Alexander I, King of Scotland

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Alaxandair "The Fierce" mac Maíl Coluim, King of Scots

Also Known As: "Alexander I"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
Death: Died in Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland
Place of Burial: Dunfermline Abbe, Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Son of Malcolm III, 'Canmore', King of Scots and Saint Margaret, Queen of Scots
Husband of Sybilla De Normandy
Partner of NN mistress of Alexander of Scotland
Father of Mathilde de Coucy; Aveline, Princess of Scotland and Countess of Norfolk and Malcolm Macbeth I, Earl of Ross
Brother of Aethelred / Aedh, 1st Earl of Fife; Étgar, King of Scots; Edmund of Scotland mac Máel Coluim; Edward mac Máel Coluim; Matilda of Scotland and 2 others
Half brother of Duncan II, King of Scots; Máel Coluim mac Máel Coluim and Donald

Occupation: King Bet 1107 and 1124, , Scotland, "the Fierce", King of Scotland, King of Scotland (1107 - 1124), King of Alba, King, Kung i Alba, King Alexander "The Fierce" of Scotland
Managed by: Terry Jackson (Switzer)
Last Updated:

About Alexander I, King of Scotland

Alexander I, Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim), nicknamed "The Fierce"

  • Parents: Máel Coluim mac Donnchada & Margaret of Wessex
  • Spouse: Sibylla de Normandie (no children)
  • Child (by mistress): Malcolm, Earl of Ross

LINKS

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#_Toc209085746

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_I_of_Scotland

MEDIEVAL LANDS

ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fourth of the sons[310]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[311]. Robert of Torigny records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded in 1107 on the death of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[312]. He succeeded his brother in 1107 as ALEXANDER I "the Fierce" King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded his brother King Edgar in [1107][313].

The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VII Kal Mai" [1124] of "Alexander rex Scottorum"[314]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Alexander" reigned for 17 years and 3 months, died "in Crasleth", and was buried "in Dumferline"[315].

m ([1107]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress --- ([1090/95]-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay). William of Malmesbury records the marriage of Alexander to the unnamed illegitimate daughter of King Henry, but adds "there was…some defect about the lady either in correctness of manners or elegance of person"[316], which appears to imply mental retardation. Her name is confirmed by various charters, including the charter dated to [1120] under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum filius Regis Malcolmi et Reginæ Margaretæ et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Angliæ" made grants[317]. Considering the date of her marriage, it is unlikely that she was born much later than [1095]. The Complete Peerage[318] suggests that she was the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, both because of her name and also because of the possible co-identity between "…Willelmo fratre reginæ…", who witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[319], and "…Willielmo fratre meo…" who witnessed the charter dated to [1163/75] under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubiæ" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Aliziæ Corbet, materteræ meæ"[320]. However, this co-identity is not ideal from a chronological point of view. William, brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall, died after 1187. If he was the same person as the brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland, he could only have been a child when he subscribed the Scottish charters in which he is named. The documents give no indication of his youth, and in any case it is probable that the queen´s [full] brother would have been born in the same timeframe as she was. In addition, as noted in the document ENGLAND KINGS, it is possible that William, brother of Earl Renaud, may have been his uterine brother, in which case it is unlikely that he would have been chosen to accompany the queen to Scotland. Another factor is that the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY), which is clearly inconsistent with his having been the half-sister of the Scottish queen. In conclusion, it is preferable therefore to show the queen´s mother as unknown.

King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158). Orderic Vitalis names Malcolm as bastard son of King Alexander[321]. Robert of Torigny records that "Aragois comes Morefie cum Melcolmo notho filio Alexandri fratri regis David" invaded Scotland in 1130[322]. Malcolm fought two battles challenging his uncle David for the crown of Scotland. He was captured in 1134, imprisoned in Roxburgh castle until 1158[323]. same person as …? MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[324]). Duncan suggests that Malcolm, son of King Alexander I, and Malcolm MacHeth were two different persons, the latter being the son of "Aed" or "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[325]. He was reconciled with King Malcolm IV in 1157. Malcolm MacHeth was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[326].

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WIKIPEDIA (Eng)

Alexander I (Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim, Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim) (c. 1078 – 23 April 1124), called "The Fierce",[1] King of Scots, was the fourth son of Malcolm III (Máel Coluim mac Donnchada) by his wife Margaret of Wessex, grand-niece of Edward the Confessor. He was named for Pope Alexander II.

Alexander was his unmarried brother Edgar's heir, perhaps throughout his reign, and certainly by 1104 when he was the senior layman present at the examination of the remains of Saint Cuthbert at Durham prior to their reinterrment. He held lands in Scotland north of the Forth and in Lothian.[2]

On the death of Edgar in 1107 he succeeded to the Scottish crown; but, in accordance with Edgar's instructions, their brother David was granted an appanage in southern Scotland. Edgar's will granted David the lands of the former kingdom of Strathclyde or Cumbria, and this was apparently agreed in advance by Edgar, Alexander, David and their brother-in-law Henry I of England. However, in 1113, perhaps at Henry's instigation, and with the support of his Anglo-Norman, David demanded, and received, additional lands in Lothian along the Upper Tweed and Teviot. David did not receive the title of king, but of "prince of the Cumbrians", and his lands remained under Alexander's final authority.[3]

The dispute over Upper Tweeddale and Teviotdale does not appear to have damaged relations between Alexander and David, although it was unpopular in some quarters. A Gaelic poem laments:

It's bad what Malcolm's son has done,

dividing us from Alexander;

he causes, like each king's son before,

the plunder of stable Alba.[4]

The dispute over the eastern marches does not appear to have caused lasting trouble between Alexander and Henry of England. In 1114 he joined Henry on campaign in Wales against Gruffydd ap Cynan of Gwynedd.[5] Alexander's marriage with Henry's illegitimate daughter Sybilla de Normandy may have occurred as early as 1107, or as at late as 1114.[6]

William of Malmesbury's account attacks Sybilla, but the evidence argues that Alexander and Sybilla were a devoted but childless couple and Sybilla was of noteworthy piety.[7] Sybilla died in unrecorded circumstances at Eilean nam Ban (Kenmore on Loch Tay) in July, 1122 and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey. Alexander did not remarry and Walter Bower wrote that he planned an Augustinian Priory at the Eilean nam Ban dedicated to Sybilla's memory, and he may have taken steps to have her venerated.[8]


The reverse of the seal of Alexander I, enhanced as a 19th century steel engraving.Alexander had at least one illegitimate child, Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair, who was later to be involved in a revolt against David I in the 1130s. He was imprisoned at Roxburgh for many years afterwards, perhaps until his death some time after 1157.[9]

Alexander was, like his brothers Edgar and David, a notably pious king. He was responsible for foundations at Scone and Inchcolm. His mother's chaplain and hagiographer Thurgot was named Bishop of Saint Andrews (or Cell Rígmonaid) in 1107, presumably by Alexander's order.[2] The case of Thurgot's would-be successor Eadmer shows that Alexander's wishes were not always accepted by the religious community, perhaps because Eadmer had the backing of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Ralph d'Escures, rather than Thurstan of York. Alexander also patronised Saint Andrews, granting lands intended for an Augustinian Priory, which may have been the same as that intended to honour his wife.[10]

For all his religiosity, Alexander was not remembered as a man of peace. John of Fordun says of him:

“ Now the king was a lettered and godly man; very humble and amiable towards the clerics and regulars, but terrible beyond measure to the rest of his subjects; a man of large heart, exerting himself in all things beyond his strength.[11] ”

He manifested the terrible aspect of his character in his reprisals in the Mormaerdom of Moray. Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland says that Alexander was holding court at Invergowrie when he was attacked by "men of the Isles".[12] Walter Bower says the attackers were from Moray and Mearns. Alexander pursued them north, to "Stockford" in Ross (near Beauly) where he defeated them. This, says Wyntoun, is why he was named the "Fierce". The dating of this is uncertain, as are his enemies' identity. However, in 1116 the Annals of Ulster report: "Ladhmann son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Scotland, was killed by the men of Moray." The king referred to is Alexander's father, Malcolm III, and Domnall was Alexander's half brother. The Mormaerdom or Kingdom of Moray was ruled by the family of Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findláich) and Lulach (Lulach mac Gille Coemgáin); not overmighty subjects, but a family who had ruled Alba within little more than a lifetime. Who the Mormaer or King was at this time is not known, it may have been Óengus of Moray or his father, whose name is not known. As for the Mearns, the only known Mormaer of Mearns, Máel Petair, had murdered Alexander's half-brother Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim) in 1094.[13]

Alexander died in April 1124 at his court at Stirling; his brother David, probably the acknowledged heir since the death of Sybilla, succeeded him.[14]

References

Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1

Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8

Oram, Richard, David I: The King Who Made Scotland. Tempus, Stroud, 2004. ISBN 0-7524-2825-X

McDonald, R. Andrew, Outlaws of Medieval Scotland: Challenges to the Canmore Kings, 1058–1266. Tuckwell Press, East Linton, 2003. ISBN 1-86232-236-8

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Alexander I (c. 1078 – 23 April 1124), also called Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim (Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim) and nicknamed "The Fierce", was King of the Scots from 1107 to his death.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_I_of_Scotland

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King Duncan I & his wife, Sibylla of Northumbria, had:

1. MALCOLM (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, buried Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid). He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland. Cawley’s Medlands

The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[307]. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[308]. [Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus" defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[309]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[310]. It is not clear that these two accounts refer to the future King Malcolm III: it is uncertain why King Malcolm would be called "regis Cumbrorum filium".] The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[311]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[312]. He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[313]. He suggests[314] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III. King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England. Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[315]. The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[316]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[317]. William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[318]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[319]. Cawley’s Medlands

[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) Ingiborg. The identity of the mother of King Malcolm's sons Duncan and Donald is uncertain. The absence of any reference to her in Scottish sources is best explained if her relationship with the king ended before his accession in 1058. However, this is not totally consistent with the estimated birth dates of her sons as shown below. It should be noted that King Duncan II, in his charter dated 1093, makes no reference to his mother, which implies that his father's relationship with her may have been short-lived and informal. Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls´-Mother” (Ingibjörg Finnsdatter, widow of Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, daughter of Finn Arnisson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark]) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William”[320]. There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct. Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65]. King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court. Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight. In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained further below. If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising. It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties. The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail. Cawley’s Medlands

King Malcolm III & Ingiborg had two children:

1. DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). William of Malmesbury names Duncan as illegitimate son of King Malcolm, when recording that he was knighted by William II King of England[327]. There is no indication of the identity of Duncan's mother, as explained above. His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was a child when given as a hostage in 1072, which precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret. It is possible that he was illegitimate, although there is no indication that he was thereby excluded from succession to the throne. "Dunecanus fili regii Malcolum constans hereditarie rex Scotie" donated property to the monks of St Cuthbert for the souls of his father, "fratri mei, uxore mea et infans mei" (all unnamed), by charter dated 1093, witnessed by "Eadgari, [Etheread], Aceard, Ulf, Malcolub[328], Hormer, Heming, Ælfric, Teodbold, Earnulf"[329]. The copy in Early Scottish Charters lists the witnesses in a different order, and adds "Grentonis…Vinget"[330]. He was given as a hostage to William I King of England at Abernethy in 1072 to guarantee his father's good behaviour[331]. The Annals of Ulster record that the "French went into Scotland and brought away the son of the king of Scotland as hostage" in 1072[332], which presumably refers to Duncan as any of his half-brothers (if then born) would have been infants at the time. He was kept in Normandy. Florence of Worcester records that Robert III "Curthose" Duke of Normandy released "Ulfam Haroldi quondam regis Anglorum filium, Dunechaldumque regis Scottorum Malcolmi filium" from custody after his father's death in Sep 1087, knighted them and allowed them to leave Normandy[333]. He joined William II King of England and remained at his court in England[334]. Florence of Worcester records that Duncan served in the army of King William II, who supported his bid to depose his uncle, and to whom Duncan swore fealty before leaving for Scotland[335]. He deposed his uncle in 1094 and proclaimed himself DUNCAN II King of Scotland[336]. Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[337]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba”[338]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland, was treacherously killed by his own brothers Domnall and Edmond" in 1094[339]. William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan was "murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald"[340]. Florence of Worcester records that "Scotti regem…Dunechan" was killed in [1094][341]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donechat mac Malcolm" was killed "a Malpeder Mackcolm comite de Merns in Monacheden" through the treachery of "Donald mac Donehat"[342]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Duncan, King Malcolm´s illegitimate son" was "slain at Monthechin by the Earl of Mernys…Malpetri, in Scottish, Malpedir, through the wiles of his uncle Donald" as was buried "in the island of Iona"[343]. Cawley’s Medlands

m ([1090]) ETHELREDA of Northumberland, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife --- (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Waldeve filio Gileminii” with property and “Ethreda sorore sua”[344]. The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” succeeded her nephew “Alanus filius Waldevi”[345]. It is assumed that Duncan was Ethelreda´s first husband and Waltheof her second husband. She married secondly Waltheof. Cawley’s Medlands

King Duncan II & his wife had one child:

a) WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]). His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) which records the rebellion of his son "Macwilliam whose real name was Donald Bane…son of William son of Duncan the bastard" against King William[346]. That William was his father's only child is shown by King Duncan's charter dated to 1093 referring to "infans mei". As the actual date of the charter is more likely to be 1094, this leaves little time for the birth of any more children before the king's murder. "…Willelmo nepote comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[347]. Lord of Skipton and Craven, by right of his [second] wife. Cawley’s Medlands

2. DONALD ([1060/65]-killed in battle 1085). There is no indication of the name of Donald's mother. His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was an adult when killed, and old enough to have had a son himself at that time, but this precludes his being the son of Queen Margaret. It is possible that he was illegitimate. The Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall son of Mael Coluim, king of Scotland…ended [his] life unhappily" in 1085[348]. Cawley’s Medlands

m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known.

Donald & his wife had [one possible child]:

a) LADHMANN (-killed in battle 1116). The Annals of Ulster record that "Ladhmann son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Scotland, was killed by the men of Moray"[349]. It is not known with certainty to whom this refers, but a son of Donald, son of King Malcolm, is the most likely possibility.] Cawley’s Medlands

m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD Ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][321], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS). Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[322]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[323]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[324]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[325]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[326]. Cawley’s Medlands

King Malcolm III & his second wife, Margaret, had eight children[350]:

3. EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans). Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[351]. He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him first of the sons[352]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[353]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, according to "William", "Edmund…was privy to his brother Duncan´s death, having…bargained with his uncle [Donald] for half the kingdom" but was captured and "kept in fetters for ever"[354]. He died from wounds received at the battle of Alnwick during a raid on England led by his father. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[355]. Matthew Paris reports that the remains of "regis Scotorum Malcolmi et Edwardi filii sui" were found at Tynemouth, commenting that both had been killed fighting "Robertus de Mumbrai"[356]. Cawley’s Medlands

4. EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him second of the sons[357]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Edmund "was buried at Montacute in England"[358]. He succeeded in 1094 as EDMUND joint King of Scotland, jointly with his uncle King Donald III "Bane", ruling south of the Forth/Clyde. He was deposed in 1097 by his brother Edgar, and became a monk at Montacute Abbey. Edmund is not mentioned either by Orderic Vitalis in his brief account of the usurpation of King Donald "Bane"[359], or by Florence of Worcester in his account of the deposition of King Donald in 1097[360]. If Edmund was older than his brother Edgar, it is not clear why their uncle Edgar Ætheling, who led the English army which deposed their uncle, would have supported the accession of Edgar in place of Edmund. The Annals of Ulster record that he was involved in the killing of his half-brother King Duncan[361]. William of Malmesbury records that "Edmund was the only degenerate son of Margaret", that he "[partook] in his uncle Donald's crime and…had been accessory to his brother's death", was "doomed to perpetual imprisonment", and "on his near approach of death, ordered himself to be buried in his chains"[362]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records that "Edmundus" was buried "apud Montem Acutum in…cella Cluniacensi"[363]. Cawley’s Medlands

5. EDGAR ([1074]-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him third of the sons[364]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[365]. He succeeded in 1097 as EDGAR King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[366]. The reign of Edgar is ignored by Orderic Vitalis, who says that Alexander succeeded when King Donald was deposed[367]. "Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi" by charter dated 30 Aug 1095, subscribed by "Egeri regis, Alexandri fratri eius, Manyanium, Agulfi, filii Doncani, Eyluerti, filii Eghe Omani, Uhtredi, filii Magdufe, Constantini, Rodberti de humet, Ætele, A. gulfi, Alimoldi filii sui, David"[368]. The precise dating of this charter and the unusual list of subscribers suggest that it may be spurious. "Edgarus…Rex Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "Malcolmi patris nostri et Margaretæ matris nostræ…ac Edwardi et Duncani fratrum nostrorum" by charter dated 1095[369]. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1107 of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[370]. Florence of Worcester records the death "VIII Id Jan" in [1107] of "Eadgarus rex Scottorum"[371]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Edgar mac Malcolm" reigned for 9 years, died "in Dunedin", and was buried "in Dumferline"[372]. Cawley’s Medlands

6. ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fourth of the sons[373]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[374]. Robert of Torigny records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded in 1107 on the death of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[375]. He succeeded his brother in 1107 as ALEXANDER I "the Fierce" King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "Alexanderfrater eius" succeeded his brother King Edgar in [1107][376]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VII Kal Mai" [1124] of "Alexander rex Scottorum"[377]. "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15], witnessed by "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna"[378]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Alexander" reigned for 17 years and 3 months, died "in Crasleth", and was buried "in Dumferline"[379].

m (before [1114/15]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress [---/Sibyl Corbet] (-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay). William of Malmesbury records the marriage of Alexander to the unnamed illegitimate daughter of King Henry, but adds "there was…some defect about the lady either in correctness of manners or elegance of person"[380], which appears to imply mental retardation. "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15][381]. Her name is confirmed by various charters, including the charter dated to [1120] under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum filius Regis Malcolmi et Reginæ Margaretæ et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Angliæ" made grants[382]. Considering the date of her marriage, it is unlikely that she was born much later than [1095]. The Complete Peerage[383] suggests that she was the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, both because of her name and also because of the possible co-identity between "…Willelmo fratre reginæ…", who witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[384], and "…Willielmo fratre meo…" who witnessed the charter dated to [1163/75] under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubiæ" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Aliziæ Corbet, materteræ meæ"[385]. However, this co-identity is not ideal from a chronological point of view. William, brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall, died after 1187. If he was the same person as the brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland, he could only have been a child when he subscribed the Scottish charters in which he is named. In addition, as noted in the document ENGLAND KINGS, it is possible that William, brother of Earl Renaud, may have been his uterine brother, in which case it is unlikely that he would have been chosen to accompany the queen to Scotland. Another factor is that the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY). This means that he could only have been Sibyl´s half-brother if she had been a young girl at the time of her marriage. On the other hand, "Robert Corbet" witnessed charters in Scotland which are dated to late in the reign of King Alexander and the early years of the reign of his brother King David (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY). If Robert Corbet was Queen Sibyl´s maternal grandfather or her maternal uncle, this could account for his presence at the Scottish court at the time. The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death in 1122 "apud Lochtay cellam canonicorum de Scona" of "Sibilla…regine Scocie uxor regis Alexandri, filia Henrici Beuclerk regis Anglie"[386]. Cawley’s Medlands

King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158). Orderic Vitalis names Malcolm as bastard son of King Alexander[387]. Robert of Torigny records that "Aragois comes Morefie cum Melcolmo notho filio Alexandri fratri regis David" invaded Scotland in 1130[388]. same person as …? MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[389]). Duncan suggests that Malcolm, son of King Alexander I, and Malcolm MacHeth were two different persons, the latter being the son of "Aed" or "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[390]. He was reconciled with King Malcolm IV in 1157. Malcolm MacHeth was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[391]. Cawley’s Medlands

7. ETHELRED (-before [1107], bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fifth of the sons[392]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Ethelred "as some assert…lies buried in St Andrew´s church at Kilremont"[393]. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. "Edelradus…filius Malcolmi Regis Scotiæ Abbas de Dunkeldense et insuper Comes de Fyf" made donations to the Keledei of Loch Leven by undated charter, witnessed by "duo fratres Hedelradi…David et Alexander…Constantini comitis de Fyf et Nesse et Cormac filii Macbeath et Malnethte filii Beollani sacerdotum de Abyrnethyn et Mallebride alterius sacerdotis"[394]. Cawley’s Medlands


8. EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118). Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Eadgyth and her sister Mary to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[395]. Florence of Worcester records the marriage of King Henry and "regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretæ reginæ filiam Mahtildem" and her coronation as queen in a passage dealing with events in late 1100[396]. She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage. Crowned Queen Consort of England 11 or 14 Nov 1100. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Kal Mai" of "MatildisAnglorum regina"[397]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "Kal Mai " at Westminster of "Mahthildis regina Anglorum", and her burial at Westminster Abbey[398].

m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire). Cawley’s Medlands

9. DAVID ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him as the sixth son of his parents[399]. He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland. Cawley’s Medlands

10. MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory). Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Mary and her sister Eadgyth to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[400]. Florence of Worcester records that Henry I King of England arranged the marriage of "Mariam reginæ sororem" and "Eustatio Bononensium comiti" in [1102][401]. Her marriage is also recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her daughter[402]. The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium records that "Eustachius, frater Balduini regis Iheruslame" married "Mariam filiam regis Scotiæ"[403]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records the death "II Kal Jun" in 1116 of "Maria…comitissa" and her burial "apud Bermundseiam"[404]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Mary countess of Bouillon" died in "the third year before her sister´s death"[405].

m (1102) EUSTACHE III Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125). Cawley’s Medlands

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Alexander I, King of Scotland's Timeline

1078
1078
Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
1107
1107
Age 29
Scotland
1109
1109
Age 31
1109
Age 31
Rhone-Alpes, Loire, France
1113
1113
Age 35
Ross, Morayshire, Scotland
1124
April 23, 1124
Age 46
Stirling, Stirlingshire, Scotland
April 25, 1124
Age 46
Dunfermline Abbe, Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland
1124
Age 46
1124
Age 46
1124
Age 46