Alonso de Estrada, gobernador pre-virreinal de Nueva España

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Alonso de Estrada, gobernador pre-virreinal de Nueva España

Also Known As: "se sospecha hijo del Rey Fernando II", "El Católico. Villafane dice deJuan Hernández Hidalgo"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Ciudad Real, Province of Ciudad Real, Castille La Mancha, Spain
Death: Died in Veracruz, VER, Mexico
Immediate Family:

Son of Juan Alonso Hernández Hidalgo and Luisa de Estrada Valdés
Husband of Marina de la Cavalleria
Father of Ana Estrada de la Caballería; Luis Alfonso Fernández de Estrada; Marina de Estrada y Flores de la Caballería; Francisca de Estrada; Beatriz de Estrada y Gutiérrez Flores de la Caballería and 5 others
Brother of Hernando Hidalgo

Occupation: Tesorero y Gobernador de la Nueva España, Royal Treasurer of Spain, Fought in the Americas, Royal Treasurer, Gobernador y Tesorero de la Nueva España (1527), (actually was the illegitimate son of King Ferdinand II of Aragon.)
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About Alonso de Estrada, gobernador pre-virreinal de Nueva España

Sources:

Alonso DE-ESTRADA b. 1470, Ciudad Real, Castile, m. Mariana GUTIERREZ FLORES DE-LA-CABALLER, b. Ciudad Real, Castile. Alonso died 1530.

  • I. Luis Alfonso ESTRADA DE-LA-CABALLERIA
  • II. Ana ESTRADA DE-LA-CABALLERIA m. 1511, Juan Alonso SOSA CABRERA, (son of Lope DE-SOSA and Ines CABRERA).
  • III. Juan Alonso ESTRADA DE-LA-CABALLERIA m. Maria FERNANDEZ, (daughter of Lope FERNANDEZ TREVIÑO).
  • IV. Luisa ESTRADA DE-LA-CABALLERIA m. Jorge DE-ALVARADO.
  • V. Beatriz ESTRADA DE-LA-CABALLERIA m. Francisco VAZQUEZ DE-CORONADO.
  • VI. Francisca ESTRADA DE-LA-CABALLERIA m. (1) Alonso DAVALOS, m. (2) Luis DE-VILLEGAS.
  • VII. Marina ESTRADA DE-LA-CABALLERIA m. Luis DE-GUZMAN SAAVEDRA.

was a treasurer from Ciudad Real who arrived in Mexico City in 1524 and served with Cortez. He was the reputed son (natural) of Ferdinand the Catholic. When he arrived in Mexico he boasted of royal blood and demanded a high rank among Cortez’s new government..


Mexico City (Nueva España)

Alonso de Estrada (1470-1530) was a treasurer from Ciudad Real who arrived in Mexico City in 1524 and served with Cortez. He was the reputed son (natural) of Ferdinand the Catholic. He married Mariana Gutierrez Flores also from Ciudad Real and had six children. When he arrived in Mexico he boasted of royal blood and demanded a high rank among Cortez’s new government.

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1. Don ALONSO3 DE ESTRADA (FERDINAND II (THE2 CATHOLIC), JOHN II OF1 ARAGON) was born 1470 in Ciudad Real, Castile, Spain, and died 1530 in Vera Cruz, Vera Cruz, Mexico.

He met (1) Dona ANA RODRIGUEZ-ANHAIFA. He married (2) Dona MARIANA GUTIERREZ-FLORES-DE-LA-CABALLERIA 1498 in Ciudad Real, Castile, Spain, daughter of Don JUAN GUTIERREZ-DE-LA-CABALLERIA and Dona MAYOR FLORES-DE-GUEVARA. She was born in Ciudad Real, Castile, Spain, and died in Mexico City, D.F., Mexico?.

Notes for ALONSO DE ESTRADA: Natural born son of Ferdinand II, King of Aragon and Dona Luisa de Estrada, daughter to the Spanish ambassador to England. Half brother to Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England, Isabella, Queen of Portugal, Princess Juana, Don Juan of Castile and Aragon, and Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal, and uncle to Philip II of Spain. 1523 - Upon arriving in Mexico, he held the title of, Royal Treasurer of New Spain. From 1527 to 1531, he was the Lieutenant Governor of New Spain. He died at his estate near Vera Cruz, and is buried at Mexico City. From the book, With All Arms by Carl Laurence Duaine. Page 69-70.

Ferdinand (catholic king) De Aragon = FERDINAND II (THE2 CATHOLIC), --> JOHN II OF1 ARAGON

Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 26.

Mexico under Spain, Society and the Origins of Nationality, by Peggy K. Liss. Nuno de Guzman and the Province of Panuco in New Spain 1518-1533, by Donald E. Chipman.

Child of ALONSO DE ESTRADA and ANA RODRIGUEZ-ANHAIFA is:

  • i. FATHER BARTOLOME4 DE ESTRADA.

Notes for FATHER BARTOLOME DE ESTRADA: Roman Catholic priest. Source:Who's Who of the Conquistadors by Hugh Thomas. Page 334.

Children of ALONSO DE ESTRADA and MARIANA GUTIERREZ-FLORES-DE-LA-CABALLERIA are:

2. ii. LUIS ALFONSO4 ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA, d. Ciudad Real, Castile, Spain.

iii. JUAN ALONSO ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA, m. MARIA FERNANDEZ-Y-LOAYSA.

Notes for JUAN ALONSO ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA: Grandson to King Ferdinand II, and half nephew to Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England, Princess Isabela, Princess Juana, Don Juan of Castile and Aragon, and Maria of Aragon. Source on his marriage is from the book, Mil Familias III, by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 26. Apon the death of his wife, he joined the priesthood, and is known as Father Juan de la Magdalena. Source:Who's Who of the Conquistadors by Hugh Thomas. Page 334.

3. iv. LUISA ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA.

4. v. BEATRIZ ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA, b. Ciudad Real, Castile, Spain; d. Mexico City, F.D., Mexico.

vi. FRANCISCA ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA, m. (1) CONQUISTADOR ALONSO DE AVALOS-SAAVEDRA; m. (2) LUIS DE VILLEGAS.

Notes for FRANCISCA ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA: Granddaughter to King Ferdinand II, half neice to Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England, Princess Isabela, Princess Juana, Don Juan of Castile and Aragon, and Maria of Aragon. Marriage source from the book, Mil Familias III by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 26.

Notes for CONQUISTADOR ALONSO DE AVALOS-SAAVEDRA: Conquistador of Jalisco and Zapotecas, Mexico. Source:From the book, Mil Familias III, by Rodolfo Gonzalez de la Garza. Page 26. Source:Who's Who of the Conquistadors by Hugh Thomas. Page 315. A.K.A. Alonso Davalos Saavedra, Marriage Notes for FRANCISCA ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA and ALONSO DE AVALOS-SAAVEDRA: Marriage source:From the book, Who's Who of the Conquistadors by Hugh Thomas. Page 315.

5. vii. MARINA ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA.

6. viii. ANA ESTRADA-DE-LA-CABALLERIA, b. Abt. 1492; d. Nueva Galicia, New Spain (Mexico).



Por Decreto Real firmado el 15 de octubre de 1522 fue nombrado Tesorero Real en la Nueva España, para que junto a Gonzalo de Salazar como factor, Rodrigo de Albornoz como contador y Pedro Almíndez Chirino como veedor, ayudaran a Hernán Cortés en su gobierno.


Recibe un salario de 510.000 maravedíes y Cortés 310.000 , lo que muestra el trato preferencial del Rey por Alfonso. Sin embargo una limpieza de sangre de Alvarado Villafaña indica que su padre verdadero no fue el Rey sino Hernández, confundiendo historiadores.


Don Alonso , no cuenta como hijo de Fernando II Rey de Aragón y Castilla según la limpieza de Alvarado Villafaña, pero no hay duda de sus orígenes aristocráticos y poderosos. Se dice que Fernando lo consideraba como tal, y esto da explicación sencilla de llamarse" hijo", además de otras razones.

El indicio sobre la ascendencia judeo-conversa de la familia Gutiérrez de la Caballería fue descubierto por primera vez en 1948 en un artículo de Norberto de Castro y Tosi titulado “Verdadera Paternidad de Alonso de Estrada (*). Durante siglos, historiadores sin profundizar en la investigación, han transmitido el rumor que D. Alonso de Estrada fue hijo ilegítimo del rey D. Fernando II El Católico, de Aragón, según mencionado por el historiador Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Castro y Tosi presenta pruebas al contrario, según el expediente de limpieza de sangre de D. Jorge de Alvarado y Villafaña, bisnieto de D. Alonso de Estrada y doña Marina Flores Gutiérrez de la Caballería. Los datos de las pruebas de limpieza fueron recopilados en 1588-1585 como requisito para la admisión de D. Jorge en la Orden de Santiago.

Se tomó testimonio de los parientes de la familia Estrada y otros vecinos de Ciudad Real (…). Se identificaron el padre y los abuelos de D. Alonso de Estrada basada en las genealogías en poder de los parientes de D. Alonso. El resultado de la investigación del linaje Estrada fue la confirmación de su limpieza. Miembros de la familia Estrada pudieron documentar que venían de una familia de cristianos viejos.

(*) [2] Según el testimonio de varias personas, especialmente residentes en Ciudad Real de unos setenta años de edad y de los descendientes de la familia Estrada, D. Alonso de Estrada, Tesorero de Nueva España, fue hijo de Juan Hernández Hidalgo y su primera esposa, cuyo nombre no recordaban. Los abuelos paternos de D. Alonso fueron Diego Hernández Hidalgo (residente en Ciudad Real en la primera mitad del siglo XV) y María González de Estrada (hermana de Diego Sánchez de Estrada, clérigo en la iglesia de Santiago en Ciudad Real). Muchos de los testigos dijeron conocer bien a familia Estrada ya que los dos hijos mayores de D. Alonso de Estrada y doña Marina Flores Gutiérrez de la Caballería, permanecieron en Ciudad Real. El mayor, D. Luis Alfonso de Estrada heredo las propiedades de su padre en Ciudad Real y adquirió el título de Señor de Picón. En segundo, D. Juan Alfonso de Estrada, fue religioso en la Orden de los Predicadores y hombre de letras fallecido en Ciudad Real. Ningún testigo hizo referencia alguna en relación a D. Alonso de Estrada como hijo ilegítimo del rey D. Fernando II.

Además, cuando los RRCC en 1496 conceden la escribanía y notaría pública en la Corte, Reinos y Señoríos, le llaman Alonso de Estrada o Alonso Fernández de Estrada (Archivo General de Simancas, RGS,149612,27).

En su libro Historia del Reinado de Fernando e Isabel, el historiador William H. Prescott nombra a cuatro hijos bastardos de Fernando el Católico, no figurando Alonso de Estrada como hijo del monarca.


Alonso de Estrada was born in Ciudad Real, Spain probably between 1470 and 1480 and died in 1530. He was married to Marina Gutiérrez Flores de la Cavalleria. They had two sons and five daughters. Luis Alfonso Fernándes de Estrada stayed in Ciudad Real and Juan Alonso became fray Juan de la Magdalena. Luisa, Marina, Ana, Francisca, and Beatris came to New Spain with their parents in 1523.

•Luisa married Captain Jorgue de Alvarado, a conqueror of México and Governor of Guatemala; and a brother of Pedro de Alvarado; their children were Jorgue de Alvarado, Luisa, and Leonor.

•Marina married Luis de Saavreda Guzman; their children were Alonso de Saavreda; Juan who married Regina de la Cadena;

•Ana married New Spain Treasurer Juan Alonso de Sosa; their children were Juan Alonso de Sosa, baptized February 4, 1542, married Marina de Guevara. They had several children, a daughter married Diego de Ayala, son of licenciado Diego de Ayala, alcalde de la Audencia de México. The Ayala's succession is probably the one that produced Leonor de Ayala who married Joseph de Trevño and started a line of Ayalas in Nuevo León. Their children took the Ayala name, rather than the father's name, Treviño.

•Francisca married Alonso Avalalos de Saavreda •Beatris married Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, the discoverer of the Grand Canyon.

Alonso de Estrada also had a natural son, Bartolome, with Ana Rodriguez Anhaifa. Bartolome became a secular priest.

Estrada is an interesting historical figure because he was probably the only son of a king of Spain who ever lived in México and left a large number of descendants some of whom are now in the USA. Historian Peggy K. Liss states that Estrada was a natural son of King Ferdinand (Lizz 167). Also another historian Thomas Hugh in his book the Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés, and the Fall of Old México, states that it was believed that Alonso de Estrada was a natural son of King Ferdinand (Hugh 574). In New Spain, de Estrada served as royal treasurer, lieutenant governor, and governor. Historian Francisco Fernandez del Castillo states that he learned from a document from the Inquisition (reference cited as Archivo de Inqisición, Tomo 365) that it was common knowledge in Ciudad Real and Almagro that Alonso de Estrada was an illegitimate son of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Castile (Fernandez del Castillo 399).

There are some historians who doubted that Alonso de Estrada was an illegitimate son of King Ferdinand . Among those historians is Norberto de Castro y Tosi who states states that Alonso was the legitimate son of a low ranking hialgo by the name of Juan de Estrada and unknown wife. The problem with Tosi's hypothesis is that he relies on a testimony provided by Mari Hernandez de Hidalgo, a witness, who did not remember the name of Alonso's mother name.

Among historians who believe that Alonso de Estrada was an illegitimate son of King Ferdinand, Francisco Fernandez del Castillo from the Academia Mexicana de la Historia asserts that Alonso occupied very important position in Spain and later Emperor Charles V named Alonso de Estrada the royal treasurer of New Spain (Fernandez del Castillo 398). It is not difficult to see that it was a link between appointments to high positions of government in Spain and New Spain and birth into high ranking aristocratic families. For example, Gonzalo de Salazar, Rodrigo de Albornoz, Pedro Almindez Chirinos were all men from powerful Spanish families and also all of theme were protégées of Francisco de los Cobos, the powerful personal secretary of Charles V.

•Sources: Indice Geobiografico de Cuarenta Mil Pobladores Españoles de America en el Siglo XVI

•Fernández, Francisco del Castillo, Memorias de la Academia Mexicana de la Historia: Correspondiente de la Real de Madrid, (México October-December 1942) Tomo I

•Liss, Peggy K. México Under Spain, 1521-1556, Society and the Origins of Nationality The University of Chicago Press, 1975. Carranza, Baltasa Dorante de, Sumaria Relación de los Primeros Pobladores de México.

•Thomas, Hugh, Conquest: Montezuma, Cortés, and the Fall of Old México. Simon and Schuster, 1993.


Alonso de Estrada, Duke of Aragon (b. ca. 1470, Ciudad Real, Spain, d. 1533-37, Mexico City) was a colonial official in New Spain during the period of Hernán Cortés's government, and before the appointment of the first viceroy. He was a member of the triumvirates that governed the colony for several short periods between 1524 and 1528, in the absence of Cortés.

Origins and early career

Don Alonso de Estrada, Duke of Aragon, was an illegitimate son of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Dona Luisa Estrada, daughter to Don Fernan Estrada, the Spanish Royal Ambassador to England, thereby making him a step-son to Isabella I of Castile. He was raised at court. He fought in the wars in Flanders, and afterwards, as an admiral, in the campaigns in Málaga and Sicily. Returning to Madrid, he fought in the Castilian War of the Communities, opposing the rebels against Emperor Charles V. For this, Charles rewarded him with the position of corregidor of Cáceres, and later named him treasurer of New Spain.

Royal treasurer of New Spain

Boasted that he was of royal blood, he came to New Spain in 1523, appointed treasurer of the colony by the Council of the Indies, on the authority of Charles V. His mission was to participate in the government of Cortés and to protect the interests of the Crown. Marcos de Aguilar and Luis Ponce de León (governor of New Spain) (colonial official) were also sent by the Crown to act as judges in the juicio de residencia of Cortés, but Ponce de León died of indigestion contracted at his welcoming banquet. Rumored to have been poisoned by Hernan Cortes.

Estrada was forceful and violent. Rumors of his royal parentage accompanied him to New Spain.

First period in government

In 1524 Governor and Captain General Cortés left Mexico City for Honduras. He left the government in charge of Estrada, Rodrigo de Albornoz and Lic. Alonso de Zuazo. Zuazo (or Suazo) held the additional office of Justicia Mayor. The transfer of power occurred October 12, 1524. This triumvirate shared power with the ayuntamiento (city government). The ayuntamiento was composed of partisans of Cortés; Estrada and Albornoz were (or soon would be) his enemies. At one point Estrada issued orders to prevent the reentry of Cortés into Mexico City.

The three men governed for about two and one half months, until December 29, 1524. On that date, with the agreement of the ayuntamiento, two of them were replaced by Gonzalo de Salazar and Pedro Almíndez Chirino. Alonso de Zuazo remained. This was on Cortés's instructions, brought back from Coatzacoalcos by Salazar and Almíndez, in order to end disagreements between Albornoz and Estrada. The change was thought to have been brought about by the intrigues of Salazar.

Second period in government

Estrada returned to the government from February 17, 1525 to April 20, 1525. It now contained five members — Salazar, Almíndez, Estrada, Albornoz and Zuazo. On the latter date, Salazar and Almíndez proclaimed that no one was to recognize the authority of Estrada and Albornoz, on pain of 100 lashes and confiscation of property. This proclamation was signed by Zuazo, Cervantes, de la Torre, Sotomayor, Rodrigo de Paz (a member of the ayuntamiento), and the clerk Pérez. Estrada and Albornoz left Mexico City for Medellín, but before they had traveled eight leagues, Almíndez sent armed men after them and took them prisoner.

Third period in government

In early 1526 a messenger (Martín de Orantes or Dorantes) from Cortés arrived in Mexico City. His instructions were to replace Gonzalo de Salazar and Pedro Almíndez Chirino in the governing triumvirate with Francisco de las Casas and Pedro de Alvarado. In the absence or incapacity of Las Casas and Alvarado, Estrada and Albornoz were named as replacements. Orantes entered the city in secret and made contact with members of the opposition.

At daybreak on January 28, 1526 Orantes and other opponents of Salazar and Almíndez left the convent where they were staying, marched along the streets shouting "Viva Cortés", arrested Salazar, and succeeded in getting the ayuntamiento to execute the orders of Cortés. Estrada and Albornoz rejoined the government, because Las Casas and Alvarado were absent. Almíndez was arrested later in Tlaxcala, and brought back to Mexico City. Estrada and Albornoz governed from January 29, 1526 to June 24, 1526, or just short of six months. Cortés returned and took up the government again (very briefly) on June 25, 1526.

Fourth period in government

Estrada governed a fourth time from March 2, 1527 to December 8, 1528, with Gonzalo de Sandoval and Luis de la Torre, for about 21 months. (Sandoval was part of the government only until August 22, 1527). On August 22, a royal decree was received in Mexico City, ratifying the transfer of powers granted by Luis Ponce de León to Marcos de Aguilar, but Aguilar had died on March 1. Aguilar had named Estrada governor, and this decree solidified his position. Since Cortés was suspected of poisoning Ponce de León and Aguilar, he was not in a position to challenge Estrada.

Death

Estrada died in Mexico City in the period 1533 to 1537. An act of the Mexico City government dated September 22, 1533 refers to him as alive, and a letter from the viceroy to the king dated December 10, 1537 mentions him as deceased.

References

(Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus Gobernantes. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984. (Spanish) Linares, Fernando Orozco, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.

Acerca de Alonso de Estrada, gobernador pre-virreinal de Nueva España (Español)

Fuentes:

Tesorero y Gobernador de la Nueva España

Se dice que es hijo natural de Fernando el Católico y la noble dama Doña Luisa Duque de Estrada.


Don Alonso Estrada , duque de Aragónmanifestaba que descendía de Fernando II , El Católico.

A ciencia cierta no se asegurado la sangre real . Un bisnieto Villafane Alvarado  en una limpieza de sangre

expresa que Alonso Estrada de desciende de Hernández Hidalgo, otro poderoso noble.

De ahí que un hermano suyo aparezca como Hernando Hidalgo.


Pasó a Nueva España a principios de 1528 en el mismo barco que viajaba su hermano Alfonso

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Alonso de Estrada, gobernador pre-virreinal de Nueva España's Timeline

1470
1470
Ciudad Real, Province of Ciudad Real, Castille La Mancha, Spain
1498
1498
Age 28
Corona de Castilla, España
1507
1507
Age 37
Spain
1510
1510
Age 40
Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha, España
1513
1513
Age 43
Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha, España Vieja
1516
1516
Age 46
España
1516
Age 46
Salamanca, Salamanca, Castile y León, España Vieja
1519
1519
Age 49
Ciuidad Real, Castile, Spain
1522
1522
Age 52
Ciudad Real, Spain