Alfonso IV 'el Monje', rey de León
|Also Known As:||"called the Monk"|
Son of Ordoño II, rey de León and Elvira Menéndez, reina consorte de León
|Occupation:||Roi, de Léon, des Asturies, de Galice|
|Managed by:||Paul Douglas Van Dillen|
About Alfonso IV el Monje, rey de León
Alfonso IV of León
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Alfonso IV (c. 890s – 933), called the Monk, was King of León from 925 (or 926) and of Galicia from 929, until he abdicated in 931.
When Ordoño II died in 924 it was not one of his sons who ascended to the throne of León but rather his brother Fruela II of Asturias. The exact circumstances of the succession upon Fruela's death one year later are unclear, but apparently it was the son of Fruela, Alfonso Froilaz, who became king. Sancho Ordóñez, Alfonso, and Ramiro, the sons of Ordoño II, claimed to be the rightful heirs and rebelled against their nephew. With the support of Jimeno II of Pamplona, they drove Alfonso Froilaz to the eastern marches of Asturias and divided the kingdom among themselves, Alfonso receiving the crown of León and Froilaz being left in Galicia, which Sancho inherited within a year.
Having a faint personality, Alfonso IV resigned the crown to his brother Ramiro in 931 and went into a religious house. A certain instability of character is revealed by the fact that one year later he took up arms with Fruela's sons Ordoño and Ramiro against his own brother Ramiro, having repented of his renunciation of the world. He was defeated, blinded, and sent back to die in the cloister of Sahagún. Ordoño IV of León was his son.
Alfonso IV of León
(Redirected from Alfonso IV the Monk )
Alfonso IV of Leon, called the Monk. (" 899 ? "- monastery Ruiforco , 933 ). King of León and Galicia . He was the son of King Ordoño II of Leon and Queen Elvira Menéndez .
He was crowned in 926 and renounced the throne after the death of his wife, Queen Oneca de Pamplona , daughter of King Sancho I of Navarre and Queen All Aznar . After his abdication he became a religious in the monastery of Sahagún , but tried to regain the throne of Leon and his brother, Ramiro II , who had occupied instead captured and ordered him blind him.
[ edit ]Reign (925-931)
He was the son of King Ordoño II of Leon and his first wife, Queen Elvira Menéndez . His father died in 924 , and his death was succeeded on the throne by his brother Leon, Fruela II the Leper , who passed away in 925 .
On the death of Fruela II triggered a civil war in the kingdom of León between supporters of Alfonso Froilaz "the Hunchback" , son of Fruela II, and those of Alfonso and his brothers, Sancho Ordóñez and Ramiro . During the civil war between the two sides, the sons of the late Leon Ordoño II were supported by King Sancho I of Navarre , who was father of Alfonso, and by the Galician nobles, who supported Ordonez Sancho 's brother Alfonso. It was also supported by the count of Castile and the Portuguese, who supported the Ramiro, brother of Alfonso.
Alfonso IV was crowned King of Leon on February 12 in the year 926 . He and his brothers divided the kingdom of León in the year 926 , and the elder brother, Sancho Ordóñez , who married a lady from Galicia, Goto Núñez, accounted for the kingdom of Galicia , which stretched from the Bay of Biscay to the Miño River . When Ramiro, younger brother of Alfonso IV of Leon, accounted for Portucalense Territory Government, with its capital in Viseo and, in turn, Alfonso Froilaz continued refuge in the territory of Asturias, where he had been since he was expelled from Galicia by Sancho Ordóñez , brother of Alfonso IV.
The brothers of Alfonso IV maintained good relations with him during his reign, Alfonso Froilaz remained in Asturias, where he kept many supporters until the year 932 . When Alfonso IV became king did Fruminio return to Bishop, who had been banished by King Leper Fruela II . The chronicles of the period show that King Alfonso IV was distinguished for his religious vocation and his peaceful disposition, which was criticized in his work by Father Juan de Mariana , who noted that the king was not distinguished in the fight against Muslims, who dominated most of the Iberian Peninsula , and that did not make any significant conquest during his reign. In the year 929 Ships donated the villa, located near the river Esla the monastery of San Cosme y San Damián and between the confirming of the donation included the prince Ramiro , brother of Alfonso IV, and bishops and Dulcidio Juliano.
In the summer of 929 , sometime between the day June 10 and on August 8 , died on King Sancho Ordóñez , older brother of Alfonso IV, and his death the kingdom of Galicia was occupied by Alfonso IV, thus met the kingdoms of León and Galicia . Alfonso IV had the backing of billionaire Galician Gutierre Menendez, who in return for their support to the Leonese monarch received the latter several manors in this area of Lugo . The occupation of the kingdom of Galicia by Alfonso IV the Monk was peaceful, as regards the Muslim chronicler of the time Ibn Hayyan :
"Soon Sancho died in the region where he had fled, leaving no children, so it passed unanimously accepted the king, Alfonso, who had no competitor in power."
In the year 931 settled a lawsuit between the Ruiforco monastery on one side, and the villages of Manzaneda and Torío Garrafe of the other. The king and court moved to Manzaneda, and on January 29th of the year 931 noted the terms of the town of Manzaneda, and the lawsuit was resolved in favor of the monastery.
In the summer of 931 , although the exact date is unknown, the queen died Oneca of Pamplona , wife of Alfonso IV. The final diploma which contains the name of Queen Oneca between confirming was issued on April 11 in the year 931 . On June 27 the year 931 , being in the city of Burgos , Alfonso IV donated to monastery of San Pedro de Cardena all the land between the towns of Orbaneja Riopico , Villayuda , Castañares and Villabáscones .
[ edit ]Abdication and death (931-933)
On the death of his wife, which affected him deeply, as referred to in chronicles of the time, Alfonso IV decided to abdicate and hand the throne to his brother Leon, Infante Ramiro , who ruled the territory Portucalense , and had its capital in Viseu . The king informed his brother of his intention to abdicate and then went Ramiro, accompanied by numerous tycoons of the land between the rivers Minho and Mondego , the city of Zamora . The historian Gonzalo Martínez Díez said that King Ramiro had to move after the city of León , and subsequently directed the kingdom of Galicia , for the day August 31 the year 931 confirmed to the monastery of San Julián de Samos all donations his predecessors on the throne of Leon had been granted in the past the Galician monastery.
Several months later, on completion of negotiations between Alfonso IV and his brother, which both set the conditions for the transfer of the throne, Ramiro II was crowned King of León in the church of Santa Maria and San Cipriano de Leon, who later would be the Cathedral of León , and then began the reign of Ramiro II of Leon , while his brother, Alfonso IV the Monk, as a professed religious in the monastery of Sahagún .
However, the chronicles of the period indicate that Alfonso IV regretted having renounced the throne and left the monastery of Sahagún and went to Simancas , although there relatives dissuaded him from his purpose, and persuaded him to return to the monastery of Sahagún , where Alfonso IV returned to take her vows. The historian Gonzalo Martínez Díez said Alfonso IV decision to leave the monastery and regain the throne must have occurred in the winter of 931 , and the historian al-Andalus Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Razi recorded follows the first attempt by Alfonso IV to regain the throne of Leon:
"... Then some people feuding with King Ramiro (malicious Alfonso IV) against him and made him regret having left the kingdom, making fear a hurt and want to regain power: he promised to rise with him against save his brother Ramiro no effort to return power and depose it. Driven by ambition, he left the monastery where he was and came in Simancas, in dispute with Ramiro, but his uncles and elders of his family met with him and greatly reprocháronle the abandonment of monasticism, the action initiated against the family solidarity and the sedition that caused among Christians, frightened that they could evict him and even guilty of the crime and curse, which he repented and turned quickly to the monastery that was, without actually collecting retinue, or produce war, returning to monasticism and expressing repentance for his purpose. The tonsure as a clergyman, took his staff, and lived in the monastery for some time, but meanwhile his heart felt worldly desires and his brother Ramiro, fear that she had conceived him, resented him. "
In the spring of 932 , after having spent several months in the monastery of Sahagun , Alfonso IV tried again to regain the throne and left the monastery, with the support of Alfonso Froilaz and his brothers, Ramiro and Ordoño, children all King Fruela II the Leper , and taking advantage of his brother Ramiro II was in Zamora massing troops to come to the aid of the city of Toledo , who was besieged by troops of the caliph Abd ar-Rahman III .
When Ramiro II learned that his brother Alfonso sought to recover the throne, sent a detachment of troops to aid the besieged in Toledo , and then dirgió to León , where he was Alfonso IV, which is captured. Ramiro II defeated the rebels and ordered locked up in prison, and gave the properties of Froilaz Alfonso and his brothers, who had helped Alfonso IV to try to regain the throne, the Count Osóriz Gutierrez, who had remained loyal to King Ramiro II .
Then, Ramiro II went to Asturias and captured Froilaz Alfonso and his brothers, Ordoño and Ramiro, and brought with him to León , where the enclosed along with Alfonso IV. Soon after, Ramiro II Alfonso IV ordered that the three brothers were blinded, and then ordered them to be transferred to Ruiforco monastery , where the four prisoners were kept until they died.
Alfonso IV died in Ruiforco monastery in the year 933 .
[ edit ]Burial of Alfonso IV of León
After his death, the body of Alfonso IV was buried in the late Ruiforco monastery , where he had buried his wife, Queen Oneca of Pamplona . .
Later, King Alfonso V of Leon ordered to transfer the remains of all the royals buried at the monastery of Ruiforco, including Alfonso IV and his wife, the Church of San Isidoro de León , where they were deposited in a common grave in a corner of one of the chapels of the Gospel side , along with those of other monarchs Leon. On the mass grave, King Alfonso V ordered to erect an altar dedicated to St. Martin , bishop and confessor. At present it would be impossible to identify and identification of the remains of King Alfonso IV, but is among the monarchs buried in the Basilica of San Isidoro de León .
[ editing ]and offspring Nuptials
He married in the year 923 with Oneca of Pamplona , daughter of King Sancho I of Navarre and Queen All Aznar . The fruit of their marriage were born two sons:
Malo Ordoño IV ( 924 - 960 ), King of Leon . Married Urraca Fernández , daughter of the Count of Castile Fernando Gonzalez . His remains were buried in the Pantheon of Kings in San Isidoro de León.
Fruela Infante (?-After 958 ). It has its existence by a document issued on November 18 in the year 958 by King Ordoño IV the Bad , the son of Alfonso IV of Leon, and his wife, Queen Urraca Fernández .
[ edit ]Notes
↑ Alfonso Froilaz "the Hunchback" Leon took the throne after the death of his father, the Leper King Fruela II, but immediately took up arms against him and Sancho Alfonso cousins, children of Ordoño II, who claimed to have more right to the throne of Leon. When he was defeated and driven from Galicia, took refuge in the eastern part of Asturias, Asturias de Santillana calls, where continued to maintain its claim to the throne. In 932 he was captured along with his brothers by Ramiro II of León , being blinded and locked up with them in Ruiforco monastery and died there.
↑ History of the city and court of Leon and its kings. Manuel Risco .
↑ a b c d The County of Castile (711-1038). The story in front of the legend. Gonzalo Martínez Díez . Pages 274-275
↑ Documentation of the Catedral de León (siglos IX-X). Gregorio del Ser Quijano. Page 170.
↑ " Leon Royal Pantheon . "Nobility: the journal of genealogy, nobility and arms (Madrid) (2): pp. 345-346. July-September . Retrieved on June 2, 2010.
↑ Del Arco y Garay, Ricardo (1954). Instituto Jerónimo Zurita. National Research Council (ed.). Tombs of the Royal House of Castile, Madrid, pp. 54, 151, 162 and 165.
↑ " Leon Royal Pantheon . "Nobility: the journal of genealogy, nobility and arms (Madrid) (2): pp. 346 and 349. July-September . Retrieved on June 2, 2010.
↑ " Foundation for Medieval Genealogy "(2000). Retrieved on February 20, 2010.
[ edit ]References
Del Arco y Garay, Ricardo (1954). Instituto Jerónimo Zurita. National Research Council (ed.). Tombs of the Royal House of Castile, Madrid.
Elorza, Juan C.; Vaquero Lourdes, Belen Castillo, Martha Black (1990). Junta de Castilla y León. Ministry of Culture and Welfare (ed.). The Pantheon Real de las Huelgas de Burgos. The burials of the kings of León and Castile, 2nd edition, Editorial Evergráficas SA. ISBN 84-241-9999-5 .
Flórez González, Maximiliano (1981). " The Torío Infantado . "Tierras de León: Journal of the Provincial Council (León, Diputación de León) (45): pp. 35-60. ISSN 0495-5773 . Retrieved on June 2, 2010.
Martínez Díez, Gonzalo (2004). Castilla County (711-1038). The story compared to the legend, Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León. ISBN 84-8718-275-8 .
" Leon Royal Pantheon . "Nobility: the journal of genealogy, nobility and arms (Madrid) (2). July-September . Retrieved on June 2, 2010.
Prada, María Encina: Anthropological Study of the Royal Pantheon of San Isidoro de León 1998 ProMonumenta, Issue II
Risco, Manuel (1792). History of the city and court of Leon and their kings , 1st edition, Madrid: In the office of Don Blas Román.
Kings of Leon (I). Garcia I, Ordoño II, Fruela IV Justinian II and Alfonso Rodríguez Fernández. Ed La Olmeda Burgos. (1997) ISBN 84-920046-8-1
Vinay González, Antonio (1998). Real de San Isidoro Collegiate Church: History, Art and Life, Leon: Edilesa. ISBN 84-8012-201-3 .
[ edit ] -------------------- Alfonso IV de León, apodado el Monje. (¿899? - Monasterio de Ruiforco, 933). Rey de León. Fue hijo del rey Ordoño II de León y de la reina Elvira Menéndez. Fue coronado en el año 926 y renunció al trono tras la muerte de su esposa, la reina Oneca de Pamplona, hija del rey Sancho Garcés I de Navarra y de la reina Toda Aznar. Tras su abdicación ingresó como religioso en el monasterio de Sahagún, pero intentó recuperar el trono leonés y su hermano, Ramiro II, que lo había ocupado en su lugar, le capturó y ordenó cegarlo. http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_IV_de_Le%C3%B3n
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