, four of whom became kings of Wessex

Name Birth Death Notes

Æthelstan

Æthelswith Married, Burgred of Mercia; no issue.

Æthelbald 860 Married, Judith; annulled.

Æthelbert 866

Æthelred

Alfred 849 26 October 899 Married 868, Ealhswith; had issue.

Æthelwulf married a second time to Judith of Flanders and had no issue

--------------------

Æðelwulf, King of Wessex (1)

M, #102608, b. between 795 and 810, d. after 13 January 858

Last Edited=3 Dec 2005

    Æðelwulf, King of Wessex was born between 795 and 810. (3) He was the son of Ecgbeorht, King of Wessex and Redburga (?). (2) He married, firstly, Osburga (?), daughter of Oslac of Hampshire, circa 830. (3) He married, secondly, Judith, Princesse de France, daughter of Charles I, Roi de France and Ermentrude d'Orléans, on 1 October 856 at Verberie sur Oise, France. (3) He died after 13 January 858. (4) He was buried at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, Hampshire, England. (4) He was buried at Steyning, Sussex, England. (5)
    Æðelwulf, King of Wessex gained the title of Subregulus of Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey between 825 and 828. (3) He succeeded to the title of King Æðelwulf of Wessex on 4 February 839. (6) He was crowned King of Wessex in 839 at Kingston-upon-Thames, London, England. (3) He abdicated as King of Wessex between 855 and 856. (3) 
    Ethelwulf was the son of King Egbert and had previously ruled Kent and adjoining minor kingdoms. He continued wars against the Danes and had a victory at the mouth of the Parret in Somerset in 845 and again in 851 when he beat a force of 350 ships' companies who attacked Canterbury. Ethelwulf helped the Mercians against the Welsh and then married the Mercian king's daughter. He was a religious man and in 855 undertook a pilgrimage to Rome, leaving the country in charge of Ethelbald his eldest son. On his return, to avoid civil war, he allowed Ethelbald to retain Wessex while he ruled Kent and other parts of south eastern England.

Children of Æðelwulf, King of Wessex and Osburga (?)

-1. Judith (?)+ d. c 910

-2. Æðelswyð (?)+ d. bt 888 - 889

-3. Æthelbald, King of Wessex b. c 834, d. 20 Dec 860 (2)

-4. Æðelbeorht, King of Wessex+ b. c 836, d. bt 865 - 866

-5. Æthelstan, Sub-King in Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey b. c 839, d. c 850 (5)

-6. Æthelred I, King of Wessex+ b. c 840, d. 23 Apr 871 (2)

-7. Ælfræd, King of Wessex+ b. bt 846 - 849, d. bt 25 Oct 899 - 28 Oct 899

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10261.htm#i102608

--------------------

B: Abt 0806 Of, , Wessex, England

D: 13 Jan 0857 , , , England

M: Abt 830

--------------------

Noteringar

Englands andre kung.

King of WESSEX, SUSSEX, KENT, ESSEX; reigned 18 years and a half

Æthelwulf , d. 858, king of Wessex (839-56), son and successor of Egbert; father of Æthelbert, Æthelred, and Alfred. He was lord of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and Essex before his father's death in 839. As king of Wessex he was compelled to defend his realm against constant Danish attacks, and he won a notable victory over them at Aclea in 851. He also campaigned against the Welsh. A man of great piety, he went with his son Alfred to Rome in 855. In 856 he took as his second wife Judith, daughter of Charles II (Charles the Bald) of France. Learning before his return to England that his son Æthelbald, who had ruled in his absence, would resist his resumption of the kingship, Æthelwulf left his son as king of Wessex and himself ruled only in Kent and its dependencies, where Æthelbert succeeded him.


--------------------

Æthelwulf of Wessex

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Æthelwulf

King of Wessex


Reign July, 839 - 856

Born 795

Birthplace Aachen, Germany

Died 13 January 858

Place of death Stamridge, Wessex

Buried Steyning Church, then the Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

Consort Osburga and Judith

Father Egbert

Mother Redburga


Æthelwulf's first tombstone, in the church porch at Steyning - the two incised crosses indicate a royal burialFor other uses, see Æthelwulf.

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

Contents [show]

1 Sources

2 Family life

3 Religion

4 Issue

5 See also

6 References


[edit] Sources

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles, of which Æthelwulf partook. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", probably Ockley or Oakley in Surrey. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Ethelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[1] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile." [2]

[edit] Family life

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

[edit] Religion

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.]

In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.


Æthelwulf's ring, depicted in Cassell's History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on January 13, 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions- all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 515.]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral.

The gold ring, depicted in the picture, is about an inch across, richly decorated with religious symbols, is inscribed Æthelwulf Rex and was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in 1780; it was believed to have been a gift from Æthelwulf to a loyal follower.

--------------------

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

From www.wikipedia.org at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Æthelwulf_of_Wessex

--------------------

Æthelstan of Wessex

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Athelstan of Kent)

Jump to: navigation, search

Æthelstan (d. 851-855) was the eldest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex.

When Æthelwulf became King of the West Saxons in 839 on the death of his father Egbert, he appointed Æthelstan to rule over Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex. He is styled king in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Æthelweard's chronicle calls him "King of the Dwellers in Kent, of the East Saxons, of the South Saxons and of Surrey". He attested a number of his father's charters as king in the 840s.

In 851, Æthelwulf and Ealdorman Ealhhere defeated a Viking fleet and army at Sandwich, Kent. Ealhhere's death in battle against Vikings is recorded c. 853. Æthelstan is not mentioned after 851 and presumably died before Æthelwulf went to Rome in 855 as he was not included in arrangements for government of the kingdom during his father's absence.[1]

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Notes
   * 2 References
   * 3 External links
   * 4 See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge eds, Alfred the Great, Asser's Life of Alfred and Other Contemporary Sources, London, Penguin Classics, 1983, pp. 69, 231-2, 235.

[edit] References

   * Kirby, D.P., The Earliest English Kings. London: Unwin Hyman, 1991. ISBN 0-04-445691-3
   * Yorke, Barbara, Kings and Kingdoms in Early Anglo-Saxon England. London: Seaby, 1990. ISBN 1-85264-027-8

[edit] External links

   * Æthelstan at the Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England

[edit] See also

   * List of monarchs of Kent
   * Chronology of Kentish Kings

--------------------

Regerade 839-856

--------------------

"He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral." (A Old Minster foi demolida em 1093.)

--------------------

øåØåBorn : Abt. 795 Aachen in the court of Charlemagne Brøderbund WFT Vol. 3, Ed. 1, Tree #6584, Date of Import: a... Died : 13 Jan 858 England, ruled 825-39 Brøderbund WFT Vol. 3, Ed. 1, Tree #6584, Date of Import: a... Buried : - Steuning, Sussex, later Winchester Cathedral

--------------------

Ethelwulf, King of England 839-858

--------------------

http://www.royalist.info/execute/biog?person=172

Born: c.795

House of: Wessex

Crowned: 839

Married: (1) c 830, Osburh, dau. Oslac of Hampshire (2) Judith, dau. Charles the Bald, king of the Franks

Children: 5 children

Died: January 13, 858

Buried at: Steyning Sussex, reburied Winchester

Aethelwulf was the son of Egbert and a sub-king of Kent. He assumed the throne of Wessex upon his father's death in 839. His reign is characterized by Viking invasions and repulsions common to all English rulers of the time, but the making of war was not his chief claim to fame. Aethelwulf is remembered, however dimly, as a highly religious man who cared about the establishment and preservation of the church. He was also a wealthy man and controlled vast resources. Out of these resources, he gave generously, to Rome and to religious houses that were in need.

Timeline

841 
 Vikings establish a settlement at Dublin 

842 
 Many die in London and Rochester during Viking raids 

844 
 Kenneth MacAlpine, King of the Scots, conquers the Picts; founds a unified Scotland 

851 
 Danish forces enter Thames estuary and march on Canterbury

http://www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=aethelwulf

ETHELWULF 839-858 - son of EGBERT

King of Wessex, son of Egbert and father of Alfred the Great. In 851 Athelwulf defeated a Danish army at the battle of Oakley while his eldest son Althelstan fought and beat the Danes at sea off the coast of Kent in what is believed to be the first naval battle. In 855 Athelwulf travelled to Rome with his son Alfred to see the Pope.

http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/England-History/KingsandQueens.htm

Æthelwulf of Wessex

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Æthelwulf

King of Wessex


Reign July, 839 - 856

Born 795

Aachen 

Died 858

Buried Steyning Church, then the Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

Consort Osburga and Judith

Father Egbert

Mother Redburga


Æthelwulf's first tombstone, in the church porch at Steyning - the two incised crosses indicate a royal burialFor other uses, see Æthelwulf.

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 – 858) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.

Contents [hide]

1 Sources

2 Family Life

3 Religion

4 Issue

5 See also

6 References


[edit] Sources

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles, of which Æthelwulf partook. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", probably Ockley or Oakley in Surrey. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Ethelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[1] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pilaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile." [2]

[edit] Family Life

In 839, Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzeled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith, was married as a child to the king of Mercia.

[edit] Religion

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.]

In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-grandaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.


Æthelwulf's ring, depicted in Cassell's History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded Wessex proper to his son, and accepted Surrey, Sussex and Essex for himself. he ruled there until his death on January 13, 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions- all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 515.]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral.

The gold ring, depicted in the picture, is about an inch across, richly decorated with religious symbols, is inscribed Æthelwulf Rex and was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in 1780; it was believed to have been a gift from Æthelwulf to a loyal follower.

Preceded by

Egbert King of Wessex

839 - 856 Succeeded by

Ethelbald

King of Kent

839 - 856

[edit] Issue

Æthelwulf married firstly Osburh, daughter of Osric. They had six children, four of whom became kings of Wessex

Name Birth Death Notes

Æthelstan

Æthelswith Married, Burgred of Mercia; no issue.

Æthelbald 860 Married, Judith; annulled.

Æthelbert 866

Æthelred

Alfred 849 26 October 899 Married 868, Ealhswith; had issue.

Æthelwulf married a second time to Judith of Flanders and had no issue

[edit] See also

House of Wessex family tree

List of monarchs of Kent

Chronology of Kentish Kings

List of monarchs of Wessex

[edit] References

Ashley, Maurice. Great Britain to 1688: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1961.

Garmonsway, GN. Translation of The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: JM Dent & Sons, 1953.

Hindley, Geoffrey. The Anglo-Saxons. London: Robinson, 2006.

Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935.

Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980.

^ Ashley, Maurice. Great Britain to 1688: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1961. 34.

^ Hindley, Geoffrey. The Anglo-Saxons. London: Robinson, 2006. 186

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf_of_Wessex

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' was King of Wessex from 839 to 856. He was the only known son of King Egbert of Wessex. He conquered the kingdom of Kent on behalf of his father in 825, and was sometime later made King of Kent [1] as a sub-king to Egbert. He succeeded his father as King of Wessex on Egbert's death in 839: his kingdom then stretched from the county of Kent in the east to Devon in the west. At the same time his eldest son Æthelstan became sub-king of Kent as a subordinate ruler.

Historians give conflicting assessments of Æthelwulf. According to Richard Humble, Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come to the throne of Wessex by inheritance. He proved to be intensely religious, cursed with little political sense, and with too many able and ambitious sons.[2] To Frank Stenton "Æthelwulf seems to have been a religious and unambitious man, for whom engagement in war and politics was an unwelcome consequence of rank."[3] However Janet Nelson thought that his reign has been under-appreciated in modern scholarship, and that he laid the foundations for Alfred's success, finding new as well as traditional answers, and coping more effectively with Scandinavian attacks than most contemporary rulers.

Martial career

The most notable and commonly used primary source is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The chronicle refers to Æthelwulf's presence at some important battles. In the year 840 AD, he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at "Acleah", possibly Ockley in Surrey or Oakley in Berkshire. Here, Æthelwulf and his son Æthelbald fought against the heathen, and according to the chronicle it was "the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made." Around the year 853, Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law, Burgred, King of Mercia defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history where nations were being invaded from many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north.[5] Before Æthelwulf's death, raiders had wintered over on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be "ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile." [6]

[edit] Family life

One of the first of Æthelwulf's acts as King was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Æthelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburh, had five sons and a daughter. After Æthelstan came Æthelbald, Æthelbert, Æthelred, and Alfred. Each of his sons, with the exception of Æthelstan, succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Æthelswith, was married as a child to king Burgred of Mercia.

[edit] Pilgrimage to Rome, marriage, conspiracy of Æthelbald, death.

Religion was always an important area in Æthelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help against an enemy "so agile, and numerous, and profane." [2]

In 853, Æthelwulf sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburga's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered them chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work.[7] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith, a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks.

Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest surviving son Æthelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. Æthelwulf mustered enough support to fight a civil war, or to banish Æthelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded western Wessex to his son while he himself retained central and eastern Wessex. The absence of coins in Æthelbald's name may also suggest that West Saxon coinage was in Æthelwulf's name until his death. He ruled there until his death on 13 January 858.

   That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions - all this testifies to the fact that Æthelwulf’s Christian spirit did not exhaust itself in the giving of lavish charities to the Church, but availed to reconcile him to the sacrifice of prestige and power in the cause of national peace.[8]

Æthelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the "wife of the king." This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.

He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His bones now reside in one of several "mortuary chests" in Winchester Cathedral.

The gold ring depicted in the picture is about an inch across, richly decorated with religious symbols, and inscribed Æthelwulf Rex. It was found at Laverstock, Wiltshire, in 1780; it is believed to have been a gift from Æthelwulf to a loyal follower.

[edit] Issue

Æthelwulf married firstly Osburh, daughter of Oslac. They had six children, four of whom became kings of Wessex.

Issue

Æthelstan

Æthelbald

Æthelbert

Æthelswith

Æthelred

Alfred

Reign July 839 – 856

Predecessor Egbert

Successor Æthelbald

Spouse Osburh

Judith

Issue

Æthelstan

Æthelbald

Æthelbert

Æthelswith

Æthelred

Alfred

Father Egbert

Mother Redburga

Born 795[citation needed]

Aachen, Germany[citation needed]

Died 13 January 858

Stamridge, Wessex

Burial Stanbridge Earls then the Old Minster, Winchester. Bones now in Winchester Cathedral

--------------------

Abt. 795 Aachen in the court of Charlemagne Brøderbund WFT Vol. 3, Ed. 1, Tree #6584, Date of Import: a... Died : 13 Jan 858 England, ruled 825-39 Brøderbund WFT Vol. 3, Ed. 1, Tree #6584, Date of Import: a... Buried : - Steuning, Sussex, later Winchester Cathedral

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Æthelwulf,

also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English: Æ

-------------------- http://homep

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Aethelwulf, King of Wessex's Timeline

795
795
Wessex Kingdom, England
806
806
Age 11
England, United Kingdom
825
825
- present
Age 30
Under King of Kent
830
830
Age 35
Wessex, UK
833
833
Age 38
Wessex, UK
834
834
Age 39
Wessex, UK
835
835
Age 40
Wessex, UK
837
837
Age 42
Wessex Kingdom, England
839
839
Age 44
Wessex, , , England
839
- present
Age 44
King of Wessex