Afonso I o Conquistador, rei de Portugal

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Afonso I 'o Conquistador' Henriques, rei de Portugal

Also Known As: "Afonso Henriques", "o Conquistador", "King Alphonso", "The Conqueror"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Guimaraes, Braga, Portugal
Death: Died in Coimbra, Portugal
Place of Burial: Igreja Santa Cruz, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Immediate Family:

Son of Henrique de Borgonha, conde de Portugal; Henry Count of Portugal; Teresa de Leão, condessa de Portugal and Theresa of Portugal, Countess
Husband of Mafalda de Saboia, rainha consorte de Portugal and N.N.
Partner of Elvira Gualter
Father of Henrique, infante de Portugal; Urraca de Portugal, reina consorte de León; Sancho I o Povoador, rei de Portugal; Mafalda, infanta de Portugal; Mafalda, infante de Portugal and 7 others
Brother of Urraca Henriques, infanta de Portugal; Afonso Henriques de Borgonha; Teresa Henriques, infanta de Portugal; Henrique Henriques, infante de Portugal and Sancha Henriques, infanta de Portugal
Half brother of María Fernández de Trava; Sancha Fernández de Traba; Teresa Fernández de Traba and Pedro Afonso de Portugal

Occupation: 1º Rei de Portugal, King of Portugal, Grand maãitre de l'ordre d'Aviz, Primer rey de Portugal, I Rey de Portugal, II Conde de Portugal, Konge
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Afonso I o Conquistador, rei de Portugal

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal (English)

Afonso I de Portugal Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_de_Portugal


Ordem: 1.º Monarca de Portugal Cognome: O Conquistador Início do Reinado: 5 de Dezembro de 1143 Término do Reinado: 6 de Dezembro de 1185 Sucessor: D. Sancho I Pai: D. Henrique, Conde de Portucale Mãe: D. Teresa, Infanta de Leão Data de Nascimento: 1109 (c) Local de Nascimento: Guimarães, Viseu ou Coimbra Data de Falecimento: 6 de Dezembro de 1185 Local de Falecimento: Coimbra Local de Enterro: Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, Coimbra Consorte(s): Mafalda (Matilde) de Sabóia Príncipe Herdeiro: Infante D. Henrique (filho; 1147-1157); Infante D. Sancho (filho; 1157-1185)

Descendência: Pela sua mulher, Mafalda de Sabóia ou Matilde de Sabóia (1125-1157), que desposou c. 1146: 1) D. Henrique (1147-?) 2) D. Mafalda de Portugal (1149-1160), teve o seu casamento programado com o rei de Afonso II de Aragão, o que não se efectivou pela morte da infanta 3) D. Urraca (1151-1188), casou com o rei Fernando II de Leão 4) D. Sancha de Portugal (1153-1159) 5) Sancho I de Portugal (1154-1212) 6) D. João de Portugal (1156) 7) D. Teresa (1157-1218), depois do casamento chamada Matilde ou Mafalda, casou com Filipe I, Conde da Flandres e depois com Eudes III, Duque da Borgonha

Filha de Elvira Gálter: 1) D. Urraca Afonso, senhora de Aveiro (c. 1130-?), casou com D. Pedro Afonso Viegas, Tenente de Neiva e de Trancoso.

Outros filhos naturais: 1) D. Fernando Afonso, também nomeado D. Afonso de Portugal, alferes-mor do Reino e 12º Grão-Mestre da Ordem dos Hospitalários (1135-1207) 2) D. Pedro Afonso (c. 1140-1189) 3) D. Teresa Afonso (c. 1135-?)

Afonso I de Portugal, mais conhecido pelo seu nome de conde, Dom Afonso Henriques, (1109 (?) — 6 de Dezembro de 1185) foi o primeiro rei de Portugal, conquistando a independência portuguesa em relação ao Reino de Leão em 1143 no tratado de Zamora.

Em virtude das suas múltiplas conquistas, que ao longo de mais de quarenta anos mais que duplicaram o território que o seu pai lhe havia legado, foi cognominado O Conquistador; também é conhecido como O Fundador e O Grande. Os muçulmanos, em sinal de respeito, chamaram-lhe Ibn-Arrik («filho de Henrique», tradução literal do patronímico Henriques) ou El-Bortukali («o Português»).

Afonso Henriques era filho de Henrique de Borgonha, Conde de Portucale e da infanta Teresa de Leão. Há quem defenda que era filho de Egas Moniz. A data e local do seu nascimento não estão determinados de forma inequívoca. Hoje em dia, a data que reúne maior consenso aponta para o ano de 1109. Almeida Fernandes, autor da hipótese que indica Viseu como local de nascimento de D. Afonso Henriques refere a probabilidade de ter nascido em Agosto enquanto outros autores, baseando-se em documentos que remontam ao século XIII referem a data de 25 de Julho do mesmo ano. No entanto, já foram defendidas outras datas e locais para o nascimento do primeiro rei de Portugal, como o ano de 1106 ou de 1111 (hipótese avançada por Alexandre Herculano após a sua leitura da "Crónica dos Godos"). Tradicionalmente, acredita-se que terá nascido e sido criado em Guimarães, onde viveu até 1128. Outros autores, ainda, referem Coimbra como local provável para o seu nascimento.

Em 1120, Afonso tomou uma posição política oposta à da mãe (que apoiava o partido dos Travas), sob a direcção do arcebispo de Braga D. Paio Mendes. Este, forçado a emigrar, levou consigo o infante que em 1122 se armou cavaleiro em Tui.

Restabelecida a paz, voltaram ao condado. Entretanto, novos incidentes provocaram a invasão do Condado Portucalense por Afonso VII de Leão e Castela que, em 1127, cercou Guimarães, onde se encontrava Afonso Henriques. Sendo-lhe prometida a lealdade deste pelo seu aio Egas Moniz, Afonso VII desistiu de conquistar a cidade.

Mas alguns meses depois, em 1128, as tropas de Teresa de Leão e Fernão Peres de Trava defrontaram-se com as de Afonso Henriques na batalha de São Mamede, tendo as tropas do infante saído vitoriosas – o que consagrou a sua autoridade no território portucalense, levando-o a assumir o governo do condado. Consciente da importância das forças que ameaçavam o seu poder, concentrou os seus esforços em negociações junto da Santa Sé com um duplo objectivo: alcançar a plena autonomia da Igreja portuguesa e obter o reconhecimento do Reino.

Em 1139, depois de uma estrondosa vitória na batalha de Ourique contra um forte contingente mouro, D. Afonso Henriques autoproclamou-se rei de Portugal, com o apoio das suas tropas. Segundo a tradição, a independência foi confirmada mais tarde, nas míticas cortes de Lamego, quando recebeu a coroa de Portugal do arcebispo de Braga, D. João Peculiar, se bem que estudos recentes questionem a reunião destas cortes.

O reconhecimento do Reino de Leão e de Castela chegou em 1143, com o tratado de Zamora, e deve-se ao desejo de Afonso VII de Leão e Castela em tomar o título de imperador de toda a Hispânia e, como tal, necessitar de reis como vassalos. Desde então, Afonso I procurou consolidar a independência por si declarada. Fez importantes doações à Igreja e fundou diversos conventos.

Procurou também conquistar terreno a sul, povoado então por mouros: Leiria em 1135 (1145, conquista final) usando a técnica de assalto; Santarém em 1146 (1147, conquista final), também utilizando a técnica de assalto; Lisboa (onde utilizou o cerco como táctica de conquista, graças à ajuda dos cruzados), Almada e Palmela em 1147, Alcácer em 1160 e depois quase todo o Alentejo, que posteriormente seria recuperado pelos mouros, pouco antes de D. Afonso falecer (em 1185).

Em 1179 o Papa Alexandre III reconheceu Portugal como país independente e vassalo da Igreja, através da Bula Manifestis Probatum.

De 1166 a 1168, D. Afonso Henriques apoderara-se de várias praças pertencentes à coroa leonesa. Fernando II de Leão estava a repovoar Ciudad Rodrigo e o português, suspeitando que o seu genro estava a fortificar a cidade para o atacar, enviou um exército comandado pelo seu filho, o infante D. Sancho, contra aquela praça. O rei leonês foi em auxílio da cidade ameaçada e derrotou as tropas portuguesas, fazendo um grande número de prisioneiros.

Em resposta, D. Afonso Henriques entrou pela Galiza, tomou Tui e vários outros castelos, e em 1169 atacou primeiro Cáceres. Depois voltou-se contra Badajoz na posse dos sarracenos, mas que pertenceria a Leão, conforme o acordado no tratado de Sahagún assinado entre aquele reino e Castela.

Não obstante, sem respeitar estas convenções nem os laços de parentesco que o uniam a Fernando, o rei português cercou Badajoz para a conquistar para Portugal. Quando os muçulmanos já estavam cercados na alcáçova, Fernando de Leão apresentou-se com as suas hostes e atacou D. Afonso nas ruas da cidade. Percebendo a impossibilidade de manter a luta, Afonso terá tentado fugir a cavalo, mas ao passar pelas portas ter-se-á ferido na coxa contra um dos ferros que a guarneciam. Fernando tratou o seu sogro prisioneiro com nobreza e generosidade, chamando os seus melhores médicos para o tratar.

Esta campanha teve como resultado um tratado de paz entre ambos os reinos, assinado em Pontevedra, em virtude do qual Afonso foi libertado, com a única condição de devolver a Fernando cidades extremenhas (da Extremadura espanhola) tais como Cáceres, Badajoz, Trujillo, Santa Cruz , Monfragüe e Montánchez, que havia conquistado a Leão. Estabeleciam-se assim as fronteiras de Portugal com Leão e a Galiza. E mais tarde, quando os muçulmanos sitiaram Santarém, o leonês auxiliou imediatamente o rei português.

Após o incidente de Badajoz, a carreira militar de D. Afonso Henriques praticamente terminou. A partir daí, dedicou-se à administração dos territórios com a co-regência do seu filho D. Sancho. Procurou fixar a população, promoveu o municipalismo e concedeu forais. Contou com a ajuda da ordem religiosa dos cistercienses para o desenvolvimento da economia, predominantemente agrária.

O legado do seu reinado foi, entre outros: A fundação da nacionalidade, reconhecida pelo papado e pelos outros reinos da Europa; A pacificação interna do reino e alargamento do território através de conquistas aos mouros empurrando as fronteiras do Condado Portucalense para sul. A fundação do Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra em 1131 O seu túmulo encontra-se no Mosteiro de Santa Cruz, em Coimbra, ao lado do túmulo do filho D. Sancho I.

O reinado de Afonso Henriques ficou marcado pela tolerância para com os judeus. Estes estavam organizados num sistema próprio, representados politicamente pelo grão-rabino nomeado pelo rei.

O grão-rabino Yahia Ben Yahia foi mesmo escolhido para ministro das Finanças de Afonso Henriques, responsável pela coleta de impostos no reino. Com esta escolha teve início uma tradição de escolher judeus para a área financeira e de manter um bom entendimento com as comunidades judaicas, que foi seguida por seus sucessores.

-------------------- Titles: King of Portugal 1139 - 1185 Died of unknown causes at age 75 In 1128 defeated his mother in battle. She was his regent In 1139 he won Portugal's independence for Leon in a decisive battle over the Moors at Quirque. He then declared himself Portugal's first king. Ancestors

                                 
Afonso I, King of Portugal, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques, (July 25, 1109 – December 6, 1185), also known as the Conqueror, was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León. He played a major role in reclaiming the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors and defended Portugal from Castille, which was reluctant to recognize its independence. Conflict with Castille ended with a peace Treaty (1143), evidence that Afonso I could make peace as well as wage war. Afonso consolidated Portugal's Catholic identity, pledging that he and the nation would serve the Church. Reconquered territories were settled with a Christian population, guarded by members of the military orders. Within less than 20 years of Afonso's death, Portugal was defined more or less by its present borders, making Portugal one of the oldest 'nation-states', since countries such as Spain, France, Italy and Germany were not unified until much later. Afonso I left his mark on the map of Europe. The impetus created by his conquest of the Southern Iberian peninsular, and by the process of settling that region, would later continue to drive and to inspire Portuguese imperial expansion, as, subsequently, the Kingdom acquired a large overseas empire.
            

Life Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Afonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

                         

Birth of the Kingdom of Portugal Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he won an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but a kingdom in its own right. He then convened the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego (at which he would have been given the crown by the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm this independence), although this is likely to be a seventeenth century embellishment of Portuguese history.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal

Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. IPA /ɐ'fõsu ẽ'ʁikɨʃ/), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Viseu, 1109, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León.

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy, whose mother was daughter of the Count of Barcelona. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome earldom south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Dux of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

Afonso then turned his arms against the everlasting problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but an independent kingdom in its own right. Next, he assembled the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego, where he was given the crown from the archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighbouring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wedded Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of Castile or León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of Castile (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of Castile and León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts of annexation.

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he had still sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that tell that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, as well as that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in king-to-king battle, but no one would dare accept his challenge. -------------------- Afonso I, King of Portugal (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pron. IPA /?'fõsu ?'?ik??/), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Guimarães, 1109?, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León. Contents [hide]

   * 1 Life
   * 2 Scientific research
   * 3 Ancestors
   * 4 Descendants
   * 5 See also
   * 6 Bibliography
   * 7 References

[edit] Life

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy, whose mother was daughter of the Count of Barcelona. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome earldom south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Dux of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. Portuguese Royalty House of Burgundy Afonso Henriques (Afonso I)

Children include

   * Infanta Urraca, Queen of Léon
   * Infante Sancho (future Sancho I)
   * Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders

Sancho I

Children include

   * Infanta Teresa, Queen of Castile
   * Infanta Sancha
   * Infanta Constança
   * Infante Afonso (future Afonso II)
   * Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell
   * Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders
   * Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara
   * Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark
   * Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile

Afonso II

Children include

   * Infante Sancho (future Sancho II)
   * Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne (future Afonso III)
   * Infanta Leonor, Queen of Denmark
   * Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa

Sancho II Afonso III

Children include

   * Infanta Branca
   * Infante Dinis (future Denis I)
   * Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre
   * Infanta Maria
   * Infanta Sancha

Denis

Children include

   * Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile
   * Infante Afonso (future Afonso IV)

Afonso IV

Children include

   * Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile
   * Infante Pedro (future Peter I)
   * Infanta Leonor, Queen of Aragon

Peter I

Children include

   * Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa
   * Infante Fernando (future Ferdinand I)
   * Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque
   * Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos
   * Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes
   * John, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz (future John I) (natural son)

Ferdinand I

Children include

   * Infanta Beatrice, Queen of Castile and Leon (future Beatrice I of Portugal)

Beatrice (disputed queen)

Children include

   * Miguel of Trastámara

Afonso then turned his arms against the everlasting problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but an independent kingdom in its own right. Next, he assembled the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego, where he was given the crown from the archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence.

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighbouring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wedded Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of Castile or León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of Castile (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of Castile and León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts of annexation.

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he had still sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that tell that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, as well as that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in king-to-king battle, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

[edit] Scientific research

In July 2006, the opening of the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) with scientific proposes conducted by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain), provoked widespread preoccupation among some sectors of the Portuguese society and IPPAR- Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony), with the government halting the opening due to the importance of the king in the nation's formation by requesting more protocols from the scientific team.[1]

[edit] Ancestors Robert I, Duke of Burgundy


Helie of Semur


Berenguer Ramon I, Count of Barcelona


Gisela of Lluca


Ferdinand I of Castile and León


Sancha of León


Munio Muñoz, Count of Bierzo


Muniadona Muñoz



	
















Henry, Duke of Burgundy






Sibyl (Beatriz) of Barcelona






Alfonso VI of Castile






Jimena Muñoz




















































Henry, Count of Portugal














Theresa, Countess of Portugal

































































Afonso I of Portugal















[edit] Descendants

Afonso married in 1146 Mafalda or Maud of Savoy (1125-1158), daughter of Amadeo III, Count of Savoy, and Mafalda of Albon. Name Birth Death Notes By Maud of Savoy (1125-1158; married in 1146) Henrique March 5, 1147 1147 Mafalda 1148 c. 1160 Urraca c. 1151 1188 married to King Ferdinand II of León Sancho 1154 March 26, 1212 Succeeded him as 2nd King of Portugal Teresa 1157 1218 married to Philip I of Flanders and after his death to Eudes III of Burgundy João 1160 1160 Sancha 1160 1160 By Elvira Gálter Urraca Afonso c. 1130 ? Natural daughter. Married Pedro Afonso Viegas. -------------------- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Afonso I King of Portugal Reign July 26, 1139 – 6 December 1185 Coronation July 26, 1139 Predecessor Henry, Count of Portugal (de jure) Teresa, Countess of Portugal (de facto) Successor Sancho I Consort Maud of Savoy among others... Issue Urraca, Queen of León Sancho I Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders House Capetian House of Burgundy Father Henry, Count of Portugal Mother Teresa of León Born July 25, 1109 Coimbra Died December 6, 1185 (aged 76) Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal Burial Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, District of Coimbra, Portugal

Afonso I (Coimbra, 1109, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pronounced [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, achieving its independence from León and doubling its area with the Reconquista. Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of León wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law. Tomb of Afonso Henriques in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra.

From this marriage several children were born, but only one son, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") survived. The boy, born 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso became sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. Portuguese Royalty House of Burgundy Afonso Henriques (Afonso I)

Children include

   * Infanta Mafalda
   * Infanta Urraca, Queen of Léon
   * Infante Sancho (future Sancho I)
   * Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy

Sancho I

Children include

   * Infanta Teresa, Queen of Castile
   * Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer
   * Infanta Constança
   * Infante Afonso (future Afonso II)
   * Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell
   * Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders
   * Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara
   * Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark
   * Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile

Afonso II

Children include

   * Infante Sancho (future Sancho II)
   * Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne (future Afonso III)
   * Infanta Leonor, Queen of Denmark
   * Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa

Sancho II Afonso III

Children include

   * Infanta Branca, Viscountess of Huelgas
   * Infante Dinis (future Denis I)
   * Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre
   * Infanta Maria
   * Infanta Sancha

Denis

Children include

   * Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile
   * Infante Afonso (future Afonso IV)

Afonso IV

Children include

   * Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile
   * Infante Pedro (future Peter I)
   * Infanta Leonor, Queen of Aragon

Peter I

Children include

   * Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa
   * Infante Fernando (future Ferdinand I)
   * Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque
   * Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos
   * Infante Dinis, Lord of Villar-Dompardo
   * John, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz (future John I) (natural son)

Ferdinand I

Children include

   * Infanta Beatrice, Queen of Castile and Leon (future Beatrice I of Portugal)

Beatrice (disputed queen)

Children include

   * Infante Miguel of Castile and Portugal

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León, but an independent kingdom in its own right. The first assembly of the estates-general convened at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history.

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighboring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese attempts at annexation.

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. Afonso died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

[edit] Scientific research

In July 2006, the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and IPPAR – Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony). The government halted the opening requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's formation.[1][2] -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal -------------------- Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law. From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León and Castile, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. 1109/11, Guimarães, Port. d. Dec. 6, 1185, Coimbra also called Afonso Henriques, byname AFONSO THE CONQUEROR, Portuguese AFONSO O CONQUISTADOR, the first king of Portugal (1139-85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139). Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso's father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against the Muslims (1095-1112). Henry married Alfonso VI's illegitimate daughter, Teresa, who governed Portugal from the time of her husband's death (1112) until her son Afonso came of age. She refused to cede her power to Afonso, but his party prevailed in the Battle of São Mamede, near Guimarães (1128). Though at first obliged as a vassal to submit to his cousin Alfonso VII of Leon, Afonso assumed the title of king in 1139. By victory in the Battle of Ourique (1139) he was able to impose tribute on his Muslim neighbours; and in 1147 he further captured Santarém and, availing himself of the services of passing crusaders, successfully laid siege to Lisbon. He carried his frontiers beyond the Tagus River, annexing Beja in 1162 and Évora in 1165; in attacking Badajoz, he was taken prisoner but then released. He married Mafalda of Savoy and associated his son, Sancho I, with his power. By the time of his death he had created a stable and independent monarchy. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- Afonso I of Portugal From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Afonso I (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pronounced [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Viseu, 1109, traditionally July 25 – Coimbra, 1185 December 6), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León.

Life

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra. At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. Portuguese Royalty House of Burgundy

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but an independent kingdom in its own right. That he then convened the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history. Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighbouring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of Castile or León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years. Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of Castile (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of Castile and León that Portugal was an independent kingdom. In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years. In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts at annexation. In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6, 1185. The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge. [edit]Scientific research

In July 2006, the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and IPPAR- Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony). The government halted the opening requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's formation.[1][2] [edit]

-------------------- Afonso I (c. 1109, Coimbra or Guimarães or Viseu – 6 December 1185, Coimbra), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed the Conqueror (Portuguese: o Conquistador), the Founder (Portuguese: o Fundador) or the Great (Portuguese: o Grande) by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali («the Portuguese») and Ibn-Arrik (son of Henry) by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. He achieved its independence from León, in 1139, doubling its area with the Reconquista, which he carried until is death, in 1185, after 46 years of wars against the Moors.

Contents [hide] 1 Life 2 Scientific research 3 Ancestors 4 Descendants 5 See also 6 Bibliography 7 References


[edit] Life Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León. He was proclaimed King on 25 July 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on 6 December 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of León wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.


Tomb of Afonso Henriques in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra.From this marriage several children were born, but only one son, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") survived. The boy, born 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso became sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León. On 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

Portuguese Royalty House of Burgundy Afonso Henriques (Afonso I) Children include Infanta Mafalda Infanta Urraca, Queen of Léon Infante Sancho (future Sancho I) Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy


Sancho I Children include Infanta Teresa, Queen of Castile Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer Infanta Constança Infante Afonso (future Afonso II) Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile


Afonso II Children include Infante Sancho (future Sancho II) Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne (future Afonso III) Infanta Leonor, Queen of Denmark Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa


Sancho II Afonso III Children include Infanta Branca, Viscountess of Huelgas Infante Dinis (future Denis I) Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre Infanta Maria Infanta Sancha


Denis Children include Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile Infante Afonso (future Afonso IV)


Afonso IV Children include Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile Infante Pedro (future Peter I) Infanta Leonor, Queen of Aragon


Peter I Children include Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa Infante Fernando (future Ferdinand I) Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos Infante Dinis, Lord of Villar-Dompardo John, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz (future John I) (natural son)


Ferdinand I Children include Infanta Beatrice, Queen of Castile and Leon (future Beatrice I of Portugal)


Beatrice (disputed queen) Children include Infante Miguel of Castile and Portugal


Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on 25 July 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León, but an independent kingdom in its own right. The first assembly of the estates-general convened at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history.

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighboring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese attempts at annexation.

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. Afonso died shortly after, on 6 December 1185.

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

[edit] Scientific research In July 2006, the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was to be opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and IPPAR – Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony). The government halted the opening, requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's formation.[1][2]

 

Descendants Afonso married in 1146 Mafalda or Maud of Savoy (1125–1158), daughter of Amadeo III, Count of Savoy, and Mafalda of Albon.

Name Birth Death Notes By Maud of Savoy (1125–1158; married in 1146) Infante Henrique (Henry) 5 March 1147 1147 Infanta Mafalda 1148 c. 1160 Infanta Urraca c. 1151 1188 Queen of León by marriage to King Ferdinand II of León. Infanta Sancha 1153 1159 Infante Sancho 1154 26 March 1212 Succeeded him as Sancho I, 2nd King of Portugal Infante João (John) 1156 1156 Infanta Teresa (Theresa) 1157 1218 Countess consort of Flanders by marriage to Philip I of Flanders. Duchess consort of Burgundy by marriage to Eudes III of Burgundy. By Elvira Gálter Urraca Afonso c. 1130 ? Natural daughter. Married Pedro Afonso Viegas. Lady of Aveiro. Other natural offspring Fernando Afonso ?[4] c. 1172 High-General of the Kingdom (Constable of Portugal) Pedro Afonso c 1130 1169 A.k.a. Pedro Henriques. 1st Grand-Master of the Order of Aviz. Afonso c. 1135 1207 12th Grand Master of the Order of Saint John of Rhodes (also known as the Knights Hospitaller). Teresa Afonso c. 1135 ? Married Fernando Martins Bravo or Martim Moniz.

[edit] See also

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Portugal History of Portugal Timeline of Portuguese history Second County of Portugal (11th to 12th Century) First Dynasty: Burgundy (12th to 14th Century) Afonso I of Portugal House of Burgundy Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty Born: 25 de Julho 1109 Died: 6 December 1185 Regnal titles New title

Independence from León–Castile King of Portugal 1139 – 1185 Succeeded by Sancho I Titles of nobility Preceded by Henrique Count of Portugal 1112 – 1139 with Theresa (1112 – 1126) Independence from León–Castile [hide]v • d • eMonarchs of Portugal


House of Burgundy Afonso I • Sancho I • Afonso II • Sancho II • Afonso III • Denis • Afonso IV • Peter I • Ferdinand I • Beatrice (disputed)


House of Aviz John I • Edward • Afonso V • John II • Afonso V • John II


House of Aviz-Beja Manuel I • John III • Sebastian • Henry • Anthony (disputed)


House of Habsburg Philip I • Philip II • Philip III


House of Braganza John IV • Afonso VI • Peter II • John V • Joseph I • Maria I with Peter III • John VI • Pedro IV • Maria II • Miguel • Maria II with Ferdinand II


House of Braganza-Coburg Peter V • Luís • Charles • Manuel II


[edit] Bibliography Diogo Freitas do Amaral, D. Afonso Henriques. Lisboa: Bertrand, 2000. ISBN 972-25-1157-2. [edit] References 1.^ IPPAR: direcção nacional diz que não foi consultada sobre abertura do túmulo de D. Afonso Henriques, Público, 6 July 2006, accessed December 2006 (in Portuguese) 2.^ n:Portuguese Culture Ministry suspends opening of Afonso I's tomb 3.^ Genea - Portuguese genealogical site, according to: D. António Caetano de Sousa, História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa, Coimbra, Atlântida, 1946, vol. I, p. 36; Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.), Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia, 1989, vol. I, p. 85. 4.^ c. (1166 is an erroneous date) This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Persondata NAME Afonso I ALTERNATIVE NAMES Afonso Henriques SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Portugal DATE OF BIRTH Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character "{" 1109(1109-Expression error: Unrecognised word "july"-{{{3}}}) PLACE OF BIRTH Coimbra, Second County of Portugal, Kingdom of León DATE OF DEATH 6 December 1185 PLACE OF DEATH Coimbra, Portugal Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal" Categories: Portuguese Roman Catholics | Roman Catholic monarchs | Portuguese monarchs | House of Burgundy-Portugal | People of the Reconquista | 1109 births | 1185 deaths | 12th-century Roman Catholics | Counts of Portugal (Asturias-León) -------------------- Primeiro rei de Portugal. Filho do conde D. Henrique e da infanta D. Teresa. Terá nascido em Coimbra e foi, possivelmente, criado em Guimarães onde viveu até 1128. Tomou, em 1120, uma posição política oposta à de D. Teresa (que apoiava o partido dos Travas), sob a direcção do arcebispo de Braga. Este forçado a emigrar leva consigo o infante que em 1122 se arma cavaleiro. Restabelecida a paz, voltam ao condado. Entretanto novos incidentes provocam a invasão do condado portucalense por D. Afonso VII, que, em 1127, cerca Guimarães onde se encontrava D. Afonso Henriques. Sendo-lhe prometida a lealdade deste, D. Afonso VII desiste de conquistar a cidade. Mas alguns meses depois, em 1128, as tropas de D. Teresa defrontam-se com as de D. Afonso Henriques tendo estas saído vitoriosas – o que consagrou a autoridade de D. Afonso Henriques no território portucalense, levando-o a assumir o governo do condado. Consciente da importância das forças que ameaçavam o seu poder este concentrou os seus esforços em dois planos: Negociações junto da Santa Sé com um duplo objectivo: alcançar a plena autonomia da Igreja portuguesa e o reconhecimento do Reino. Os passos mais importantes foram os seguintes: Fundação do Mosteiro de Santa Cruz de Coimbra, em 1131, directamente subordinada à cúria romana – fundação que propiciou a reunião das dioceses portuguesas à metrópole de Braga; declaração de vassalagem por parte de D. Afonso Henriques à Santa Sé em 1143 – em virtude de uma nova fase da sua política iniciada com o use do título de rei; obtenção da bula de 1179, na qual o papa Alexandre III designava pela primeira vez D. Afonso Henriques rei a ao qual dava o direito de conquistar terras aos Mouros sobre as quais outros príncipes cristãos não tivessem direitos anteriores; pacificação interna do reino e alargamento do território através de conquistas aos Mouros – o limite sul estabelecido para o condado portucalense – e assim Leiria em 1135, Santarém e Lisboa em 1147 – quer mesmo para além deste, sempre que isso não viesse originar conflitos com o Imperador – e assim Almada e Palmela em 1147, Alcácer em 1160 e quase todo o Alentejo (que posteriormente foi de novo recuperado pelos Mouros).

-------------------- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal Afonso I of Portugal From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to:navigation, search Afonso I King of the Portuguese Reign 26 July 1139 – 6 December 1185 Coronation 26 July 1139 Predecessor Henry, Count of Portugal (de jure) Teresa, Countess of Portugal (de facto) Successor Sancho I Consort Maud of Savoy among others ... Issue Urraca, Queen of León Sancho I Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders House Capetian House of Burgundy Father Henry, Count of Portugal Mother Teresa of León Born c. 1109 Guimarães or Viseu Died 6 December 1185 Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal Burial Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, District of Coimbra, Portugal

Afonso I (c. 1109, Guimarães or Viseu – 6 December 1185, Coimbra), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed the Conqueror (Portuguese: o Conquistador), the Founder (Portuguese: o Fundador) or the Great (Portuguese: o Grande) by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali («the Portuguese») and Ibn-Arrik (son of Henry) by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. He achieved the independence of the southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia -County of Portugal- from the León, in 1139, doubling its area with the Reconquista, which he carried until his death, in 1185, after 46 years of wars against the Moors. Contents [show]

   * 1 Life
   * 2 Scientific research
   * 3 Ancestors
   * 4 Descendants
   * 5 See also
   * 6 Bibliography
   * 7 References

[edit] Life

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of León. He was proclaimed King on 25 July 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on 6 December 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of León wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law. Tomb of Afonso Henriques in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra.

From this marriage several children were born, but only one son, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") survived. The boy, born 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of re-incorporating Portugal (up to then Southern Galicia) into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso became sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León. On 6 April 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. Portuguese Royalty House of Burgundy PortugueseFlag1185.svg Afonso Henriques (Afonso I)

Children include

   * Infanta Mafalda
   * Infanta Urraca, Queen of Léon
   * Infante Sancho (future Sancho I)
   * Infanta Teresa, Countess of Flanders and Duchess of Burgundy

Sancho I

Children include

   * Infanta Teresa, Queen of Castile
   * Infanta Sancha, Lady of Alenquer
   * Infanta Constança
   * Infante Afonso (future Afonso II)
   * Infante Pedro, Count of Urgell
   * Infante Fernando, Count of Flanders
   * Infanta Branca, Lady of Guadalajara
   * Infanta Berengária, Queen of Denmark
   * Infanta Mafalda, Queen of Castile

Afonso II

Children include

   * Infante Sancho (future Sancho II)
   * Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne (future Afonso III)
   * Infanta Leonor, Queen of Denmark
   * Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa

Sancho II Afonso III

Children include

   * Infanta Branca, Viscountess of Huelgas
   * Infante Dinis (future Denis I)
   * Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre
   * Infanta Maria
   * Infanta Sancha

Denis

Children include

   * Infanta Constança, Queen of Castile
   * Infante Afonso (future Afonso IV)

Afonso IV

Children include

   * Infanta Maria, Queen of Castile
   * Infante Pedro (future Peter I)
   * Infanta Leonor, Queen of Aragon

Peter I

Children include

   * Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa
   * Infante Fernando (future Ferdinand I)
   * Infanta Beatriz, Countess of Alburquerque
   * Infante João, Duke of Valencia de Campos
   * Infante Dinis, Lord of Villar-Dompardo
   * John, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz (future John I) (natural son)

Ferdinand I

Children include

   * Infanta Beatrice, Queen of Castile and Leon (future Beatrice I of Portugal)

Beatrice (disputed queen)

Children include

   * Infante Miguel of Castile and Portugal

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on 25 July 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León, but an independent kingdom in its own right. The first assembly of the estates-general convened at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history.

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighboring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia (North of the Minho)in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese attempts at annexation.

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. Afonso died shortly after, on 6 December 1185.

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge. [edit] Scientific research

In July 2006, the tomb of the King (which is located in the Santa Cruz Monastery in Coimbra) was to be opened for scientific purposes by researchers from the University of Coimbra (Portugal), and the University of Granada (Spain). The opening of the tomb provoked considerable concern among some sectors of Portuguese society and IPPAR – Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico (Portuguese State Agency for Architectural Patrimony). The government halted the opening, requesting more protocols from the scientific team because of the importance of the king in the nation's formation.[1][2] [edit] Ancestors

These are the known ancestor of Afonso Henriques, going back five generations.[3]


-------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. 1109/11, Guimarães, Port. d. Dec. 6, 1185, Coimbra also called Afonso Henriques, byname AFONSO THE CONQUEROR, Portuguese AFONSO O CONQUISTADOR, the first king of Portugal (1139-85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139). Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso's father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against the Muslims (1095-1112). Henry married Alfonso VI's illegitimate daughter, Teresa, who governed Portugal from the time of her husband's death (1112) until her son Afonso came of age. She refused to cede her power to Afonso, but his party prevailed in the Battle of São Mamede, near Guimarães (1128). Though at first obliged as a vassal to submit to his cousin Alfonso VII of Leon, Afonso assumed the title of king in 1139. By victory in the Battle of Ourique (1139) he was able to impose tribute on his Muslim neighbours; and in 1147 he further captured Santarém and, availing himself of the services of passing crusaders, successfully laid siege to Lisbon. He carried his frontiers beyond the Tagus River, annexing Beja in 1162 and Évora in 1165; in attacking Badajoz, he was taken prisoner but then released. He married Mafalda of Savoy and associated his son, Sancho I, with his power. By the time of his death he had created a stable and independent monarchy. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. 1109/11, Guimarães, Port. d. Dec. 6, 1185, Coimbra also called Afonso Henriques, byname AFONSO THE CONQUEROR, Portuguese AFONSO O CONQUISTADOR, the first king of Portugal (1139-85), who conquered Santarém and Lisbon from the Muslims (1147) and secured Portuguese independence from Leon (1139). Alfonso VI, emperor of Leon, had granted the county of Portugal to Afonso's father, Henry of Burgundy, who successfully defended it against the Muslims (1095-1112). Henry married Alfonso VI's illegitimate daughter, Teresa, who governed Portugal from the time of her husband's death (1112) until her son Afonso came of age. She refused to cede her power to Afonso, but his party prevailed in the Battle of São Mamede, near Guimarães (1128). Though at first obliged as a vassal to submit to his cousin Alfonso VII of Leon, Afonso assumed the title of king in 1139. By victory in the Battle of Ourique (1139) he was able to impose tribute on his Muslim neighbours; and in 1147 he further captured Santarém and, availing himself of the services of passing crusaders, successfully laid siege to Lisbon. He carried his frontiers beyond the Tagus River, annexing Beja in 1162 and Évora in 1165; in attacking Badajoz, he was taken prisoner but then released. He married Mafalda of Savoy and associated his son, Sancho I, with his power. By the time of his death he had created a stable and independent monarchy. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law. From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112, under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120, the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga, a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county, under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century. He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora, raised an army, and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarães, at the Battle of São Mamede (1128) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia, making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León. Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of León and Castile, another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile. On April 6, 1129, Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal. -------------------- Alfonso I de Portugal, Primer Rey de Portugal, nacido el 25-VII-1110 en Villa de Guimaräes, Braga, Portugal, y fallecido el 6-XII-1185 en Mosteiro Decelas, Coimbra, Portugal. Está sepultado en la Igreja Santa Cruz, Coimbra, Portugal. Alfonso I casó con Matilde, condesa de Saboya (ver Condes de Saboya), y tuvieron por hijas a Urraca, reina de Portugal (1151, que casó con Fernando II, rey de León: ver Reyes de León) y Teresa de Portugal (1157). -------------------- Afonso Henriques, Alfonso Enríquez o Alfonso I de Borgoña (Guimarães, 25 de julio de 1109 - Coímbra, 6 de diciembre de 1185) fue el primer Rey de Portugal. Gracias a sus conquistas que, a lo largo de cuarenta años, sobrepasaron el doble del territorio legado por su padre, fue conocido como El Conquistador; también se le llamó El Fundador y El Grande. Los musulmanes, en señal de respeto, le llamaron Ibn-Arrik ("hijo de Enrique") o El-Bortukali ("el portugués").

Alfonso era hijo de Enrique de Borgoña, conde de Portugal y de la infanta Teresa de León (hija bastarda de Alfonso VI de León y Castilla). Nació en Coímbra y fue, posiblemente, criado en Guimarães donde vivió hasta 1128. En 1120 tomó una posición política opuesta a la de su madre (que apoyaba al partido de los Trabas), bajo la dirección del arzobispo de Braga. Cuando el arzobispo fue forzado a emigrar se llevó consigo al infante que, en 1122 fue armado caballero en Tuy.

Restablecida la paz, volvió al condado. Mientras, unos incidentes provocaron la invasión del condado Portucalense por Alfonso VII de León y de Castilla que, en 1127, asedió Guimarães, ciudad en la que se encontraba Alfonso Henriques. Al prometerle lealtad, Alfonso VII desistió de conquistar la ciudad. Pero unos meses más tarde, en 1128, las tropas de Teresa de León se enfrentaron en la Batalla de San Mamede con las de Afonso Henriques que venció, consagrando su autoridad en el territorio. Consciente de la importancia de las fuerzas que amenazaban su poder, se concentró en negociar con la Santa Sede con un doble objetivo: conseguir la completa autonomía de la iglesia portuguesa y el reconocimiento del reino.

En 1139, tras una gran victoria en la Batalla de Ourique contra un potente contingente del Imperio Almorávide, Alfonso Henriques fue aclamado como rey de Portugal por sus tropas. Según la tradición, la independencia fue confirmada más tarde, en las cortes de Lamego, al recibir del arzobispo de Braga la corona de Portugal. El reconocimiento llegó en 1143 por el Tratado de Zamora, gracias al deseo del rey Alfonso VII de ser emperador (y, por tanto, de necesitar reyes como vasallos).

Desde entonces, Alfonso I procuró consolidar la independencia. Realizó importantes donaciones a la iglesia y fundó diversos conventos. Intentó también conquistar terreno en el sur, poblado entonces por musulmanes, y conquistó Santarém y Lisboa en 1147 tras el sitio de Lisboa y la batalla de Sacavém.

De 1166 a 1168, Alfonso I se había apoderado de varias plazas pertenecientes a la corona leonesa. Fernando II de León repobló por aquellos días a Ciudad Rodrigo, y Alfonso, sospechando que su yerno la fortificaba con el propósito de molestarle, envió contra aquella plaza un ejército mandado por su hijo, el infante heredero Sancho. Acudió Fernando II en auxilio de la plaza amenazada, y en un encuentro que tuvo con las tropas portuguesas las puso en completa derrota, haciendo gran número de prisioneros. Despechado Alfonso I, entró por Galicia, se apoderó de Tuy y de otros muchos castillos, y en el año 1169 acometió primero la plaza de Cáceres. Luego acometió contra Badajoz poseída por los sarracenos, pero que pertenecía, en caso de conquista según el tratado de Sahagún, a la monarquía de León. Esto no obstante, Alfonso, sin respetar aquellas convenciones ni los lazos de parentesco que le unían con Fernando atacó, la plaza y quiso hacerla suya. Lo había casi logrado, y los musulmanes habían sido encerrados en un extremo de la población, cuando Fernando se presentó con sus huestes y atacó a Alfonso en las calles de Badajoz.

Alfonso I, que conoció la imposibilidad de sostener la lucha, quiso huir a uña de caballo, pero al pasar la puerta pegó contra uno de los hierros que la guarnecían y se rompió un muslo. Fernando trató a su suegro prisionero con gran nobleza y generosidad, le hizo curar por sus mejores médicos. Esta campaña dio por resultado un tratado de paz entre ambos reyes, en virtud del cual Alfonso recobró la libertad, con la sola condición de que devolvería al leonés las plazas de Cáceres, Badajoz, Trujillo, Santa Cruz de Paniagua, Montánchez y Monfragüe que en sus dominios le usurpara.

En 1178, en vista de una invasión de Fernando II a Castilla, Alfonso I apoya a Alfonso VIII de Castilla, enviando en su auxilio a un ejército comandado por el heredero don Sancho. La paz de 1180 entre Fernando II y Alfonso VIII evita una nueva guerra.

En 1179 el Papa Alejandro III, a través de la bula Manifestus Probatum, reconoció Portugal como reino independiente y como vasallo de la iglesia. -------------------- Afonso I (July 25 1109, Guimarães or Viseu - 6 December 1185, Coimbra), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), sometimes rendered in English as Alphonzo or Alphonse, depending on the Spanish or French influence, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), El-Bortukali («the Portuguese») by the Moors, was the first King of Portugal, achieving its independence from León and doubling its area with the Reconquista.

-------------------- Alfons I antog titeln "kung av Portugal" efter att 1139 ha vunnit slaget vid Ourique mot muslimerna, och Kastilien erkände 1143 Portugals självständighet. År 1147 erövrade Alfons Lissabon och flyttade därmed fram den portugisiska gränsen till floden Tejo.

Källa: Nationalencyklopedin. -------------------- HGCRP-Tomo I-pg. 36

NPB-vol. I-pg. 85

D. Afonso I de Portugal mais conhecido por Dom Afonso Henriques (Guimarães ou Viseu, 1109(?) — Coimbra, 6 de Dezembro de 1185) foi o primeiro rei de Portugal, cognominado O Conquistador, O Fundador ou O Grande pela fundação do reino e pelas muitas conquistas. Era filho de Henrique de Borgonha e de Teresa de Leão, condes de Portucale, dependente do Reino de Leão. Após a morte de seu pai, Afonso tomou uma posição política oposta à da mãe, que se aliara a Fernão Peres de Trava. Pretendendo assegurar o domínio do condado armou-se cavaleiro e após vencer a batalha de São Mamede em 1128, assumiu o governo. Concentrou então os esforços em obter o reconhecimento como reino. Em 1139, depois da vitória na batalha de Ourique contra um contingente mouro, D. Afonso Henriques proclamou-se rei de Portugal com o apoio das suas tropas. A independência portuguesa foi reconhecida em 1143 pelo tratado de Zamora. Com a pacificação interna, prosseguiu as conquistas aos mouros, empurrando as fronteiras para sul, desde Leiria ao Alentejo, mais que duplicando o território que herdara. Os muçulmanos, em sinal de respeito, chamaram-lhe Ibn-Arrik («filho de Henrique», tradução literal do patronímico Henriques) ou El-Bortukali («o Português»). -------------------- Do not merge this profile! This is my blood relation. I have a blood relationship with his father. Yet, when you merge this profile, Geni displays no blood relationship. Why? Because there's a problem with the Geni search engine. It displays the first connection it comes to, not the best connection. I've informed Geni management about the problem. I suggest you follow up and get them to fix the problem. I intend to have profiles on Geni that reflect my true relationships even if I have to recreate them everyday all day long. So don't merge this profile or any other related profiles. If you, or any other Curators, Collaborators, etc., etc. etc., have a problem with this, you need to deal with Geni management. That's what I'm doing.The problem could be affecting your relationships. it's not my fault the Geni search engine is crap

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal

Afonso I or Alfonso I [1] (c. 1109, Guimarães or Viseu – 6 December 1185, Coimbra), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed "the Conqueror" (Portuguese: o Conquistador), "the Founder" (Portuguese: o Fundador) or "the Great" (Portuguese: o Grande) by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali ("the Portuguese") and Ibn-Arrik ("son of Henry", "Henriques") by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. He achieved the independence of the southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia—County of Portugal—from the Kingdom of León, in 1139, doubling its area with the Reconquista, an objective that he pursued until his death, in 1185, after forty-six years of wars against the Moors.

-------------------- First king of Portugal -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso_I_of_Portugal

Afonso I or Dom Afonso Henriques [1] (c. 1109, Guimarães or Viseu – 6 December 1185, Coimbra), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐˈfõsu ẽˈʁikɨʃ]), nicknamed "the Conqueror" (Portuguese: o Conquistador), "the Founder" (o Fundador) or "the Great" (o Grande) by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali ("the Portuguese") and Ibn-Arrik ("son of Henry", "Henriques") by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal.

He achieved the independence of the southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia—County of Portugal—from the Kingdom of León, in 1139, doubling its area with the Reconquista, an objective that he pursued until his death, in 1185, after forty-six years of wars against the Moors.

-------------------- Afonso I, King of Portugal


Reign July 26, 1139 - 6 December 1185

Coronation July 26, 1139

Consort Maud of Savoy

Father Henry, Count of Portugal

Mother Teresa of León

Born July 25, 1109

Castle of Guimarães, Guimarães, County of Portugal, Kingdom of León

Died December 6, 1185 (aged 76)

Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal

Burial Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, District of Coimbra, Portugal

Afonso I, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques, was the first King of Portugal, declaring his independence from León.

Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León, the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León. He was proclaimed King on July 26, 1139, immediately after the Battle of Ourique, and died on December 6, 1185 in Coimbra.

At the end of the 11th century, the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista, the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Córdoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades, Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors. In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy, younger son of the Count of Burgundy, and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León, wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy, younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy. Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia, where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

Afonso then turned his arms against the persistent problem of the Moors in the south. His campaigns were successful and, on July 26, 1139, he obtained an overwhelming victory in the Battle of Ourique, and straight after was unanimously proclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers. This meant that Portugal was no longer a vassal county of León-Castile, but an independent kingdom in its own right. That he then convened the first assembly of the estates-general at Lamego (wherein he would have been given the crown from the Archbishop of Braga, to confirm the independence) is likely to be a 17th century embellishment of Portuguese history.

Independence, however, was not a thing a land could choose on its own. Portugal still had to be acknowledged by the neighbouring lands and, most importantly, by the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Afonso wed Mafalda of Savoy, daughter of Count Amadeo III of Savoy, and sent Ambassadors to Rome to negotiate with the Pope. In Portugal, he built several monasteries and convents and bestowed important privileges to religious orders. In 1143, he wrote to Pope Innocent II to declare himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, swearing to pursue driving the Moors out of the Iberian peninsula. Bypassing any king of Castile or León, Afonso declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy. Thus, Afonso continued to distinguish himself by his exploits against the Moors, from whom he wrested Santarém and Lisbon in 1147 (see Siege of Lisbon). He also conquered an important part of the land south of the Tagus River, although this was lost again to the Moors in the following years.

Meanwhile, King Alfonso VII of León and Castile (Afonso's cousin) regarded the independent ruler of Portugal as nothing but a rebel. Conflict between the two was constant and bitter in the following years. Afonso became involved in a war, taking the side of the Aragonese king, an enemy of Castile. To ensure the alliance, his son Sancho was engaged to Dulce Berenguer, sister of the Count of Barcelona, and princess of Aragon. Finally, in 1143, the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the cousins and the recognition by the Kingdom of León that Portugal was an independent kingdom.

In 1169, Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse, and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum, Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Leonese or Castilian attempts at annexation.

In 1184, in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6, 1185.

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation. There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.

-------------------- Leo: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.), Reference: II 38.

Leo: Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe, London, 1988 , Williamson, David, Reference: 7. -------------------- Alfonso I de Portugal mejor conocido como Afonso Henriques o Alfonso Enríquez (Guimarães o Viseu[1] , 25 de julio de 1109 - Coímbra, 6 de diciembre de 1185) fue el primer Rey de Portugal. Gracias a sus conquistas que, a lo largo de cuarenta años, sobrepasaron el doble del territorio legado por su padre, fue conocido como El Conquistador; también se le llamó El Fundador y El Grande. Los musulmanes, en señal de respeto, le llamaron Ibn-Arrik ("hijo de Enrique") o El-Bortukali ("el portugués").

-------------------- http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p377.htm#i6531 -------------------- http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p377.htm#i6531

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Afonso I o Conquistador, rei de Portugal's Timeline

1110
July 25, 1110
Guimaraes, Braga, Portugal
1112
1112
Age 1
Portugal
1128
1128
Age 17

Battle of São Mamede
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Battle of São Mamede (Batalha de São Mamede in Portuguese; pronounced [ˈsɐ̃ũ mɐˈmɛð(ɨ)]) took place on June 24, 1128 and is considered the seminal event for the foundation of Portugal. The battle occurred near Guimarães. Portuguese forces led by Afonso I of Portugal defeated forces led by his mother Teresa of León and her lover Fernão Peres de Trava. Following São Mamede, the future king styled himself "Prince of Portugal". He would be called "King of Portugal" in 1139 and was recognized as such by neighbouring kingdoms in 1143.
[edit]Background

In late 11th century, Henry of Portugal, a knight from Burgundy and descendant of king Robert II, was in search of adventure in Hispania. He fought the Moors along with Alfonso VI of León. In honour of his fights in Hispania, the King gave him the county of Portugal. This gift came with a reinstated title; because of attempts by the previous holder some years earlier to assert independence, it had been suppressed. Henry became count of Portugal and Theresa, one of Alfonso's daughters, his wife.
In 1095, the county was a dependency of the Kingdom of Galicia, itself a dependency of León. In 1097 Portugal became a direct dependency of León. However, from the early years of his rule, as he became influenced by the desire of the lords of the county for independence, Henry desired the independence of the county
In 1112, Henry died, and his wife Regina Tarasia (Queen Theresa, as she addressed herself) became the countess of Portugal. She also wished for independence from her sister, Urraca, who became Queen of León after Alfonso's death. Like her husband, Theresa was also ambitious. In an attempt to maintain the autonomy of her county, she allied herself to her sister's enemies or with her sister, whichever was most propitious at the time.
In 1116, the Portuguese took two Galician cities, Tui and Ourense. In reply, the sister of Countess Theresa, Queen Urraca, attacked Theresa's dominions. Bishop Gelmeres, a friend of a Galician noble that was in the service of Theresa, led a revolt in the camp of Queen Urraca, and she was obliged to make peace with her sister Theresa.
Urraca died in 1126. Alfonso VII became king of León and Castile and demanded that Theresa become his vassal, which she refused to do. In response, Alfonso attacked Portugal in the spring of 1127. This increased the power of her son, because she had lost the trust of the Leonese king, and her son became the count of Portugal. Theresa became a puppet of the Galician Ferdinand Perez de Trava. Theresa and Prince Afonso became enemies, as both wanted to take control of the county, but only the supporters of Prince Afonso were really interested in full independence.

The battle

The counts that dominated the counties of Portucale and Coimbra kept the idea of independence, and their merger strengthened their positions. Alfonso VI of Leon, knowing the wishes of the Portuguese, united all Galicia under a single rule of one lord, which he choose from one of his close relatives. Teresa, mother of Afonso I, came to Guimarães to govern the Portuguese county. The Portuguese did not accept this, and the battle started. Afonso won the battle and Portugal started its journey towards independence. In 1129, he declared himself Prince of Portugal and in 1139 as King of Portugal. León finally recognized Portugal's independence in 1143 in the Treaty of Zamora. In 1179, the Holy See declared him King, de jure.
One can consider Portugal to be de facto independent since 1128.

1135
1135
Age 24
King of, Portugal
1135
Age 24
King of, Portugal
1139
July 25, 1139
Age 29
Ourique, Portugal

Battle of Ourique
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Battle of Ourique (pronounced [oˈɾik(ɨ)]) took place in July 25 (St. James day) 1139, probably in the countryside outside the town of Ourique, present-day Alentejo (southern Portugal), but there is no certainty about its exact location. In this battle, the forces of Portuguese Prince Afonso Henriques (of the House of Burgundy) clashed against the Almoravid Moors lead by Ali ibn Yusuf.
Despite the fact that the Christian Portuguese forces were strongly outnumbered, the Muslim armies were weakened by internal leadership problems, and the victory for Afonso Henriques was such that he proclaimed himself King of the Portuguese as Afonso I with the overwhelming support of his troops, having vanquished and slain, so legend says, five Moorish kings.
Immediately after the battle, King Afonso I of Portugal called for the first assembly of the estates-general of Portugal at Lamego, where he was given the Crown from the Bishop of Braga, to confirm the independence from the Kingdom of León and Castile.
Some years later, the idea of a miraculous intervention in the battle by Saint James the Great in favour of the Portuguese sprang up. St. James was widely venerated in Iberia (with a main center of veneration in Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia, where his tomb is supposed to be located), being generally seen as the Matamouros ("Moor-slayer"). In the process of Portuguese independence this legend changed with time, due to the need to make distance with Spanish devotional practices and beliefs. In a first stage St. James was replaced by Saint George, and, in a second stage, by Christ himself. The legend of the miracle of the Battle of Ourique served thus as a political instrument to defend Portuguese independence as divine will. Alexandre Herculano (19th century) demonstrated that the legend is not Portuguese but from Galicia and that the legend is linked to Santiago de Compostela (about Saint James of Compostela). In the 13th century two Spanish writers, Frei Lucas de Tui and the Archbishop of Toledo, recounted a similar miracle.

It is said that, in commemoration of the Battle of Ourique, the Portuguese coat-of-arms bears five small shields (representing the five defeated Moorish kings), though this interpretation has been challenged by many authors.

1146
1146
Age 35
1147
February 17, 1147
Age 36
1147
Age 36
Lisbon, Portugal

Siege of Lisbon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Christian (Portuguese) control and expelled its Moorish overlords, in a pivotal moment of the Reconquista, which eventually eliminated Islamic control in the Iberian peninsula. The Siege of Lisbon was the only success of the Second Crusade for the Christian crusaders.
Several attempts to conquer Lisbon from the Moors had been made over the centuries and sometimes the city had been sacked. These attempts became more frequent, as Lisbon emerged as a central objective for Afonso I of Portugal, who had proclaimed himself King in 1139 and had tried and failed to conquer Lisbon more than once prior to 1147. With the help of the crusaders of the Second Crusade the conquest of Lisbon was achieved.
The Fall of Edessa in 1144 led to a call for a new crusade by Pope Eugene III in 1145 and 1146. The Pope also authorized a crusade in the Iberian peninsula, where the war against the Moors had been going on for hundreds of years.[1] At the beginning of the First Crusade in 1095, Pope Urban II had urged Iberian crusaders (Portuguese, Castilians, Leonese, Aragonese and others) to remain at home, where their own warfare was considered just as worthy as that of crusaders travelling to Jerusalem. Eugene repeated this, and also authorized Marseille, Pisa, Genoa, and other Mediterranean cities to fight in Iberia as well.

On May 19 the first contingents of crusaders left from Dartmouth in England, consisting of Flemish, Frisian, Norman, English, Scottish, and some crusaders from Cologne,[2] who collectively considered themselves "Franks".[3] According to Odo of Deuil there were 164 ships, and there may have been as many as 200 by the time they reached Portugal. No prince or king led this part of the crusade; England at the time was in the midst of The Anarchy. The fleet was commanded by Arnold III of Aerschot (nephew of Godfrey of Louvain) Christian of Ghistelles, Henry Glanvill (constable of Suffolk),[4] Simon of Dover, Andrew of London, and Saher of Archelle.
They arrived at the northern city of Porto on June 16, and were convinced by the bishop, Pedro II Pitões, to continue to Lisbon. King Afonso, who had reached the Tagus River and conquered Santarém in March, was notified of the arrival of a first party and hastened to meet them in Lisbon. The undisciplined multi-national group agreed to help him there, with a solemn agreement that offered to the "Franks" the city's "goods of whatever kind" and the ransom money for expected prisoners. For the city, "they shall have it and hold it until it has been searched and despoiled, both of prisoners for ransom and of everything else. Then, when it has been as thoroughly searched as they wish, they shall turn it over to me," Afonso stipulated, promising to divide the conquered territories as fiefs among the leaders, reserving the power of advocatus and releasing those who were at the siege and their heirs trading in Portugal from the commercial tax called the pedicata[5] The English crusaders were at first unenthusiastic, but Henry Glanville convinced them to participate.[6] Hostages were exchanged as sureties for the oaths.

The siege began on July 1. The Christians soon captured the surrounding territories and besieged the walls of Lisbon itself, although the Muslim defenders were able to destroy their siege engines. After four months, the Moorish rulers agreed to surrender (October 21), primarily due to hunger within the city, which was sheltering populations displaced from Santarém as well as "the leading citizens of Sintra, Almada, and Palmela."[7] After a brief riotous insurrection the Anglo-Norman chronicler attributes to "the men of Cologne and the flemings", the city was entered by the Christian conquerors, preceded by cross-bearing Archbishop and the bishops accompanying the forces, on October 25. The terms of the surrender indicated that the Muslim garrison of the city would be allowed to retire, but as soon as the Christians entered the city these terms were broken.
According to the Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, "The enemy, when they had been despoiled in the city, left the town through three gates continuously from Saturday morning until the following Wednesday. There was such a multitude of people that it seemed as if all of Hispania were mingled in the crowd."
Some of the crusaders settled in the newly captured city, and Gilbert of Hastings was elected bishop, but most of the crusaders' fleet continued to the east in 1148.
In spite of the contractual nature of the city's surrender, a legend arose that the brave Portuguese warrior and nobleman, Martim Moniz, sacrificed himself in order to keep the city doors open to the conquering Christian armies.
Lisbon eventually became capital city of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1255.
The Nobel Prize-winning author José Saramago wrote a novel about the history of the siege História do Cerco de Lisboa (1989) (English: The History of the Siege of Lisbon (1996)), wherein a character imagines the implications of the Crusaders electing not to aid King Afonso Henriques.
[edit]

1149
1149
Age 38