Alfonso VIII 'el Noble' de Castilla, rey de Castilla (1155 - 1214) MP

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Nicknames: "Alfonso VIII Sánchez [Borgoña-Ivrea] de Castilla ; Alfonso VIII 'el de Las Navas' de Castilla ; Alfonso VIII 'el noble' de Castilla", "Alfonso VIII // King of Castile", "Alfonso /Sanchez/", "the Noble or Él de las Navas", "el de las Navas"
Place of Burial: Burgos, Espana
Birthplace: Soria, Soria, Castille and Leon, Spain
Death: Died in Gutierre-Muñoz, Ávila, Castille and Leon, Spain
Occupation: Rey de Castilla [1158 - 1214], King of Castilla, Rey de Castilla, Kung, roi de Castille, Rey de Castilla., Roi, de Castille, King, Rey de Castilla 1158 - 1214, Kung i Kastiliern 1158-1214, King of Castile, Count of Gascogne, Rey de León y de Castilla
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Alfonso VIII 'el Noble' de Castilla, rey de Castilla

Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VIII_of_Castile

Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155, Soria – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Islamic Almohad Caliphate and the liberation of Celtic Spanish peoples from subjugation under Islamic rule, where Spanish Celts had suffered centuries of being sold into slavery to Arabs.

King Alfonso VIII the Noble married Princess Eleanor Plantagenet who was the daughter of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Together they built and lived in the beautiful castle of Alcazar of Segovia. (see photo)

After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

Saint Ferdinand III was his grandson, who was canonized by the Pope for completing the liberation of Spain from the Moors.

Both King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella (who financed the voyages of Christopher Columbus) are descendants of King Alfonso VIII. Many kings of England and kings across continental Europe also descend from King Alfonso VIII.

Regency and civil war

Alfonso was born to Sancho III of Castile and Blanche, daughter of García Ramírez of Navarre, in Soria on 11 November 1155.[3] He was named after his grandfather Alfonso VII of Castile. His early life resembled that of other medieval kings. His father died in 1158 when his mother was also dead. Though proclaimed king when only three years of age, he was regarded as merely nominal by the unruly nobles to whom a minority was convenient. Immediately, Castile was plunged into conflicts between the various noble houses vying for ascendancy in the inevitable regency. The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz, saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions. The noble houses of Lara and Castro both claimed the regency, as did the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II of León. In 1159 the young Alfonso was put briefly in the custody of García Garcés de Aza, who was not wealthy enough to support him. In March 1160 the Castro and Lara met at the Battle of Lobregal and the Castro were victorious, but the guardianship of Alfonso and the regency fell to Manrique Pérez de Lara.

Alfonso was put in the custody of the loyal village Ávila. At barely fifteen, he came forth to do a man's work by restoring his kingdom to order. It was only by a surprise that he recovered his capital Toledo from the hands of the Laras.

[edit] Reconquista

In 1174, he ceded Uclés to the Order of Santiago and afterwards this became the order's principal seat. From Uclés, he began a campaign which culminated in the reconquest of Cuenca in 1177. The city surrendered on 21 September, the feast of Saint Matthew, ever afterwards celebrated by the citizens of the town.

Alfonso took the initiative to ally all the major Christian kingdoms of the peninsula — Navarre, León, Portugal, and Aragon — against the Almohads. By the Treaty of Cazola of 1179, the zones of expansion of each kingdom were defined.

After founding Plasencia (Cáceres) in 1186, he embarked on a major initiative to unite the Castilian nobility around the Reconquista. In that year, he recuperated part of La Rioja from the Kingdom of Navarre.

In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads was broken, he came to the defence of Alarcos on the river Guadiana, then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos, he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur. The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next seventeen years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo.

Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III, a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II, Navarrese under Sancho VII, and Franks under the archbishop Arnold of Narbonne all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa near Santa Elena on 16 July. The caliph Muhammad an-Nasir was routed and Almohad power broken.

Cultural legacy

Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia, which, however, did not survive him. His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. His marriage (Burgos, before 17 September 1177)[4] with Eleanor (Leonora), daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time. Troubadours and sages were always present, largely due to the influence of Eleanor.

Alfonso died at Gutierre-Muñoz and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Henry I, named after his maternal grandfather.

Alfonso was the subject for Lion Feuchtwanger's novel Die Jüdin von Toledo (The Jewess of Toledo), in which is narrated an affair with a Jewish subject in medieval Toledo in a time when Spain was known to be the land of tolerance and learning for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The titular Jewish woman of the novel is based on Alfonso's historical paramour, Rahel la Fermosa.

[edit] Children

With Eleanor of England he had 11 children:

Name Birth Death Notes

Infanta Berenguela (Berengaria) Burgos,

1 January/

June 1180 Las Huelgas near Burgos,

8 November 1246 Married firstly in Seligenstadt on 23 April 1188 with Duke Conrad II of Swabia, but the union (only by contract and never solemnized) was later annulled. Married in Valladolid between 1/16 December 1197 with King Alfonso IX of León as her second wife. After their marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in 1204, she returned to her homeland and became regent of her minor brother King Henry I. Queen of Castile in her own right after the death of Henry I in 1214, immediately abdicated in favor of her son.

Infante Sancho Burgos,

5 April 1181 26 July 1181 Heir of the throne since his birth, died aged three months.

Infanta Sancha 20/28 March 1182 3 February 1184/

16 October 1185 Died in infancy.

Infante Enrique (Henry) 1184 1184? Heir of the throne since his birth, died either shortly after been born or in infancy. His existence is disputed among sources.

Infanta Urraca 1186/

28 May 1187 Coimbra,

3 November 1220 Married in 1206 to Prince Alfonso, who succeeded his father in 1212 as King Alfonso II of Portugal.

Infanta Blanca (Blanche) Palencia,

4 March 1188 Paris,

27 November 1252 Married in the Abbaye de Port-Mort near Pont-Audemer, Normandy on 23 May 1200 with Prince Louis, who succeeded his father in 1223 as King Louis VIII of France. Regent of the Kingdom of France during her son's minority (1226–1234) and during his absence on the Seventh Crusade.

Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) Cuenca,

29 September 1189 Madrid,

14 October 1211 Heir of the throne since his birth. On whose behalf Diego of Acebo and the future Saint Dominic travelled to Denmark in 1203 to secure a bride. He died soon after returning from campaigning against the Moors.

Infanta Mafalda Plasencia,

1191 Salamanca,

1211 Betrothed in 1204 to Infante Ferdinand of Leon, eldest son of King Alfonso IX and stepson of her oldest sister.

Infanta Constanza (Constance) 1195 Las Huelgas,

1243 A nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas in 1217, she later became Abbess of her community.

Infanta Leonor (Eleanor) 1202 Las Huelgas,

1244 Married in Ágreda on 6 February 1221 with King James I of Aragon. After her marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in April 1229, she became a nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas.

King Enrique I (Henry I) of Castile Valladolid,

14 April 1204 Palencia,

6 June 1217 Only surviving son, he succeeded his father in 1214 aged ten under the regency firstly of his mother and later his oldest sister Berengaria. Married in Burgos before 29 August 1215 with Infanta Mafalda of Portugal, the union was unconsummated and dissolved in 1216 on grounds of consanguinity. Soon after his divorce was betrothed with Infanta Sancha of León, eldest daughter of King Alfonso IX and stepdaughter of her oldest sister, but died killed by a tile coming off a roof before the marriage could be solemnized.

[edit] Notes

1.^ Titles of the European kings[dead link]

2.^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 61.

3.^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 61.

4.^ Foundation for Medieval Genealogy on Alfonso VIII of Castile, marriage and issues

5.^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 63.

6.^ New international encyclopedia, Vol.13, (Dodd, Mead and Company, 1915), 782.

7.^ Vicaire, pp. 89–98.

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BIOGRAPHY: Alfonso VIII was also known as El De Las Navas (He of Las Navas). He was the king of Castile from 1158 and the son of Sancho III, whom he succeeded when he was three years old. Before Alfonso came of age, his reign was troubled by internal strife and the intervention of the kingdom of Navarre in Castilian affairs. Throughout his reign he maintained a close alliance with the kingdom of Aragon, and in 1179 he concluded the Pact of Cazorla, which settled the future line of demarcation between Castile and Aragon when the reconquest of Moorish Spain was completed. From 1172 to 1212 he was engaged in resistance to the Moorish Almohad invaders, who defeated him in 1195. In the same year the kings of Leon and Navarre invaded Castile, but Alfonso defeated them with the aid of King Peter II of Aragon. In 1212 Alfonso secured a great victory at Las Navas de Tolosa over the Almohad sultan and thereby broke Almohad power in Spain. Alfonso VIII. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 27, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

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Alfonso VIII, apodado el de las Navas o el Noble (Soria, 11 de noviembre de 1155 - Gutierre-Muñoz (Ávila), 5 de octubre de 1214). Rey de Castilla (1158 – 1214), hijo de Sancho III y Blanca de Navarra.

Accedió al trono en 1158 (es Alfonso VI el que a la muerte de Fernando I, subdivide el Gran Reino en Tres, el de Galicia, Castilla, siempre dependientes del Reino de León, de hecho no habría trono de Castilla hasta el año 1217-1230 que se sitúa la creación real de la Corona de Castilla y su posterior unión al Reino de León, formando el Reino de León y de Castilla, de hecho siempre se hacen coronar en León) a la muerte de su padre, cuando contaba tan sólo tres años. Se convierte así en motivo de conflicto entre los partidos nobiliarios que se disputaban el poder, los Lara y los Castro que pretendían su tutela y la regencia, lo mismo que reivindicaba su tío, el rey de León, Fernando II, lo cual casi provocó una guerra civil.

Un hidalgo sacó al pequeño del palacio real, poniéndolo bajo la custodia de las villas leales del norte de Castilla, San Esteban de Gormaz (Provincia de Soria) y Ávila. Ya adolescente, tuvo que luchar por la conquista de su reino. Les arrebató por sorpresa la capital, Toledo.

En 1174 cedió la Orden de Santiago a la villa de Uclés (Provincia de Cuenca), siendo desde entonces la casa principal de la orden. Desde esta plaza inicia una campaña que culmina con la reconquista de Cuenca en 1177. La ciudad se rinde el 21 de septiembre, festividad de San Mateo, celebrada desde entonces por los conquenses.

Tras fundar Plasencia en 1186, y con intención de unificar a la nobleza castellana, relanza la Reconquista, recupera parte de La Rioja que estaba en manos navarras y la reintegra a su reino. Establece una alianza con todos los reinos peninsulares cristianos -a la sazón, Portugal, León, Castilla, Navarra y Aragón- para proseguir ordenadamente conquistando las tierras ocupadas por los almohades. Así, en 1179 se firma el Tratado de Cazorla que delimitará las zonas de expansión de cada reino.

En 1195, tras la ruptura de la tregua con el Imperio almohade, acude a la defensa de Alarcos (Provincia de Ciudad Real), junto al río Guadiana, que en ese momento estaba concibiendo como el principal enclave real de la región. Allí se produce la batalla de Alarcos, donde el monarca castellano fue fuertemente derrotado por el califa almohade Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur. Tras la inmediata reocupación de toda la región por parte de los almohades, comenzando por la vecina ciudad de Calatrava (Calatrava la Vieja), la frontera entre Castilla y el Imperio almohade se traladó durante diecisiete años a los Montes de Toledo.

En 1212, con la mediación del papa Inocencio III, fue convocada una Cruzada con el fin de derrotar definitivamente el poder almohade. A ella acudieron, además de sus súbditos castellanos, aragoneses -al mando de su rey, Pedro II el Católico-, navarros -dirigidos por Sancho VII el Fuerte-, y ultramontanos -el arzobispo Arnaldo de Narbona, entre otros; y las respectivas órdenes militares. Con todos ellos y tras la recuperación de los enclaves del valle del Guadiana (Calatrava, Alarcos, Benavente, etc.- alcanzó la esperada victoria sobre el califa almohade Miramamolín en la batalla de las Navas de Tolosa, producida el 16 de julio en las inmediaciones de Santa Elena (Provincia de Jaén).

Alfonso VIII fue el fundador de la primera universidad española, el studium generale de Palencia, que decayó tras su fallecimiento. Además, su corte sería un importante instrumento cultural, con el acogimiento de trovadores y sabios, especialmente por la influencia de su esposa gascona doña Leonor (hermana de Ricardo Corazón de León). El rey se casó en septiembre de 1170 en Burgos con Leonor de Plantagenet, hija de Enrique II de Inglaterra y de Leonor de Aquitania. La influencia política y cultural de la reina fue notable, y se profesaron sincero amor.

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http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~cousin/html/p385.htm#i5004

Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla also went by the name of Alfonso VIII "the Noble". He was born on 11 November 1155 at Soria, Castile - León, Spain.4,5 He was the son of Sancho III Alfonsez "el Deseado", rey de Castilla and Princess Blanche Garcés de Navarre.3 King of Castile at Spain between 1158 and 1214.6,7 Styled Rex Toleti et Castelle.8 A contract for the marriage of Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla and reina de Castilla Eleanor d' Anjou was signed in 1169 at Burgos, Castile - León, Spain. Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla married reina de Castilla Eleanor d' Anjou, daughter of Henri II "Courtmanteau", roi d' Angleterre and Aliénor d' Aquitaine, reine d' Angleterre, on 22 September 1177 at Burgos, Spain.4,9,3 Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla and Alfonso II "el Casto" , rey de Aragón y Cataluña were made a pact in 1179. This pact of Cazorla fixed the future zones of reconquest for the two countries. Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla and reina de Castilla Eleanor d' Anjou were founded the Monasterio de las Huelgas, a Cistercian monastery, in 1187 at Burgos, Castile - León, Spain. Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla abandoned at the last minute by the fellow Christian Kingdoms of Navarre and Leon (ruled by a cousin) which led to a great Muslim victory in 1195 at the Battle of Alarcos.10 He was defeated by Abû Yûsuf Ya'qûb of the Almohads, a new Berber dynasty which invaded the muslim power vacuum in al-Andalus, in Alarcos, on the Córdoba-Toledo road in July 1195 at the Battle of Alarcos.11 Alfonso VIII of Castile, with the assistance of Sancho VII of Navarre, and Pedro II of Aragon, joined by troops from Portugal and Leon (but not the King, Alfonso the Barbarian, who again betrayed Castile), led a victory against the Moors which was the culmination of the Reconquest of Spain by the Christians. On 16 July 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. He was a witness where Alfonso IX "el Barboro", rey de León repeated his betrayal against his cousin's kingdom of Castile, but this time Castile was saved by others, on 16 July 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.10 Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla was able, with the assistance of fellow Christian Kingdoms, to finally defeat the Almohads decisively at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, near Bailén in northern Andalusia, the same spot where Scipio had defeated the Carthaginians more than a millennium before, on 16 July 1212.11 He died on 6 October 1214 at Gutierra Munoz, Avila, Castile, Spain, at age 58 years, 10 months and 25 days.4,3,5 He was the predecessor of rey de Castilla Henrique I Alfonsez; King of Castile.6,7 Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla was buried in the Monasterio de las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile - León, Spain.

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Nació el 11-XI-1155, en Soria. Fue rey de Castilla de 1158 a 1214. Casó, el 22-IX-1177, en Burgos, Castilla, con Leonor de Plantagenet (1162-1214), princesa de Inglaterra (ver Casa de Anjou-Plantagenet y Reyes de Inglaterra de la Casa de Wessex). Tuvieron diez hijos: Sancho, Fernando, Enrique I —rey de Castilla de 1214 a 1217—, Berenguela (que sigue), Sancha, Urraca (casada con Alfonso II de Portugal), Blanca (casada con Luis VIII de Francia), Mafalda, Leonor (casada con Jaime I de Aragón) y Constanza (abadesa de las Huelgas). Alfonso VIII murió en Gutierre de Muñóz, Ávila, Castilla, el 6-X-1214. Está enterrado, con su esposa (que murió el 25-X-1214), en el Monasterio de las Huelgas, Burgos.

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AKA: Alfonso III. Photo is of Alfonso & Leanor's Tomb (Eleanor = Leanor).

Sources: See all mentioned on his descendants.

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Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or Él de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo[1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

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Alfonso VIII, called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event that marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign also saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads was broken, he came to the defense of Alarcos on the river Guadiana, then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos, he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur (Arabic: ابو يوسف يعقوب المنصور‎). The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next 17 years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo.

Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III, a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II, Navarrese under Sancho VII, and Franks under the archbishop Arnold of Narbonne all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa near Santa Elena on 16 July. The caliph Muhammad an-Nasir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور ) was routed and Almohad power broken.

Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia, which, however, did not survive him. His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. His marriage with Eleanor (Leonora), daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time. Troubadours and sages were always present, largely due to the influence of Eleanor.

Alfonso was the subject for Lion Feuchtwanger's novel Die Jüdin von Toledo (The Jewess of Toledo), in which is narrated an affair with a Jewish subject in medieval Toledo in a time when Spain was known to be the land of tolerance and learning for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The titular Jewish woman of the novel is based on Alfonso's historical paramour, Rahel la Fermosa.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VIII_of_Castile for more information.

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Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo[1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

Contents

1 Regency and civil war

2 Reconquista

3 Cultural legacy

4 Children

5 Notes

6 References


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Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155, Soria – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo[1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads,[2] he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

Regency and civil war

Alfonso was born to Sancho III of Castile and Blanche, daughter of García Ramírez of Navarre, in Soria on 11 November 1155.[3] He was named...

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Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VIII_of_Castile

Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155, Soria – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo[1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads,[2] he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

Regency and civil war

Alfonso was born to Sancho III of Castile and Blanche, daughter of García Ramírez of Navarre, in Soria on 11 November 1155.[3] He was named after his grandfather Alfonso VII of Castile. His early life resembled that of other medieval kings. His father died in 1158 when his mother was also dead. Though proclaimed king when only three years of age, he was regarded as merely nominal by the unruly nobles to whom a minority was convenient. Immediately, Castile was plunged into conflicts between the various noble houses vying for ascendancy in the inevitable regency. The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz, saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions. The noble houses of Lara and Castro both claimed the regency, as did the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II of León. In 1159 the young Alfonso was put briefly in the custody of García Garcés de Aza, who was not wealthy enough to support him. In March 1160 the Castro and Lara met at the Battle of Lobregal and the Castro were victorious, but the guardianship of Alfonso and the regency fell to Manrique Pérez de Lara.

Alfonso was put in the custody of the loyal village Ávila. At barely fifteen, he came forth to do a man's work by restoring his kingdom to order. It was only by a surprise that he recovered his capital Toledo from the hands of the Laras.

[edit] Reconquista

In 1174, he ceded Uclés to the Order of Santiago and afterwards this became the order's principal seat. From Uclés, he began a campaign which culminated in the reconquest of Cuenca in 1177. The city surrendered on 21 September, the feast of Saint Matthew, ever afterwards celebrated by the citizens of the town.

Alfonso took the initiative to ally all the major Christian kingdoms of the peninsula — Navarre, León, Portugal, and Aragon — against the Almohads. By the Treaty of Cazola of 1179, the zones of expansion of each kingdom were defined.

After founding Plasencia (Cáceres) in 1186, he embarked on a major initiative to unite the Castilian nobility around the Reconquista. In that year, he recuperated part of La Rioja from the Kingdom of Navarre.

In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads was broken, he came to the defence of Alarcos on the river Guadiana, then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos, he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur. The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next seventeen years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo.

Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III, a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II, Navarrese under Sancho VII, and Franks under the archbishop Arnold of Narbonne all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa near Santa Elena on 16 July. The caliph Muhammad an-Nasir was routed and Almohad power broken.

Cultural legacy

Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia, which, however, did not survive him. His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. His marriage (Burgos, before 17 September 1177)[4] with Eleanor (Leonora), daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time. Troubadours and sages were always present, largely due to the influence of Eleanor.

Alfonso died at Gutierre-Muñoz and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Henry I, named after his maternal grandfather.

Alfonso was the subject for Lion Feuchtwanger's novel Die Jüdin von Toledo (The Jewess of Toledo), in which is narrated an affair with a Jewish subject in medieval Toledo in a time when Spain was known to be the land of tolerance and learning for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The titular Jewish woman of the novel is based on Alfonso's historical paramour, Rahel la Fermosa.

[edit] Children

With Eleanor of England he had 11 children:[5]

Name Birth Death Notes

Infanta Berenguela (Berengaria) Burgos,

1 January/

June 1180 Las Huelgas near Burgos,

8 November 1246 Married firstly in Seligenstadt on 23 April 1188 with Duke Conrad II of Swabia, but the union (only by contract and never solemnized) was later annulled. Married in Valladolid between 1/16 December 1197 with King Alfonso IX of León as her second wife.[6] After their marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in 1204, she returned to her homeland and became regent of her minor brother King Henry I. Queen of Castile in her own right after the death of Henry I in 1214, immediately abdicated in favor of her son.

Infante Sancho Burgos,

5 April 1181 26 July 1181 Heir of the throne since his birth, died aged three months.

Infanta Sancha 20/28 March 1182 3 February 1184/

16 October 1185 Died in infancy.

Infante Enrique (Henry) 1184 1184? Heir of the throne since his birth, died either shortly after been born or in infancy. His existence is disputed among sources.

Infanta Urraca 1186/

28 May 1187 Coimbra,

3 November 1220 Married in 1206 to Prince Alfonso, who succeeded his father in 1212 as King Alfonso II of Portugal.

Infanta Blanca (Blanche) Palencia,

4 March 1188 Paris,

27 November 1252 Married in the Abbaye de Port-Mort near Pont-Audemer, Normandy on 23 May 1200 with Prince Louis, who succeeded his father in 1223 as King Louis VIII of France. Regent of the Kingdom of France during her son's minority (1226–1234) and during his absence on the Seventh Crusade.

Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) Cuenca,

29 September 1189 Madrid,

14 October 1211 Heir of the throne since his birth. On whose behalf Diego of Acebo and the future Saint Dominic travelled to Denmark in 1203 to secure a bride.[7] He died soon after returning from campaigning against the Moors.

Infanta Mafalda Plasencia,

1191 Salamanca,

1211 Betrothed in 1204 to Infante Ferdinand of Leon, eldest son of King Alfonso IX and stepson of her oldest sister.

Infanta Constanza (Constance) 1195 Las Huelgas,

1243 A nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas in 1217, she later became Abbess of her community.

Infanta Leonor (Eleanor) 1202 Las Huelgas,

1244 Married in Ágreda on 6 February 1221 with King James I of Aragon. After her marriage was dissolved on grounds of consanguinity in April 1229, she became a nun at the Cistercian monastery of Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas.

King Enrique I (Henry I) of Castile Valladolid,

14 April 1204 Palencia,

6 June 1217 Only surviving son, he succeeded his father in 1214 aged ten under the regency firstly of his mother and later his oldest sister Berengaria. Married in Burgos before 29 August 1215 with Infanta Mafalda of Portugal, the union was unconsummated and dissolved in 1216 on grounds of consanguinity. Soon after his divorce was betrothed with Infanta Sancha of León, eldest daughter of King Alfonso IX and stepdaughter of her oldest sister, but died killed by a tile coming off a roof before the marriage could be solemnized.

[edit] Notes

1.^ Titles of the European kings[dead link]

2.^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 61.

3.^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 61.

4.^ Foundation for Medieval Genealogy on Alfonso VIII of Castile, marriage and issues

5.^ Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, 63.

6.^ New international encyclopedia, Vol.13, (Dodd, Mead and Company, 1915), 782.

7.^ Vicaire, pp. 89–98.

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BIOGRAPHY: Alfonso VIII was also known as El De Las Navas (He of Las Navas). He was the king of Castile from 1158 and the son of Sancho III, whom he succeeded when he was three years old. Before Alfonso came of age, his reign was troubled by internal strife and the intervention of the kingdom of Navarre in Castilian affairs. Throughout his reign he maintained a close alliance with the kingdom of Aragon, and in 1179 he concluded the Pact of Cazorla, which settled the future line of demarcation between Castile and Aragon when the reconquest of Moorish Spain was completed. From 1172 to 1212 he was engaged in resistance to the Moorish Almohad invaders, who defeated him in 1195. In the same year the kings of Leon and Navarre invaded Castile, but Alfonso defeated them with the aid of King Peter II of Aragon. In 1212 Alfonso secured a great victory at Las Navas de Tolosa over the Almohad sultan and thereby broke Almohad power in Spain. Alfonso VIII. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 27, 2003, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.

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Alfonso VIII, apodado el de las Navas o el Noble (Soria, 11 de noviembre de 1155 - Gutierre-Muñoz (Ávila), 5 de octubre de 1214). Rey de Castilla (1158 – 1214), hijo de Sancho III y Blanca de Navarra.

Accedió al trono en 1158 (es Alfonso VI el que a la muerte de Fernando I, subdivide el Gran Reino en Tres, el de Galicia, Castilla, siempre dependientes del Reino de León, de hecho no habría trono de Castilla hasta el año 1217-1230 que se sitúa la creación real de la Corona de Castilla y su posterior unión al Reino de León, formando el Reino de León y de Castilla, de hecho siempre se hacen coronar en León) a la muerte de su padre, cuando contaba tan sólo tres años. Se convierte así en motivo de conflicto entre los partidos nobiliarios que se disputaban el poder, los Lara y los Castro que pretendían su tutela y la regencia, lo mismo que reivindicaba su tío, el rey de León, Fernando II, lo cual casi provocó una guerra civil.

Un hidalgo sacó al pequeño del palacio real, poniéndolo bajo la custodia de las villas leales del norte de Castilla, San Esteban de Gormaz (Provincia de Soria) y Ávila. Ya adolescente, tuvo que luchar por la conquista de su reino. Les arrebató por sorpresa la capital, Toledo.

En 1174 cedió la Orden de Santiago a la villa de Uclés (Provincia de Cuenca), siendo desde entonces la casa principal de la orden. Desde esta plaza inicia una campaña que culmina con la reconquista de Cuenca en 1177. La ciudad se rinde el 21 de septiembre, festividad de San Mateo, celebrada desde entonces por los conquenses.

Tras fundar Plasencia en 1186, y con intención de unificar a la nobleza castellana, relanza la Reconquista, recupera parte de La Rioja que estaba en manos navarras y la reintegra a su reino. Establece una alianza con todos los reinos peninsulares cristianos -a la sazón, Portugal, León, Castilla, Navarra y Aragón- para proseguir ordenadamente conquistando las tierras ocupadas por los almohades. Así, en 1179 se firma el Tratado de Cazorla que delimitará las zonas de expansión de cada reino.

En 1195, tras la ruptura de la tregua con el Imperio almohade, acude a la defensa de Alarcos (Provincia de Ciudad Real), junto al río Guadiana, que en ese momento estaba concibiendo como el principal enclave real de la región. Allí se produce la batalla de Alarcos, donde el monarca castellano fue fuertemente derrotado por el califa almohade Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur. Tras la inmediata reocupación de toda la región por parte de los almohades, comenzando por la vecina ciudad de Calatrava (Calatrava la Vieja), la frontera entre Castilla y el Imperio almohade se traladó durante diecisiete años a los Montes de Toledo.

En 1212, con la mediación del papa Inocencio III, fue convocada una Cruzada con el fin de derrotar definitivamente el poder almohade. A ella acudieron, además de sus súbditos castellanos, aragoneses -al mando de su rey, Pedro II el Católico-, navarros -dirigidos por Sancho VII el Fuerte-, y ultramontanos -el arzobispo Arnaldo de Narbona, entre otros; y las respectivas órdenes militares. Con todos ellos y tras la recuperación de los enclaves del valle del Guadiana (Calatrava, Alarcos, Benavente, etc.- alcanzó la esperada victoria sobre el califa almohade Miramamolín en la batalla de las Navas de Tolosa, producida el 16 de julio en las inmediaciones de Santa Elena (Provincia de Jaén).

Alfonso VIII fue el fundador de la primera universidad española, el studium generale de Palencia, que decayó tras su fallecimiento. Además, su corte sería un importante instrumento cultural, con el acogimiento de trovadores y sabios, especialmente por la influencia de su esposa gascona doña Leonor (hermana de Ricardo Corazón de León). El rey se casó en septiembre de 1170 en Burgos con Leonor de Plantagenet, hija de Enrique II de Inglaterra y de Leonor de Aquitania. La influencia política y cultural de la reina fue notable, y se profesaron sincero amor.

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http://homepages.rootsweb.com/~cousin/html/p385.htm#i5004

Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla also went by the name of Alfonso VIII "the Noble". He was born on 11 November 1155 at Soria, Castile - León, Spain.4,5 He was the son of Sancho III Alfonsez "el Deseado", rey de Castilla and Princess Blanche Garcés de Navarre.3 King of Castile at Spain between 1158 and 1214.6,7 Styled Rex Toleti et Castelle.8 A contract for the marriage of Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla and reina de Castilla Eleanor d' Anjou was signed in 1169 at Burgos, Castile - León, Spain. Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla married reina de Castilla Eleanor d' Anjou, daughter of Henri II "Courtmanteau", roi d' Angleterre and Aliénor d' Aquitaine, reine d' Angleterre, on 22 September 1177 at Burgos, Spain.4,9,3 Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla and Alfonso II "el Casto" , rey de Aragón y Cataluña were made a pact in 1179. This pact of Cazorla fixed the future zones of reconquest for the two countries. Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla and reina de Castilla Eleanor d' Anjou were founded the Monasterio de las Huelgas, a Cistercian monastery, in 1187 at Burgos, Castile - León, Spain. Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla abandoned at the last minute by the fellow Christian Kingdoms of Navarre and Leon (ruled by a cousin) which led to a great Muslim victory in 1195 at the Battle of Alarcos.10 He was defeated by Abû Yûsuf Ya'qûb of the Almohads, a new Berber dynasty which invaded the muslim power vacuum in al-Andalus, in Alarcos, on the Córdoba-Toledo road in July 1195 at the Battle of Alarcos.11 Alfonso VIII of Castile, with the assistance of Sancho VII of Navarre, and Pedro II of Aragon, joined by troops from Portugal and Leon (but not the King, Alfonso the Barbarian, who again betrayed Castile), led a victory against the Moors which was the culmination of the Reconquest of Spain by the Christians. On 16 July 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. He was a witness where Alfonso IX "el Barboro", rey de León repeated his betrayal against his cousin's kingdom of Castile, but this time Castile was saved by others, on 16 July 1212 at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.10 Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla was able, with the assistance of fellow Christian Kingdoms, to finally defeat the Almohads decisively at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, near Bailén in northern Andalusia, the same spot where Scipio had defeated the Carthaginians more than a millennium before, on 16 July 1212.11 He died on 6 October 1214 at Gutierra Munoz, Avila, Castile, Spain, at age 58 years, 10 months and 25 days.4,3,5 He was the predecessor of rey de Castilla Henrique I Alfonsez; King of Castile.6,7 Alfonso VIII Sánchez "el de Las Navas", rey de Castilla was buried in the Monasterio de las Huelgas, Burgos, Castile - León, Spain.

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Nació el 11-XI-1155, en Soria. Fue rey de Castilla de 1158 a 1214. Casó, el 22-IX-1177, en Burgos, Castilla, con Leonor de Plantagenet (1162-1214), princesa de Inglaterra (ver Casa de Anjou-Plantagenet y Reyes de Inglaterra de la Casa de Wessex). Tuvieron diez hijos: Sancho, Fernando, Enrique I —rey de Castilla de 1214 a 1217—, Berenguela (que sigue), Sancha, Urraca (casada con Alfonso II de Portugal), Blanca (casada con Luis VIII de Francia), Mafalda, Leonor (casada con Jaime I de Aragón) y Constanza (abadesa de las Huelgas). Alfonso VIII murió en Gutierre de Muñóz, Ávila, Castilla, el 6-X-1214. Está enterrado, con su esposa (que murió el 25-X-1214), en el Monasterio de las Huelgas, Burgos.

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AKA: Alfonso III. Photo is of Alfonso & Leanor's Tomb (Eleanor = Leanor).

Sources: See all mentioned on his descendants.

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Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or Él de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo[1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

--------------------

Alfonso VIII, called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event that marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign also saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads was broken, he came to the defense of Alarcos on the river Guadiana, then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos, he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur (Arabic: ابو يوسف يعقوب المنصور‎). The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next 17 years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo.

Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III, a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II, Navarrese under Sancho VII, and Franks under the archbishop Arnold of Narbonne all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa near Santa Elena on 16 July. The caliph Muhammad an-Nasir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور ) was routed and Almohad power broken.

Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia, which, however, did not survive him. His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. His marriage with Eleanor (Leonora), daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time. Troubadours and sages were always present, largely due to the influence of Eleanor.

Alfonso was the subject for Lion Feuchtwanger's novel Die Jüdin von Toledo (The Jewess of Toledo), in which is narrated an affair with a Jewish subject in medieval Toledo in a time when Spain was known to be the land of tolerance and learning for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The titular Jewish woman of the novel is based on Alfonso's historical paramour, Rahel la Fermosa.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VIII_of_Castile for more information.

--------------------

Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo[1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula.

His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

-------------------- Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 – 5 October 1214), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo.[1][2] He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate. After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads,[3] he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of a tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula. His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.

Regency and civil war [edit]

Alfonso was born to Sancho III of Castile and Blanche, daughter of García Ramírez of Navarre, in Soria on 11 November 1155.[4] He was named after his grandfather Alfonso VII of Castile. His early life resembled that of other medieval kings. His father died in 1158 when his mother was also dead. Though proclaimed king when only three years of age, he was regarded as merely nominal by the unruly nobles to whom a minority was convenient. Immediately, Castile was plunged into conflicts between the various noble houses vying for ascendancy in the inevitable regency. The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz, saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions. The noble houses of Lara and Castro both claimed the regency, as did the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II of León. In 1159 the young Alfonso was put briefly in the custody of García Garcés de Aza, who was not wealthy enough to support him. In March 1160 the Castro and Lara met at the Battle of Lobregal and the Castro were victorious, but the guardianship of Alfonso and the regency fell to Manrique Pérez de Lara. Alfonso was put in the custody of the loyal village Ávila. At barely fifteen, he came forth to do a man's work by restoring his kingdom to order. It was only by a surprise that he recovered his capital Toledo from the hands of the Laras. Reconquista [edit]

In 1174, he ceded Uclés to the Order of Santiago and afterwards this became the order's principal seat. From Uclés, he began a campaign which culminated in the reconquest of Cuenca in 1177. The city surrendered on 21 September, the feast of Saint Matthew, ever afterwards celebrated by the citizens of the town. Alfonso took the initiative to ally all the major Christian kingdoms of the peninsula — Navarre, León, Portugal, and Aragon — against the Almohads. By the Treaty of Cazola of 1179, the zones of expansion of each kingdom were defined. After founding Plasencia (Cáceres) in 1186, he embarked on a major initiative to unite the Castilian nobility around the Reconquista. In that year, he recuperated part of La Rioja from the Kingdom of Navarre. In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads was broken, he came to the defence of Alarcos on the river Guadiana, then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos, he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur. The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next seventeen years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo. Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III, a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II, Navarrese under Sancho VII, and Franks under the archbishop of Narbonne, Arnaud Amalric, all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa near Santa Elena on 16 July. The caliph Muhammad an-Nasir was routed and Almohad power broken. Cultural legacy [edit]

Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia, which, however, did not survive him. His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. His marriage (Burgos, before 17 September 1177)[5] with Eleanor (Leonora), daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time. Troubadours and sages were always present, largely due to the influence of Eleanor. Alfonso died at Gutierre-Muñoz and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Henry I, named after his maternal grandfather. Alfonso was the subject for Lion Feuchtwanger's novel Die Jüdin von Toledo (The Jewess of Toledo), in which is narrated an affair with a Jewish subject in medieval Toledo in a time when Spain was known to be the land of tolerance and learning for Jews, Christians, and Muslims. The titular Jewish woman of the novel is based on Alfonso's historical paramour, Rahel la Fermosa.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfonso_VIII_of_Castile

view all 86

Alfonso VIII el Noble, rey de Castilla's Timeline

1155
November 11, 1155
Soria, Soria, Castille and Leon, Spain
1158
August 31, 1158
- October 5, 1214
Age 2
Spain
1158
Age 2
1158
Age 2
1170
1170
Age 14
1177
September 21, 1177
Age 21
Burgos,Spain

The book, 'Kings & Queens of Europe' states that they were married in Taragona on Sept. 1179. They had at least 11 children.

1180
June 1180
Age 24
Burgos, Castille and Leon, Spain
1181
April 5, 1181
Age 25
Burgos, CL, Spain
1187
1187
Age 31
Toledo, Toledo, Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
1188
1188
Age 32
Palencia, Castille and Leon, Spain