Alfonso VII el Emperador, rey de Castilla y León

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Alfonso VII 'el Emperador', rey de Castilla y León

Nicknames: "Alfonso VII Raimundez de Castilla y León ; Alfonso VII 'el emperador'", "Alfonso VII King of Castile", "The Emperor", "King Alfonso VII of Castile", "o Imperador", "Pierre-Raimund", "Alfonso VII /Galicia/", "(King of Castile and Leon) /Alfonso II/", "King /Alfonso/", "e..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Grajal, Galicia, Spain
Death: Died in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragón, Spain
Place of Burial: Cathedral de Santa María, Toledo, Castille La Mancha, Spain
Immediate Family:

Son of Raimundo de Borgoña, conde de Galicia and Urraca I, reina de Castilla y León
Husband of Berenguela de Barcelona, reina consorte de León y Castilla and Riquilda de Polonia, reina consorte de León y Castilla
Partner of Urraca Fernández de Castro and Gontrodo Pérez, (Gontrodo Pietri)
Father of Fernando II, rey de León; Constance de Castille, reine consorte de France; Sancho III el Deseado, rey de Castilla; Sancha, Reina consorte de Navarra; Ramón, Infante de Castilla and 6 others
Brother of Sancha Raimúndez de Borgoña
Half brother of Elvira Pérez de Lara; Fernando Furtado Pérez de Lara, señor de Escarrona and Cde. Nuño Pérez de Lara

Occupation: Rey de Castilla (1126), Rey de Leon (1126), Emperador de las Espanas, Rey de Galicia, King of Castile, Rey de Castilla, Rey de Castilla y León, de León y de Castilla, King of all Spain, King of Galicia & King of Castile & Leon, King, Emperor of Spain
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Alfonso VII 'el Emperador', rey de Castilla y León

Alfonso VII de León Rey de León y de Castilla De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VII

Alfonso VII el Emperador (Caldas de Reyes, 1 de marzo de 1105 - Paraje de La Fresneda, 21 de agosto de 1157). Rey de León y Castilla. Hijo de la reina Urraca I de León y del conde Raimundo de Borgoña. Fue el primer rey leonés miembro de la Casa de Borgoña, que se extinguió en la línea legítima con la muerte de Pedro I el Cruel, quien fue sucedido por su hermano de padre Enrique II de Trastámara, primer rey de la Casa de Trastámara.

Alfonso VII se hizo llamar a sí mismo Emperador. Galicia, León y Castilla se reunieron bajo una sola corona que en ocasiones se ha denominado como Imperio de León o Imperio Leonés.

Hijo de Urraca I y de su primer marido, Raimundo de Borgoña, al fallecer su padre en 1108 heredó el título de conde de Galicia.

Retomando la vieja idea imperial de Alfonso III y Alfonso VI, el 26 de mayo de 1135 fue coronado Imperator totius Hispaniae en la Catedral de León, recibiendo homenaje, entre otros, de su cuñado Ramón Berenguer IV, conde de Barcelona.

En 1128 contrajo matrimonio, en el Castillo de Saldaña, con Berenguela de Barcelona, hija del conde Ramón Berenguer III. Fruto del primer matrimonio del rey nacieron los siguientes hijos: 1) Sancho III el Deseado (1134-1158). Sucedió a su padre como rey de Castilla. 2) Ramón de Castilla (a.1136-¿?). Se desconoce su fecha de defunción. 3) Sancha de Castilla (1137-1179), contrajo matrimonio con el rey Sancho VI el Sabio, rey de Navarra. 4) Fernando II de León (1137-1188). Sucedió a su padre como rey de León. 5) Constanza de Castilla (1136-1160). Contrajo matrimonio en 1154 con el rey Luis VII de Francia. 6) García de Castilla y Barcelona (1142-1146). 7) Alfonso de Castilla y Barcelona (1144/1146-a.1149). Fue sepultado en el Monasterio de San Clemente de Toledo.

Volvió a casar en 1151 con Riquilda de Polonia, hija del duque Ladislao II el Desterrado. Tuvieron dos hijos: 8) Fernando de Castilla y Polonia (1153-1155). 9) Sancha de Castilla y Polonia (1155-1208). Contrajo matrimonio en la ciudad de Zaragoza en 1174 con Alfonso II el Casto, rey de Aragón.

Fruto de su relación extramatrimonial con Gontrodo Pérez nació: 10) Urraca Alfonso "la Asturiana" (1133-1189). Contrajo matrimonio en 1144 con el rey García Ramírez de Pamplona.

De su relación extramatrimonial con Urraca Fernández de Castro2 3 , viuda del conde Rodrigo Martínez, fue padre de: 11) Estefanía Alfonso "la Desdichada", nacida entre 1139 y 11484 y fallecida en 1180. Contrajo matrimonio con Fernando Rodríguez de Castro "el Castellano", quien la asesinó en 1180, hecho que inspiró la tragicomedia titulada "La desdichada Estefanía", escrita por Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio en 1604. ----------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphonso_VII_of_Castile http://www.gurganus.org/ourfamily/browse.cfm?pid=545 http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~cousin/html/p370.htm#i4593

Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla also went by the name of Alfonso VII "the Emperor". Also called Emperador de Hispania Alfonso VII "el Emperador" Raimúndez de Borgoña.2,3 He was born on 1 March 1105 at Toledo, Castile, Spain.4,5,6 He was the son of Raymond, comte de Bourgogne and Urraca, reina de León y de Castilla.1 King of Galicia at Spain between 1111 and 1157.7 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla was a witness where conde de Traba Pedro Fróilaz de Traba the private tutor and protector of the young Alfonso VII.8 A contract for the marriage of Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla and Berenguela Raimundo de Barcelona was signed before July 1124. His 1st. Her 2nd. Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla succeeded his mother with divine dispensation on 9 May 1126.9 King of Castile and León at Iberian peninsula between 9 May 1126 and 21 August 1157.10 He defeated the de Lara rebels (Pedro and Rodrigo González) who held the Towers of León against him in May 1126.11 He was a witness where Rodrigo González "el Franco" and Pedro González rebelled against the newly proclaimed king, Alfonso VII, son of Uracca, by holding out against him in the Towers of León in May 1126 at León, Kingdom of León, Spain.11 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla was a witness where Rodrigo González "el Franco" one of the principal antagonists of the Emperor.8 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla was a witness where Fernando Pérez de Traba fled to the court of Alfonso VII of Castile following his banishment from Portugal in 1128.8 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla married Berenguela Raimundo de Barcelona, daughter of Ramón Berenguer III "el Grande", conde de Barcelona y de Provenza and Dolça de Gévaudun, in November 1128 at Saladaña, Palencia Province, Castile-León, Spain; His 1st. Her 2nd.4,1 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla was physically attacked during a meeting with Rodrigo González de Lara on the banks of the Pisuerga River in 1131.8 He was a witness where Rodrigo González "el Franco" met with King Alfonso VII on the banks of the Pisuerga River where a dispute ensued, and the Count committed the crime of "lese majesty," physically attacking the King, in 1131.8 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla restored the prestige of the Leonese monarchy and was proclaimed emperor in 1135. He took Almería, a significant but momentary triumph in the Reconquest, ridding the Mediterranean of a strategic seaport base of infidel pirates and also severing the line of communication between Granada and North Africa in 1147.12 He married Richilde, Królewna Polska, daughter of Wladislaw II Wygnaniec, Królewicz Polska and Kristin von Schwaben, in July 1152; His 2nd. Her 1st.13,14 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla left a will in August 1157; He left Castile to his son, Sancho, and Leon to his son, Ferdinand. This split would see the kingdoms fighting intermittant cival wars for the next half century until there final reunification under Ferdinand III.15 He died on 21 August 1157 at La Fresneda, Teruel, Asturias, Spain, at age 52 years, 5 months and 20 days.4 Alfonso VII "el Emperador", Rey de Galicia, de León y de Castilla was buried in the Cathedral of Santa Maria, Toledo, Spain. --------------------

http://www.marevalo.net/caceres/personajes.html El Emperador. Rey de Castilla (1106-1157). Hijo de Raimundo de Borgoña y de doña Urraca -que lo era de Alfonso VI-, y primer soberano de la dinastia borgoña. Fue criado en Galicia, de donde era conde desde la muerte de su padre, por don Pedro Froilaz, conde de Traba, defensor de sus derechos al trono de Castilla, con el obisco Gelmírez, el arzobispo de Toledo, Bernardo, y su tio el Papa Calixto II, frente a las decisiones de su abuelo y las pretensiones de Alfonso I de Aragón, casado con su madre (1109). Designo a Sancho Rey de Castilla y Toledo y a Fernando Rey de Leon y Galicia Tambien Alfonso Raimundez. Reino del 1104 al 1157. Coronado Emperador en 1135. Guerreó largo tiempo con los moros, venciéndoles en Jaén. Fundó la Orden de Alcántara en 1156.- -------------------- Alfonso VII of León and Castile From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Alfonso VII of Castile)

Jump to: navigation, search Alfonso VII of León Emperor of all the Spains Alfonso VII. Reign 1135 - 21 August 1157 Coronation 1135 in the Cathedral of León Born 1 March 1105 Died 21 August 1157 Place of death Sierra Morena Predecessor Vacant - title last held by Alfonso I Successor None Royal House Burgundy Father Raymond of Burgundy Mother Urraca of León

Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru. Contents [hide]

   

[edit] Succession to three kingdoms

In 1111, Diego Gelmírez, Bishop of Compostela, and the count of Traba crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the formerly Muslim Kingdom of Toledo. On 10 March 1126, after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile, which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón, died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders. The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez, Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II. Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja, conquering Zaragoza, and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees, who held lands as far as the River Rhône. In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica.

[edit] Imperial rule

A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire. But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of León and Alfonso the Battler, the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León. By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista. He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective, although Afonso I of Portugal never recognised him as liege, thereby affirming Portugal's independence. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragon with Ramon Berenguer IV, a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon.

[edit] Reconquista

Alfonso was a pious prince. He introduced the Cistercians to Hispania by founding a monastery at Fitero. He adopted a militant attitude towards the Moors of Al-Andalus, especially the Almoravids. From 1139, Alfonso led a series of crusades subjugating the Almoravids. He took the fortress of Oreja near Toledo and, as the Chronica Adefonsis Imperatoris tells it: “ . . . early in the morning the castle was surrendered and the towers were filled with Christian knights, and the royal standards were raised above a high tower. Those who held the standards shouted out loud and proclaimed "Long live Alfonso, emperor of León and Toledo!" ”

In 1144, Alfonso advanced as far as Córdoba. Two years later, the Almohads invaded and he was forced to refortify his southern frontier and come to an agreement with the Almoravid Ibn Ganiya for their mutual defence. When Pope Eugene III preached the Second Crusade, Alfonso VII, with García Ramírez of Navarre and Ramon Berenguer IV, led a mixed army of Catalans and Franks, with a Genoese-Pisans navy, in a crusade against the rich port city of Almería, which was occupied in October 1147. It was Castile's first Mediterranean seaport.[1] In 1151, Alfonso signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Ramon Berenguer. The treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia in order to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Six years later, Almería entered into Almohad possession. Alfonso was returining from an expedition against them when he died in pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, possibly at Viso del Marqués (Ciudad Real).

[edit] Legacy

Alfonso was at once a patron of the church and a protector, though not a supporter of, the Muslims, who were a minority of his subjects. His reign ended in an unsuccessful campaign against the rising power of the Almohads. Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be — "king of the men of the two religions." Furthermore, by dividing his realm between his sons, he ensured that Christendom would not present the new Almohad threat with a united front.

[edit] Family

In November 1128, he married Berenguela, daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:

  1. Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158)
  2. Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy
  3. Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188)
  4. Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France
  5. Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre
  6. García (c.1142-1145/6)
  7. Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149)

In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland, the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile. They had:

  1. Ferdinand, (1153-1157)
  2. Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón.

Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez, he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre, the mother retiring to a convent in 1133. Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando García of Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre, having a daughter Stephanie 'the Unfortunate' (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernan Ruiz de Castro.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Riley-Smith (1990) p.48.

[edit] References

Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1990). Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Facts on File.

[edit] External links

   * Arnaldo, Bishop of Astorga, wrote an account of Alfonso VII's life and reign known as the Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris.

Preceded by Urraca King of Galicia 1111 – 1157 Succeeded by Ferdinand II King of León 1126 – 1157 King of Castile 1127 – 1157 Succeeded by Sancho III Vacant Title last held by Alfonso I Emperor of All the Spains 1135 – 1157 Succeeded by None Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VII_of_Le%C3%B3n_and_Castile" Categories: 1105 births | 1157 deaths | House of Burgundy-Spain | Kings of León | People of the Reconquista | Roman Catholic monarchs | Patrons of literature | 12th-century Spanish people | People of the Second Crusade (Christians) | Recipients of the Golden Rose -------------------- Alfonso VII of Castile (March 1, 1104/5 - August 21, 1157), nicknamed the Emperor, was the king of Castile and Leon since 1126, son of Urraca of Castile and Count Raymond of Burgundy.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held Leon. This sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigoth kings, who were themselves the representatives of the Roman empire. But though given in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of Castile and Alfonso I of Aragon, the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1128 he married Berenguela of Barcelona, daughter of Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona. She died in 1149; their children were:

Ramon Berenguer III the Great was Count of Barcelona, Girona and Osona from 1082-1131 and Count of Provence, Holy Roman Empire, from 1112. ...

Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158) Ferdinand II of Leon (1137-1188) Sancha (1137-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre Constanza (1141-1160), married Louis VII of France

Alfonso remarried in 1152 to Richeza of Poland, the daughter of Wladislaus II the Exile of Poland.

Alfonso VII was crowned emperor in 1135 after the death of Alfonso I. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective. He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity, which Spain had never possessed since the fall of the Visigoth kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. Events Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ...

Alfonso was at once a patron of the church, and a protector if not a supporter of the Muslims, who formed a large part of his subjects. His reign ended in an unsuccessful campaign against the rising power of the Almohades. Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be -- "king of the men of the two religions." -------------------- Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru.

Reign 1135 - 21 August 1157 Coronation 1135 in the Cathedral of León Full name Alfonso Raimúndez Born March 1, 1105(1105-03-01) Birthplace Caldas de Reis Died 21 August 1157 (aged 52) Place of death Sierra Morena Predecessor Vacant - title last held by Alfonso I Successor None Wife Berenguela of Barcelona Royal House Burgundy Father Raymond of Burgundy Mother Urraca of León

Family In November 1128, he married Berenguela, daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:

Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158) Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188) Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre García (c.1142-1145/6) Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149) In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland, the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile. They had:

Ferdinand, (1153-1157) Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón. Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez, he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre, the mother retiring to a convent in 1133. Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando García of Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre, having a daughter Stephanie 'the Unfortunate' (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernan Ruiz de Castro.

Notes ^ Riley-Smith (1990) p.48.

References Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1990). Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Facts on File.

-------------------- Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of Castile and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru.

In 1111, Diego Gelmírez, Bishop of Compostela, and the count of Traba crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. On 10 March 1126, after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile, which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón, died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders. The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez, Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II. Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja, conquering Zaragoza, and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees, who held lands as far as the River Rhône. In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica.

A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire. But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of Castile and Alfonso the Battler, the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León. By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista. He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragón enabled him to make his superiority effective, although Afonso I of Portugal never recognised him as liege, thereby affirming Portugal's independence. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragón with Ramon Berenguer IV, a union which combined Aragón and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragón.

Alfonso was a pious prince. He introduced the Cistercians to Hispania by founding a monastery at Fitero. He adopted a militant attitude towards the Moors of al-Andalus, especially the Almoravids. From 1139, Alfonso led a series of crusades subjugating the Almoravids. He took the fortress of Oreja near Toledo and, as the Chronica Adefonsis Imperatoris tells it:

“ . . . early in the morning the castle was surrendered and the towers were filled with Christian knights, and the royal standards were raised above a high tower. Those who held the standards shouted out loud and proclaimed "Long live Alfonso, emperor of León and Toledo!" ”

In 1144, Alfonso advanced as far as Córdoba. Two years later, the Almohads invaded and he was forced to refortify his southern frontier and come to an agreement with the Almoravid Ibn Ganiya for their mutual defence. When Pope Eugene III preached the Second Crusade, Alfonso VII, with García Ramírez of Navarre and Ramon Berenguer IV, led a mixed army of Catalans and Franks, with a Genoese-Pisans navy, in a crusade against the rich port city of Almería, which was occupied in October 1147. It was Castile's first Mediterranean seaport.[1] In 1151, Alfonso signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Ramon Berenguer. The treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia in order to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Six years later, Almería entered into Almohad possession. Alfonso was returining from an expedition against them when he died in pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, possibly at Viso del Marqués (Ciudad Real).

Alfonso was at once a patron of the church and a protector, though not a supporter of, the Muslims, who were a minority of his subjects. His reign ended in an unsuccessful campaign against the rising power of the Almohads. Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be — "king of the men of the two religions." Furthermore, by dividing his realm between his son, he ensured that Christendom would not present the new Almohad threat with a united front.

In November 1128, he married Berenguela, daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:

Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158) Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188) Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre García (c.1142-1145/6) Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149) In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland, the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile. They had:

Ferdinand, (1153-1157) Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón. Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez, he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre, the mother retiring to a convent in 1133. Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando García of Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre, having a daughter Stephanie 'the Unfortunate' (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernan Ruiz de Castro. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. 1104? d. August 1157, Fresneda, Castile byname ALFONSO THE EMPEROR, Spanish ALFONSO EL EMPERADOR, king of Leon and Castile from 1126 to 1157, son of Raymond of Burgundy and the grandson of Alfonso VI, whose imperial title he assumed. Though his reign saw the apogee of the imperial idea in medieval Spain and though he won notable victories against the Moors, he remains a somewhat hazy figure. His childhood was complicated by the struggle between his mother Urraca and her second husband, Alfonso I of Aragon, for control of Castile and Leon. Only on Urraca's death (1126) did his stepfather finally relinquish his claims. Alfonso was then formally accepted as emperor by the kings of Aragon and Pamplona (Navarre), by the count of Barcelona, and by various Hispano-Moorish rulers. His capture of Almería (1147) from the Moors won him renown, as did other victories, but in the end these led to little expansion of territory. Almería was lost again in 1157 and Córdoba remained in his hands for only three years. In 1146 a new invasion of North African fanatics, the Almohads, began. Alfonso now allied himself with the Almoravids and devoted the rest of his life to a series of campaigns to check Almohad expansion in southern Spain. Despite the importance of the imperial idea at this time, peninsular fractionalist tendencies were by no means dormant. Alfonso was unable to prevent the establishment of Portugal as an independent kingdom (1140) and, in his will, he himself divided his realm, as was the Spanish custom, between his two sons, Sancho III of Castile and Ferdinand II of Leon. This act finally destroyed the concept of empire in medieval Spain. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- REYES DE CASTILLA

1) Significado: Castilla: tierra de castillos.

2) Casa solar: Castilla, España.

3) Armas: Las del Reino de Castilla en su diversas épocas. Las que aparecen a la derecha son las Armas de los antiguos Condes de Castilla, en particular del Conde Fernán González: En campo de oro una banda de gules. Las Armas de la Casa Real de Castilla, que aparecen más abajo, fueron: En campo de gules un castillo de oro aclarado de azur. Las de Castilla-León (escudo de Fernando III, "el Santo"): Escudo partido en cuatro: 1° y 3°: un castillo de oro en campo de gules. 2° y 4°: un león rampante de gules en campo de plata.

4) Antepasados: Según cuenta la leyenda, Don Rodrigo (siglo IX), último rey de los visigodos, tuvo por hijo a Diego Porcelos (s. IX). Luego le sucedieron Nuño Núñez (s.IX), que fue padre de Fernando Muñóz (s. IX). Le siguen entre los condes de Cantabria: Gonzalo Téllez (s. X), Assur Fernández (s. X), Nuño Fernández (s. X), Gutier Núñez (s. X), Álvaro Herraméliz (s. X) y Gonzalo Fernández (c.890-932), que fue padre de Fernán González, primer conde de Castilla. Los antepasados directos de los condes de Castilla comienzan con Nuño Núñez Rasura que, siguiendo la línea de la Casas de Manuel y Múgica (ver Fernando III, el Santo).

I. Nuño Núñez Rasura nació hacia el año 810. Murió el año 860. Casó con Argilo. Tuvieron por hijo a

II. Fernando Muñóz "el Negro" de Castrogeríz nació hacia el añao 855. Murió el 927. Casó con Gutina de Castilla. Tuvieron por hijos a Gonzálo Fernández de Castilla (c.890, que sigue) y Munio Fernández de Amaya (+932, padre de Muniadomna, que casó antes del año 912 con Fernando Asúrez y tuvieron por hijo a Ansur Fernández, esposo de Guntroda y padre de Teresa Ansúrez de Monzón, que fue mujer de Sancho I "el Craso" de León: ver Reyes de León).

III. Gonzalo Fernández de Castilla (29° y 32° abuelo) nació hacia el año 890. Murió el año 932. Tuvo por hijo a

IV. Fernán González, conde de Castilla (28° y 31° abuelo), primer conde de Castilla, que nació hacia el año de 915 y gobernó el Condado de 932 a 970. Casó con Sancha Sánchez de Pamplona (hija de Sancho Garcés I de Navarra —905-925— y Toda Aznárez de Aragón) y tuvo entre otros hijos a: García Fernández I de Castilla (c.928; que sigue), Urraca Fernández de Castilla (c.935; que casó sucesivamente con Ordoño III, Ordoño IV de León y Sancho Garcés Abarca de Navarra [ver Reyes de Navarra]; de este último matrimonio nació García Sánchez II de Navarra, que casó con Jimena Fernández y fueron padres de Sancho III de Navarra), Munia Fernández de Castilla (c.942; que casó con Gómez Díaz y fueron padres de Sancha Gómez de Saldaña y Carrión, mujer que fue de Ramiro III de León [ver Reyes de León]) y Gonzalo Fernández de Lara (que murió antes del año 970 y casó con Nuna, y fueron antepasados de Nuño González de Lara, padre de Jimena Núñez de Lara que, según una hipótesis, fue amante de Alfonso VI de Castilla y madre de Teresa y Elvira de Castilla: ver más abajo y nota 1). Fernán González murió en junio del año 970.

V. García I Fernández, conde de Castilla nació el año de 928 y gobernó Castilla de 970 a 995. Casó con Ava de Ribagorza (del condado aragonés de Ribagorza; hija de Raimundo II de Ribagorza y de Garsenda de Fezensac (ver Duques de Gascuña). Por su madre descendía de Carlomagno [ver Carolingios], ya que la 5ª abuela de Garsenda de Fezensac era Berta de Francia [779], hija de Carlomagno e Hildegarda de Vintzgau). García Fernández murió el 30-V-995. Tuvieron por hijos a Sancho García de Castilla (c.965, que sigue) y Elvira García de Castilla (c.970, que casó con Bermudo II "el Godo", rey de León, y tuvieron por hijo a Alfonso V de León: ver Reyes de León).

VI. Sancho García, conde de Castilla nació hacia el año de 965. Gobernó Castilla de 995 a 1017. Casó con Urraca Salvadórez (nacida c.984 y fallecida el 20-V-1025) en 994. Tuvieron por hijos a García (que gobernó Castilla de 1017 a 1029), Munia Mayor de Castilla (c.995, que sigue) y Sancha Sánchez de Castilla (nacida c.1006 y fallecida el 26-VI-1026, que casó con Ramón Berenguer I, conde de Barcelona, en 1021: ver Condes de Barcelona).

VII. Doña Munia Mayor (o Elvira) nació hacia el año 995. Casó en 1010 con Sancho III de Navarra (ver Reyes de Navarra). Tuvieron por hijos a Fernando I (c.1016, primer rey de Castilla, que sigue), Garcia Sánchez III de Navarra "el de Nájera" (nacido después de 1020 y fallecido el 12-XII-1054; casó con Estefanía de Foix, que descendía de Carlomán —era su 8° abuelo—, hijo de Pipino "el Breve": ver Carolingios) y Gonzalo (conde de Sobrarbe y de Ribagorza). Fuera de matrimonio tuvo a Ramiro I, primer rey de Aragón.

VIII. Fernando I, rey de Castilla nació entre 1016 y 1018, en Burgos, Castilla. Gobernó Castilla de 1035 a 1065 y León de 1037 a 1065. Casó con Sancha de León (hija de Alfonso V de León y Elvira Menéndez de Melanda: ver Reyes de León), entre noviembre y diciembre de 1032. Tuvieron por hijos a Sancho II (rey de Castilla —1065 a 1072— y de Galicia -1071-1072), Alfonso VI (rey de Castilla, que sigue), García (rey de Galicia de 1065 a 1071), Urraca (señora de Zamora) y Elvira (señora de Toro). Fernando I murió el 27 de diciembre de 1065.

IX. Alfonso VI, rey de Castilla (23° y 26° abuelo) nació antes del mes de junio de 1040. Fue rey de León (1065-1109), rey de Castilla (1072-1109) y rey de Galicia (1071-1109). Se le conocen cinco esposas legítimas. La segunda fue Constanza de Borgoña (que tuvo lugar el 8-V-1081) en la que tuvo por hija a Urraca (c.1082). Constanza de Borgoña (ver Casa de Borgoña), nacida en 1046, era hija de Roberto "el Viejo", duque de Borgoña, y Helie de Semur; y nieta de Roberto II "el Piadoso", rey de Francia. También era sobrina de Hugo, abad de Cluny. El nombre de "Constanza" lo llevaba por su abuela, Constanza de Arles (984) que, a su vez, era nieta de Constanza de Provenza (931) y tataranieta de Luis III "el Ciego" (883), emperador, nieto de Lotario I (795, el hijo de Ludovico Pío y nieto de Carlomagno: ver Carolingios). Alfonso VI tuvo otras dos hijas ilegítimas, según una hipótesis discutida, con Jimena Muñoz (ver nota 1). La primera fue TERESA ALFONSO DE CASTILLA (1070), que casó con ENRIQUE DE BORGOÑA (hermano de su madrastra: Constanza de Borgoña) y fueron padres de Alonso I Enríquez, primer rey de Portugal (nacido el 25-VII-1110, que casó con Matilde de Saboya (ver Casa de Saboya) y fueron padres de doña Urraca de Portugal, esposa de Fernando II de León: ver Reyes de León). La otra hija ilegítima de Alfonso fue doña Elvira Núñez (c.1075), que casó con el conde tolosano Raimundo de Saint Gilles, el primero de los cruzados (ver Casa de Toulouse). Alfonso VI murió en Toledo el 29-VI-1109.

X. Doña URRACA, REINA DE CASTILLA nació hacia el año de 1082, en Burgos, Castilla. Fue reina de Castilla de 1109 a 1026. Caso con RAIMUNDO DE BORGOÑA, conde de Amerous (ver arriba dinastía de Borgoña-Ivrea), en Toledo, el año de 1087. Raimundo de Borgoña fue conde de Galicia y Coimbra en 1087. Raimundo murió en Grajal, el 20-IX-1107. Tuvieron por hijo a Alfonso VII (1-III-1004/05). En segundas nupcias casó con Alonso I de Aragón. Doña Urraca muere el 8-III-1125/26, en Saldana, Palencia.

XI. ALFONSO VII, REY DE CASTILLA nació el 1-III-1105, en Toledo, Castilla. Fue rey de Castilla de 1126 a 1157. Casó con BERENGUELA DE BARCELONA (1116-1149), en Saldana, el año de 1128. Berenguela era hija de Ramón Berenguer III de Barcelona (ver Condes de Barcelona) y Dulce Aldonza de Milhaud, condesa de Provenza (descendiente de los Reyes Capetos de Francia y también de los Carolingios). En 1152, casó en segundas nupcias con Richeza (hija del príncipe Ladislao II de Cracovia y Silesia). Muere el 21-VIII-1157, en la Fresneda, Teruel, Aragón. Está sepultado en la Catedral de Toledo. De su primer matrimonio tuvo por hijos a Sancho III (que sigue), Raimundo (murió antes de 1151), Fernando II (rey de León de 1157 a 1188 —ver Reyes de León—, y casado con doña Urraca de Portugal, que era hija de Alfonso I de Portugal y nieta de Enrique de Borgoña y Teresa de Castilla -hija de Alfonso VI-), García, Alonso, Sancha (casó con Sancho VI de Navarra en 1153), Constanza (casó con Luis VII de Francia). De su segundo matrimonio tuvo a Fernando y Sancha. Además tuvo dos hijas naturales: Urraca y Estefanía.

XII. Sancho III, rey de Castilla nació el año de 1134, en Toledo. Fue rey de Castilla de 1157 a 1158. Casó — el 30-I-1150/51, en Calahorra, Logroño— con Blanca de Navarra (hija de García VI Ramírez de Navarra, "el Restaurador" y Margarita de L'Aigle Rotrou —descendiente de los Reyes Capetos de Francia y los Carolingios—; García Ramírez era hijo de Ramiro Sánchez de Navarra —ver Reyes de Navarra— y Cristina Rodríguez de Vivar, hija del Cid Campeador). Murió el 31-VIII-1158, en Toledo. Tuvieron por hijo a

XIII. Alfonso VIII, rey de Castilla nació el 11-XI-1155, en Soria. Fue rey de Castilla de 1158 a 1214. Casó, el 22-IX-1177, en Burgos, Castilla, con Leonor de Plantagenet (1162-1214), princesa de Inglaterra (ver Casa de Anjou-Plantagenet y Reyes de Inglaterra de la Casa de Wessex). Tuvieron diez hijos: Sancho, Fernando, Enrique I —rey de Castilla de 1214 a 1217—, Berenguela (que sigue), Sancha, Urraca (casada con Alfonso II de Portugal), Blanca (casada con Luis VIII de Francia), Mafalda, Leonor (casada con Jaime I de Aragón) y Constanza (abadesa de las Huelgas). Alfonso VIII murió en Gutierre de Muñóz, Ávila, Castilla, el 6-X-1214. Está enterrado, con su esposa (que murió el 25-X-1214), en el Monasterio de las Huelgas, Burgos.

XIV. Berenguela de Castilla, reina de Castilla nació el mes de junio de 1180, en Burgos. Casó en primeras nupcias con Conrrado de Hoenstaufenen, duque de Suabia, en 1188 (este matrimonio fue anulado). Luego casó, en diciembre de 1197, en Valladolid, con Alfonso IX de León (ver Reyes de León), que en primeras nupcias había casado con doña Teresa de Portugal (y, entre estos dos matrimonios había tenido por amante a doña Inés Íñiguez de Mendoza, en la cual tuvo por hija a doña Urraca Alfonso). Alfonso IX y doña Berenguela eran nieto y biznieta de Alfonso VII. Aunque este matrimonio era ilegítimo, el hijo de esta pareja, Fernando III, fue considerado como descendencia legítima. Berenguela murió el 8-XI-1246, en Burgos.

XV. Fernando III "el Santo", rey de León y Castilla nació el 19-VIII-1201, en el monasterio de Santa María de Bellofonte, llamado luego de Valparaiso, en el término municipal de Peleas de Arriba, provincia de Zamora. Fue rey de Castilla de 1217 a 1252, y rey de León de 1229 a 1252. Casó en primeras nupcias con Beatriz Isabel de Suabia y Constantinopla (hija de Felipe de Suabia y nieta del emperador Federico Barbarroja, de la Casa de Suabia-Hohensatufen). De este matrimonio tuvo diez hijos: Alfonso X (rey de Castilla de 1252 a 1284, que caso con Violante de Aragón, y tuvo por hijo y sucesor a Sancho IV), Fadrique, Fernando, Enrique, Felipe, Sancho, Manuel (ver Casas de Manuel y Múgica), Leonor, Berenguela y María. Casó en segundas nupcias con Juana de Ponthieu Montreueil. De este segundo matrimonio tuvo por hijos a Fernando, Leonor y Luis. Murió en Sevilla, el 30-V-1252, y está sepultado en la Catedral de Sevilla.

XVI. Alfonso X, rey de Castilla y León, "el Sabio" (rey de Castilla de 1252 a 1284), hijo de Fernando III "el Santo" y Beatriz de Suabia, nació en Toledo el 23-XI-1221. Murió el 4-IV-1284 en Sevilla. Caso con Violante de Aragón (1236-1301; hija de Jaime I "el Conquistador" y Violante de Hungría), y tuvo por hijo y sucesor a Sancho IV), Fadrique, Fernando, Enrique, Felipe, Sancho, Manuel, Leonor, Berenguela y María. Tuvieron por hijo a

XVII. Sancho I, rey de Castilla y León, "el Bravo" nació el 12-V-1258 en Valladolid. Murió en Toledo el 25-IV-1295. Casó en junio de 1281, en Valladolid, con María Alfonso de Molina "la Grande" (1264-1321). Tuvieron por hijo a

XVIII. Fernando IV, rey de Castilla y León nació en Sevilla el 6-XII-1285. Murió en Jaén el 7-IX-1312. Casó el 23-I-1301 en Valladolid con Constanza de Portugal (1289-1313; hija de Diniz de Portugal e Isabel de Aragón). Tuvieron por hijo a

XIX. Alfonso XI, rey de Castilla y León nació en Salamanca el 13-VIII-1311. Murió en Gibraltar (Batalla del Salado) el 27-III-1350. Casó en Alfayete (1328) con María de Portugal (1313-1356; hija de Alfonso I de Portugal y Beatriz de Castilla). Tuvieron por hijo a Pedro I de Castilla "el Justiciero" (ver nota 2). Además, Alfonso XI se unió fuera de matrimonio con Leonor de Guzmán (ver nota 3) y tuvo por hijos, entre otros, a Enrique II (c.1333), rey de Castilla y a Fadrique Alonso de Castilla (1334), antepasado de la familia Enríquez Fonseca, de los Gómez de Parada, y de la Casa de Sarmiento, a su vez enlazada con la Casa de Ayala y con el linaje guipuzcoano de los Galartza (y a través de ellos de varios linajes del Valle de Lenitz: Eraña, Otalora, Ocaranza, Santamaría, Zubía, etc.).

NOTAS:

   * Condes de Barcelona: ver cuadro genealógico en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo IV, p. 367. Desde Bellón, conde de Carcasona, hasta Berenguer Ramón I (1018-1035).
   * Reyes de Pamplona: ver cuadro genealógico en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo IV, p. 359. Desde García Jiménez (c.870) hasta García Sánchez III (1035-1054).
   * Condes de Castilla: ver cuadro genealógico en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo IV, p. 366. Desde Fernán González a Munia.
   * Primeros príncipes pamploneses: ver cuadro genealógico en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo IV, p. 245. Desde Íñigo Arista (m. 851) hasta Sancho Garcés I (905-925).
   * Ver cuadro genealógico de los descendientes de Sacho el Mayor, rey de Navarra de 1004 a 1035, en Historia Universal, EUNSA, tomo V, p. 375. Se pueden ver los enlaces matrimoniales de los reyes de Portugal, León, Castilla, Navara. Aragón y Cataluña, desde el siglo X hasta el siglo XIV.
   [1] Hipótesis sobre la ascendencia materna de las hijas de Alfonso VI: Teresa y Elvira de Castilla. El origen de las hijas de Alfonso VI es una cuestión debatida. Según algunos autores, su madre sería Jimena Núñez de Lara, hija de Nuño González de Lara (descendiente del conde de Castilla Fernán González) y de Emersenda González de Amaya, que era 5ª nieta de Abd Allah I de Córdoba —nacido el 7-III-844— que, a su vez, era descendiente de los Omeya de Córdoba y de Mahoma el Profeta, que era su 8° abuelo. Otros genealogistas afirman que Elvira fue hija de Alfonso VI e Isabel (Zaïda) de Denia, una mujer conversa pero de origen árabe. Y por último, otra hipótesis —quizá la más sólida y defendida por la mayoría— sostiene que Teresa y Elvira de Castilla eran hijas de Alfonso VI y doña Jimena Muñóz, hija de Nuño Rodríguez de Guzmán y doña Jimena Ordóñez (o de Nuño González, Conde de Asturias, y doña Mayor Rodríguez). Doña Jimena Muñóz habría tenido a sus dos hijas entre 1081 y 1082. Al final de su vida, se retiro al convento benedictino de Esinareda del Bierzo, donde murió en 1128.
   [2] Descendencia de Pedro I de Castilla "el Justiciero", hijo de Alfonso XI, Rey de Castilla, y María de Portugal) (ascendientes de Aldonza de Castilla)
   I. Pedro I de Castilla (Burgos, 30-VIII-1334; murió en Montiel el 22-III-1369) casó, en Cuellar (abril de 1354), con Juana Castro Ponce de León (fallecida en Galicia el 21-VIII-1374), y tuvieron por hijo a
   II. Juan de Castilla (Enero de 1355) caso con Elvira de Eril y Falces (hija de Beltrán de Eril y Magdalena de Falces) y tuvieron por hijo a
   III. Pedro de Castilla, Obispo de Osma y Palencia (c.1380; murió el 28-IV-1461) que, de Isabel de Drochelín (dama inglesa de la reina Catalina), tuvo por hijos naturales a 1) Alfonso de Castilla (que casó con Juana de Zúñiga y Portugal y fueron padres de Pedro de Castilla y Zúñiga: ver ascendencia de Francisca Osorio de Castilla, hija del conquistador de la Nueva España, don Luis de Castilla) y 2) Aldonza de Castilla (que sigue).
   IV. Aldonza de Castilla (c.1440) casó con Rodrigo de Ulloa, Señor de la Mota.
   [3] Descendencia de la Casa de Guzmán (ascendientes de María Teresa de Guzmán)
   I. Pedro de Guzmán (c.1225) de Isabel Alonso (fallecida el 9-IX-1309) tuvo por hijo a
   II. Alonso Pérez de Guzmán "el Bueno", 1er. Señor de San Lucar (24-I-1256) casó con María Alonso Coronel y tuvieron por hijos a 1) Juan Alfonso (que sigue), 2) Isabel, 3) Leonor de Guzmán (falleció el 24-IV-1341 y casó con Luis de la Cerda en 1306; fue amante de Alfonso XI y madre de Enrique de Trastamara y de sus hermanos, entre otros, don Fadrique).
   III. Juan Alfonso de Guzmán, 2° Señor de San Lucar (1285-1351) casó con Urraca de Osorio y tuvieron por hijos a 1) Alonso y 2) Juan Alonso (que sigue).
   IV. Juan Alfonso de Guzmán, 1er. Conde de Niebla (1342-1396) casó con Beatriz de Castilla (hija de Alfonso XI y María de Portugal) y tuvieron por hijo a
   III. Enrique de Guzmán, 2° Conde de Niebla (1379-1436) casó con Teresa de Figueroa (1383) en 1399, y tuvieron por hija a
   V. María Teresa de Guzmán (c.1405-1479), que casó con Enrique Enríquez, 1er. Conde de Alba de Liste.

-------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. 1104? d. August 1157, Fresneda, Castile byname ALFONSO THE EMPEROR, Spanish ALFONSO EL EMPERADOR, king of Leon and Castile from 1126 to 1157, son of Raymond of Burgundy and the grandson of Alfonso VI, whose imperial title he assumed. Though his reign saw the apogee of the imperial idea in medieval Spain and though he won notable victories against the Moors, he remains a somewhat hazy figure. His childhood was complicated by the struggle between his mother Urraca and her second husband, Alfonso I of Aragon, for control of Castile and Leon. Only on Urraca's death (1126) did his stepfather finally relinquish his claims. Alfonso was then formally accepted as emperor by the kings of Aragon and Pamplona (Navarre), by the count of Barcelona, and by various Hispano-Moorish rulers. His capture of Almería (1147) from the Moors won him renown, as did other victories, but in the end these led to little expansion of territory. Almería was lost again in 1157 and Córdoba remained in his hands for only three years. In 1146 a new invasion of North African fanatics, the Almohads, began. Alfonso now allied himself with the Almoravids and devoted the rest of his life to a series of campaigns to check Almohad expansion in southern Spain. Despite the importance of the imperial idea at this time, peninsular fractionalist tendencies were by no means dormant. Alfonso was unable to prevent the establishment of Portugal as an independent kingdom (1140) and, in his will, he himself divided his realm, as was the Spanish custom, between his two sons, Sancho III of Castile and Ferdinand II of Leon. This act finally destroyed the concept of empire in medieval Spain. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Family

In November 1128, he married Berenguela, daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:

  1. Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158)
  2. Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy
  3. Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188)
  4. Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France
  5. Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre
  6. García (c.1142-1145/6)
  7. Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149)

In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland, the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile. They had:

  1. Ferdinand, (1153-1157)
  2. Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón.

Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez, he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre, the mother retiring to a convent in 1133. Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando García of Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre, having a daughter Stephanie 'the Unfortunate' (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernan Ruiz de Castro.

Sources:

Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1990). Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Facts on File. -------------------- Nació el 1-III-1105, en Toledo, Castilla. Fue rey de Castilla de 1126 a 1157. Casó con Berenguela de Barcelona (1116-1149), en Saldana, el año de 1128. Berenguela era hija de Ramón Berenguer III de Barcelona (ver Condes de Barcelona) y Dulce Aldonza de Milhaud, condesa de Provenza (descendiente de los Reyes Capetos de Francia y también de los Carolingios). En 1152, casó en segundas nupcias con Richeza (hija del príncipe Ladislao II de Cracovia y Silesia). Muere el 21-VIII-1157, en la Fresneda, Teruel, Aragón. Está sepultado en la Catedral de Toledo. De su primer matrimonio tuvo por hijos a Sancho III, Raimundo (murió antes de 1151), Fernando II (rey de León de 1157 a 1188 —ver Reyes de León—, y casado con doña Urraca de Portugal, que era hija de Alfonso I de Portugal y nieta de Enrique de Borgoña y Teresa de Castilla -hija de Alfonso VI-), García, Alonso, Sancha (casó con Sancho VI de Navarra en 1153), Constanza (casó con Luis VII de Francia). De su segundo matrimonio tuvo a Fernando y Sancha. Además tuvo dos hijas naturales: Urraca y Estefanía. -------------------- Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of Castile and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru. -------------------- Alfonso VII, called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Spain.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterized by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Spain over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143.

Alfonso was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru.

In 1111, Diego Gelmírez, Bishop of Compostela, and the count of Traba crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the formerly Muslim Kingdom of Toledo. On 10 March 1126, after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile, which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

In November 1128, Alfonso married Berenguela, daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. She bore him seven children, including our ancestor King Sancho III.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón, died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders. The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez, Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II. Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja, conquering Zaragoza, and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees, who held lands as far as the River Rhône. In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica.

A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire. But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of León and Alfonso the Battler, the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León. By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista. He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective, although Afonso I of Portugal never recognised him as liege, thereby affirming Portugal's independence. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of our ancestor Petronila of Aragon with our ancestor Ramon Berenguer IV, a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon.

Alfonso was at once a patron of the church and a protector, though not a supporter of, the Muslims, who were a minority of his subjects. His reign ended in an unsuccessful campaign against the rising power of the Almohads. Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be — "king of the men of the two religions." Furthermore, by dividing his realm between his sons, he ensured that Christendom would not present the new Almohad threat with a united front.

In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland, the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile. She bore him two children, including our ancestor Sancha.

Alfonso was a pious prince. He introduced the Cistercians to Hispania by founding a monastery at Fitero. He adopted a militant attitude towards the Moors of Al-Andalus, especially the Almoravids. From 1139, Alfonso led a series of crusades subjugating the Almoravids. He took the fortress of Oreja near Toledo and, as the Chronica Adefonsis Imperatoris tells it: “...early in the morning the castle was surrendered and the towers were filled with Christian knights, and the royal standards were raised above a high tower. Those who held the standards shouted out loud and proclaimed "Long live Alfonso, emperor of León and Toledo!"

In 1144, Alfonso advanced as far as Córdoba. Two years later, the Almohads invaded and he was forced to refortify his southern frontier and come to an agreement with the Almoravid Ibn Ganiya for their mutual defence. When Pope Eugene III preached the Second Crusade, Alfonso VII, with García Ramírez of Navarre and Ramon Berenguer IV, led a mixed army of Catalans and Franks, with a Genoese-Pisans navy, in a crusade against the rich port city of Almería, which was occupied in October 1147. It was Castile's first Mediterranean seaport.[1] In 1151, Alfonso signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Ramon Berenguer. The treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia in order to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Six years later, Almería entered into Almohad possession. Alfonso was returining from an expedition against them when he died in pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, possibly at Viso del Marqués (Ciudad Real).

Alfonso was our ancestor through two distinct descent lines--through his son Sancho III and through his daughter Sancha, each of whom was independently our ancestor.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VII_of_Castile for more information. -------------------- Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), born Alfonso Raimúndez, called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. Alfonso first used the title Emperor of All the Spains, alongside his mother Urraca, once his mother vested him with the direct rule of Toledo in 1116. Alfonso later held another investiture in 1135 in a grand ceremony reasserting his claims to the Imperial title. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru.

-------------------- Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), born Alfonso Raimúndez, called the Emperor (el Emperador), became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. Alfonso first used the title Emperor of All the Spains, alongside his mother Urraca, once his mother vested him with the direct rule of Toledo in 1116. Alfonso later held another investiture in 1135 in a grand ceremony reasserting his claims to the Imperial title. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru.

Contents [hide] 1 Succession to three kingdoms 2 Imperial rule 2.1 Reconquista 3 Legacy 4 Family 5 Ancestry 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links


[edit] Succession to three kingdoms In 1111, Diego Gelmírez, Bishop of Compostela and the count of Traba, crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.[1] He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the formerly Muslim Kingdom of Toledo. On 10 March 1126, after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile, which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón, died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders. The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez, Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II. Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja, conquering Zaragoza, and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees, who held lands as far as the River Rhône. In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica.

[edit] Imperial rule


Alfonso as Emperor, from a Privilegium Imperatoris issued by him.A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire. But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of León and Alfonso the Battler, the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León.[2] By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista. He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective. After Afonso I of Portugal recognised him as liege in 1137, Alfonso VII lost the tournament at Arcos de Valedevez in 1141 thereby affirming Portugal's independence.[3] In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragon with Ramon Berenguer IV, a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon.

[edit] Reconquista Alfonso was a pious prince. He introduced the Cistercians to Hispania by founding a monastery at Fitero. He adopted a militant attitude towards the Moors of Al-Andalus, especially the Almoravids. From 1139, Alfonso led a series of crusades subjugating the Almoravids. After a seven-month siege, he took the fortress of Oreja near Toledo and, as the Chronica Adefonsis Imperatoris tells it:

“ . . . early in the morning the castle was surrendered and the towers were filled with Christian knights, and the royal standards were raised above a high tower. Those who held the standards shouted out loud and proclaimed "Long live Alfonso, emperor of León and Toledo!" ”

[citation needed]

In 1144, Alfonso advanced as far as Córdoba. Two years later, the Almohads invaded and he was forced to refortify his southern frontier and come to an agreement with the Almoravid Ibn Ganiya for their mutual defence. When Pope Eugene III preached the Second Crusade, Alfonso VII, with García Ramírez of Navarre and Ramon Berenguer IV, led a mixed army of Catalans and Franks, with a Genoese-Pisans navy, in a crusade against the rich port city of Almería, which was occupied in October 1147. It was Castile's first Mediterranean seaport.[4] In 1151, Alfonso signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Ramon Berenguer. The treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia in order to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Six years later, Almería entered into Almohad possession. Alfonso was returning from an expedition against them when he died in pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, possibly at Viso del Marqués (Ciudad Real).[5]

[edit] Legacy Alfonso was at once a patron of the church and a protector, though not a supporter of, the Muslims, who were a minority of his subjects. His reign ended in an unsuccessful campaign against the rising power of the Almohads. Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be — "king of the men of the two religions." Furthermore, by dividing his realm between his sons, he ensured that Christendom would not present the new Almohad threat with a united front.

[edit] Family In November 1128, he married Berenguela,[6] daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:

Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158) Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188) Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre García (c.1142-1145/6) Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149) In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland, the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile.[7] They had:

Ferdinand, (1153-1157) Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón. Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez, he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre, the mother retiring to a convent in 1133.[8] Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando Garcés de Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre, having a daughter Stephanie the Unfortunate (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernán Ruiz de Castro.

[edit] Ancestry Ancestors of Alfonso VII of León and Castile[hide]

                                 

 16. Otto-William, Count of Burgundy 
 
 8. Reginald I, Count of Burgundy   
 
 17. Ermentrude of Roucy 
       
 4. William I, Count of Burgundy   
 
 18. Richard II, Duke of Normandy 

 9. Adelaide of Normandy   
 
 19. Judith of Brittany 
 2. Raymond of Burgundy   

 5. Stephanie   
 
 1. Alfonso VII of León and Castile   
 
 24. Sancho III of Navarre 
 
 12. Ferdinand I of León and Castile   
 
 25. Mayor of Castile 
 6. Alfonso VI of León and Castile   
 
 26. Alfonso V of Leon
 13. Sancha of León
 27. Elvira Mendes 
 
 3. Urraca of León and Castile   
 
 28. Robert II of France 
 
 14. Robert I, Duke of Burgundy
 29. Constance of Arles 

 7. Constance of Burgundy   
 
 30. Dalmas of Semur 
 15. Hélie of Sémur   
 
 31. Aremburge of Vergy 
 

[edit] Notes ^ Stroll, Mary, Calixtus 2, 1119-1124, (BRILL, 2004), 239. ^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, Ed. E. Michael Gerli and Samuel G. Armistead, (Taylor & Francis, 2003) 60. ^ Reilly, Bernard F., The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VII, 1126-1157, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998), 309. ^ Riley-Smith (1990) p.48. ^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 60. ^ Barton, Simon, The Aristocracy in Twelfth-Century León and Castile, (Cambridge University Press, 1997), 286. ^ Reilly, 114. ^ Reilly, 143. [edit] References Barton, Simon, The Aristocracy in Twelfth-Century León and Castile, Cambridge University Press, 1997. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, Ed. E. Michael Gerli and Samuel G. Armistead, Taylor & Francis, 2003. Reilly, Bernard F., The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VII, 1126-1157, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1990). Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Facts on File. Stroll, Mary, Calixtus 2, 1119-1124, BRILL, 2004. -------------------- Aka: Alfonso II of Castile/Pierre-Raimund.

Sources:

The book, 'Kings & Queens of Great Britain'

The book, 'The Oxford History of Medieval Europe'

The book, 'Kings & Queens of Europe' -------------------- Full Tittle

Alfonso VII "Pierre-Raimund" King Of CASTILE AND LEON AND GALICIA --------------------

Alfonso VII, Rey de Castilla was born in 1105.1 He is the son of Raimond, Duc de Bourgogne and Urraca, Reina de Castilla.1 He married, firstly, Berengaria de Provence, daughter of Raimond Berengar III, Conde de Barcelona and Douce de Provence, in 1128.1 He married, secondly, Richenza of Poland, daughter of Wladislaw II, Duke of Poland and Agnes Babenberg, in 1152.1 He died on 21 August 1157.
    Alfonso VII, Rey de Castilla was a member of the House of Burgundy.2 He gained the title of Roi Alfonso VII de Galice in 1112.1 He succeeded to the title of Rey Alfonso VII de Castilla in 1126.1

Children of Alfonso VII, Rey de Castilla and Berengaria de Provence

   * Sanchia de Castilla+3 d. 5 Aug 1179
   * Fernando II, Rey de León+4 b. bt 1128 - 1149, d. 21 Jan 1188
   * Sancho III, Rey de Castilla+4 b. c 1134, d. 31 Aug 1158
   * Constanza de Castilla+5 b. a 1140, d. 1160

Child of Alfonso VII, Rey de Castilla and Richenza of Poland

   * Sanchia de Castilla+1 b. 21 Sep 1154, d. Nov 1208

http://thepeerage.com/p10679.htm#i106782

URL:  

---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Individual Record FamilySearch™ Pedigree Resource File

 

Search Results | Print

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Alfonso VII Raymundez Compact Disc #135 Pin #3766622 Pedigree

Sex:  M  

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Event(s)

Birth:   1 Mar 1105 

 ,,CASTILLA,Spain  
Death:   21 Aug 1157 

 ,,CASTILLA,Spain  

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Parents

Father:  Pedro Raymundo DE BURGUNDIA     Disc #135     Pin #3766643   
Mother:  Urraca de LEON, CASTILLA y ZAMORA     Disc #135     Pin #3766644  

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Marriage(s)

Spouse:  Berenguela Berengar de CASTILLA     Disc #135     Pin #3766623  
Marriage:  1128  
 ,,CASTILLA,Spain  

Spouse:  RYKSA RIQUILDA DE SILESIA DE POLONIA     Disc #135     Pin #3766754  
Marriage:  abt 1145  
 ,,CASTILLA,Spain  

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Notes and Sources

Notes:  Available on CD-ROM Disc# 135   
Sources:  None   

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Submitter

Ruben F. VERGARAY 

763 E 50 South Provo UT 84606

-------------------- See http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/25067072/person/12806777514 -------------------- Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 – 21 August 1157), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of Castile and Raymond of Burgundy, the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania.

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler. He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru.

In 1111, Diego Gelmírez, Bishop of Compostela, and the count of Traba crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the formerly Muslim Kingdom of Toledo. On 10 March 1126, after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile, which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón, died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders. The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez, Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II. Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja, conquering Zaragoza, and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees, who held lands as far as the River Rhône. In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica.

A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire. But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of Castile and Alfonso the Battler, the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León. By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista. He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective, although Afonso I of Portugal never recognised him as liege, thereby affirming Portugal's independence. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragon with Ramon Berenguer IV, a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon.

Alfonso was a pious prince. He introduced the Cistercians to Hispania by founding a monastery at Fitero. He adopted a militant attitude towards the Moors of Al-Andalus, especially the Almoravids. From 1139, Alfonso led a series of crusades subjugating the Almoravids. He took the fortress of Oreja near Toledo and, as the Chronica Adefonsis Imperatoris tells it:

“ . . . early in the morning the castle was surrendered and the towers were filled with Christian knights, and the royal standards were raised above a high tower. Those who held the standards shouted out loud and proclaimed "Long live Alfonso, emperor of León and Toledo!" ”

In 1144, Alfonso advanced as far as Córdoba. Two years later, the Almohads invaded and he was forced to refortify his southern frontier and come to an agreement with the Almoravid Ibn Ganiya for their mutual defence. When Pope Eugene III preached the Second Crusade, Alfonso VII, with García Ramírez of Navarre and Ramon Berenguer IV, led a mixed army of Catalans and Franks, with a Genoese-Pisans navy, in a crusade against the rich port city of Almería, which was occupied in October 1147. It was Castile's first Mediterranean seaport. In 1151, Alfonso signed the Treaty of Tudilén with Ramon Berenguer. The treaty defined the zones of conquest in Andalusia in order to prevent the two rulers from coming into conflict. Six years later, Almería entered into Almohad possession. Alfonso was returining from an expedition against them when he died in pass of Muradel in the Sierra Morena, possibly at Viso del Marqués (Ciudad Real).

Alfonso was at once a patron of the church and a protector, though not a supporter of, the Muslims, who were a minority of his subjects. His reign ended in an unsuccessful campaign against the rising power of the Almohads. Though he was not actually defeated, his death in the pass, while on his way back to Toledo, occurred in circumstances which showed that no man could be what he claimed to be — "king of the men of the two religions." Furthermore, by dividing his realm between his sons, he ensured that Christendom would not present the new Almohad threat with a united front.

In November 1128, he married Berenguela, daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149.

view all 29

Alfonso VII el Emperador, rey de Castilla y León's Timeline

1105
March 1, 1105
Grajal, Galicia, Spain
1128
November 17, 1128
Age 23
Saldaña, Province of Palencia, Castille and Leon, Spain
1132
1132
Age 26
1134
1134
Age 28
1135
1135
Age 29
1136
April 12, 1136
Age 31
Toledo, Castile, Spain
1137
1137
Age 31
1138
1138
Age 32
1139
August 5, 1139
Age 34
of, Toledo, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
1142
March 1142
Age 37
Of, Toledo, Castile