Alrek Agnasson, king of Sweden (c.430 - c.470) MP

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Nicknames: "Agneson", "Alrekur", "Airek", "Eirik", "Alrik Agneson", "Alrekr", "Alrek", "Skjalksson de Värmland", "Fredebald / Фредебальд / Фридубальд / Fridubalth", "Fredibalum"
Birthplace: Sverige
Death: Died in Sweden
Occupation: King of Sweden, Konge i Svitjord, King in Sweden, konge, Roi de Svitjod (Novgorod, Russie; Uppsala, Suède et Vingulmark Norvège), крал, Konge i Uppsala, Konge, King of Upsal, Swedish King of the House of Yngling, King.260, konge.260 - 280
Managed by: Jennie Jacobson
Last Updated:

About Alrek Agnasson, king of Sweden

http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_och_Alrik Alrik och Erik var två bröder av Ynglingaätten enligt Heimskringla. De var söner till Agne Skjalfarbonde.

Alrik och Erik slog ihjäl varandra med sina hästbetsel.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alrek_and_Eirik In the Ynglinga saga

According to the Ynglinga saga, Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.

However, in other sources, only Alrek died, and in the piece of Ynglingatal quoted by Snorri Sturluson it is only Alrek who dies explicitly. Erik's death seems to be a misunderstanding on Snorri's part due to an influence from the succeeding kings (see also the other sources below):

   Fell Alrekr,
   þar er Eiríki
   bróður vápn
   at bana urðu,
   ok hnakkmars
   með höfuðfetlum
   Dags fríendr
   of drepask kváðu;
   frá-at maðr áðr
   eykja greiði
   Freys afspring
   í folk hafa.[1][2]
   Alrek fell, by Eric slain,
   Eric's life-blood dyed the plain,
   Brother fell by brother's hand;
   And they tell it in the land,
   That they worked the wicked deed
   With the sharp bits that guide the steed.
   Shall it be said of Frey's brave sons,
   The kingly race, the noble ones,
   That they have fought in deadly battle
   With the head-gear of their cattle?[3][4]

Ynglingatal then gives Yngvi and Alf as Alrekr's and Eiríkr's successors.

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

   Qui [Dagr] genuit Alrik; hunc frater suus Erikr freno percussit ad mortem. Alricr autem genuit Hogna [...][5]

This man [Dag] engendered Alrek, who was beaten to death with a bridle by his brother, Eirik. Alrek was father to Agne, [...][6] Hogna is an error for Agne.[5] Unlike Ynglingatal, Historia Norwegiæ gives Dagr as Alrekr's predecessor. Instead Alrekr precedes Agne and Agne is succeeded by Yngvi (incorrectly called Ingialdr[5]). The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession as Historia Norwegiæ: xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi.[7]

In Gautreks saga and Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar

Gautreks saga also makes Alrek and Eirík sons of Agni by Skjálf and co-kings and it was to them that the warrior Starkad fled after his slaying of King Vikar. Starkad served them first as a companions on their viking expeditions and then, after Alrek and Eirík had settled down, went on further Viking expeditions alone.

But King Alrek had a short life, for Eirík struck Alrek dead with a bridle when they were out to train their horses and then ruled as sole ruler over Sweden. This version says that Eirík reigned for a long time as told in Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar (Saga of Hrólf son of Gautrek).

This second saga introduces Thornbjörg, the daughter of King Eirík and Queen Ingigerd, who was a skillful shieldmaiden and ruled over part of the kingdom. Thornbjörg even called herself King Thorberg. But eventually she fell in love with Hrólf son of Gautrek and agreed to marry him, at which point she gave up her weapons to her father King Eirík and took up embroidery.

In Gesta Danorum

Saxo Grammaticus in Book 5 of his Gesta Danorum introduces Ericus Desertus, that is Erik the Eloquent, son of a champion named Regnerus (Ragnar), both Norwegians in the service of King Gøtarus (Götar) of Norway, a monarch otherwise unknown. This Erik is likely to be the Eirík the Eloquent or Eiríkr the Wise in Speech mentioned by Snorri Sturluson in the Skáldskaparmál as being of Ylfing lineage. But he otherwise has left no clear record in surviving Norse literature.

Saxo makes up for it by telling at greath length of Erik's amusing deeds. He relates how Erik outwitted all foes with clever tricks and became the counselor of Fróði son of Fridleif, king of Denmark. Erik's expeditions on Fróði's behalf always went well because of Erik's cunning and way with words. Erik finally married Fróði's sister Gunvara and Erik's elder half-brother Rollerus (Roller) was made king of Norway.

Saxo then brings in a king of the Swedes named Alricus (Alrik) who corresponds to Alrek of the Norse tradition. Alrik was at war with Gestiblindus king of the Gautar (Geats) and Gestiblindus now sought Fróði's aid. (In the Norse Hervarar saga Gestumblindi is the name assumed by the disguised Odin and it is possible that this Gestiblindus is also Odin in disguise.)

Erik and Skalk the Scanian pursued the war and slew Alrik's son Gunthiovus (Old Norse Gunnþjófr) leader of the men of Vermland and Solongs. Then occurred a parley and secret interview between Alrik and Erik in which Alrik attempted to win Erik over to his cause. When this failed, Alrik asked that the war be settled by a single combat between himself and Gestiblindus. Erik refused the offer because of Gestiblind's unfitness and advanced years but made a counter-offer to fight such a duel with Alrik himself if Alrik were willing. The fight occurred straightaway. Alrik was slain and Erik seemed to be fatally wounded so that a report actually came to King Fróði that Erik was dead. Indeed Erik was long in recovering. However Fróði was disabused when Erik himself returned announcing that Fróði was now also king of Sweden, Värmland, Helsingland, and Soleyar. Fróði then gave all those lands to Erik to rule directly and also gave Erik the two Laplands, Finland, and Estonia as dependencies paying annual tribute.

Saxo explains that this Erik was the first Swedish king to be called Erik but that after him it became a very common name among the Swedish kings. He also writes that Erik met and helped the champion Arngrim, an account that agrees with Hervarar saga, where Arngrim's sons meet Erik's successor Yngvi (see e.g. Angantyr and Hjalmar).

That the duel occurred at the end of a "secret interview" suggests that Alrik and Erik were alone when they fought just as were their counterparts in the Norse accounts. That Erik was believed to have died suggests knowledge of the Ynglinga saga version in which both fighters met their death. There is no mention of horse bridles. But Erik is not elsewhere a great duelist or champion but instead a trickster who wins through stratagems and deceiving words so that is it likely that Saxo or his source passed over a stratagem in which a horse bridle played a part.

Saxo also mentions Starkad's stay in Sweden in Book 6 in a summary of Starkad's life up to that point in his history. But Saxo does not indicate what king or kings then ruled Sweden, saying only:

   ... he went into the land of the Swedes, where he lived at leisure for seven years' space with the sons of Frø.

Frø is of course the god Frey, the ancestor of the Swedish dynasty.

At the beginning of Book 6, Saxo notes that Erik died of a disease and was succeeded by his son Haldanus (Halfdan). Halfdan was later slain by rivals for the throne but the warrior Starkad established Halfdans' heir Siward as the new king. Siward's daughter Signe was married to King Harald of Denmark who was co-king his brother Fróði. Later Harald's son Halfdan, now king of Denmark, slew Siward in war. But Siward's grandson Erik, the son of Halfdan's uncle Fróði by Signe, the direct heir to the throne, now rose up against Halfdan. After a long war this second Erik was captured by Haldfan and left in the woods in chains to be devoured by beasts. With him, it seems, the Swedish line of Erik the Eloquent, as set forth by Saxo, came to an end.

Commentary

It is not clear whether or not the accounts in the Gesta Danorum and the accounts in the Ynglinga saga' tales of a Danish king named Halfdan who became king of Sweden are at all related. See Halfdan.

Traditions of twin brothers connected with horses appear are a commonplace in Indo-European cultures as are foundation legends about two twin brothers, one of whom kills the other. It is possible that Alrek and Eirik are reflexes of such traditions.

Saxo's identification of the legendary Eirík the Eloquent with the legendary Swedish king Eirík probably originated as a flourish by a pro-Danish or pro-Norwegian story teller. -------------------- Konge i Uppsala (Sverige)

-------------------- Alrek and Eirík (Old Norse Alrekr and Eiríkr ), English: Alaric and Eric, were two legendary kings of Sweden.

According to the Ynglinga saga, Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.

However, in other sources, only Alrek died, and in the piece of Ynglingatal quoted by Snorri Sturluson it is only Alrek who dies explicitly. Erik's death seems to be a misunderstanding on Snorri's part due to an influence from the succeeding kings (see also the other sources below):

   Alrek fell, by Eric slain,
   Eric's life-blood dyed the plain,
   Brother fell by brother's hand;
   And they tell it in the land,
   That they worked the wicked deed
   With the sharp bits that guide the steed.
   Shall it be said of Frey's brave sons,
   The kingly race, the noble ones,
   That they have fought in deadly battle
   With the head-gear of their cattle?[3][4]

Ynglingatal then gives Yngvi and Alf as Alrekr's and Eiríkr's successors.

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation: This man [Dag] engendered Alrek, who was beaten to death with a bridle by his brother, Eirik. Alrek was father to Agne, [...][6]

Hogna is an error for Agne.[5] Unlike Ynglingatal, Historia Norwegiæ gives Dagr as Alrekr's predecessor. Instead Alrekr precedes Agne and Agne is succeeded by Yngvi (incorrectly called Ingialdr[5]). The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession as Historia Norwegiæ: xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi.[7]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alrek_and_Eir%C3%ADk -------------------- According to the Ynglinga saga, Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alrek_and_Eir%C3%ADk -------------------- Alrek and his brother ruled the Swedes together after their father's death. Previously, the high king of all the Swedes resided at Uppsala, but the brother's reign was the first to include under kings who ruled in other areas. The brothers, Alrek and Eric were exceptionally talented with horses, training and teaching them, and had the most magnificent horses. One day, the brothers rode out together but did not return. When their people went to look for them, they were found, together, with no weapons but both their heads crushed in, their deaths never to be solved. Heimskringla, Ynglinga Saga, Section 23

According to the Ynglinga saga, Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.

However, in other sources, only Alrek died, and in the piece of Ynglingatal quoted by Snorri Sturluson it is only Alrek who dies explicitly. Erik's death seems to be a misunderstanding on Snorri's part due to an influence from the succeeding kings.

Eyestein's wife was Hild, the daughter of the king of Vestfold, Erik Agnarsson. Erik had no son so Eystein inherited Vestfold.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alrek_and_Eir%C3%ADk

-------------------- Alrek og Eirik var kongar av Ynglingeætta. Etter Snorre Sturlason var dei søner av Agne, medan Historia Norvegiæ (Den eldste Noregshistoria) fortel at dei var søner av Dag Dyggveson, og at Alrek var far til Agne.

Om desse to er det fortald at dei var glade i hestar, og kappast med kvarandre om kven som var best til å ri dei. Ein dag vart dei funne på vollen, daude båe to, og hausane deira var krasa. Folk trudde dei hadde drepe kvarandre med beisla til hestane sine.

Tjodolv frå Kvine fortel i Ynglingatal:

Fall der Alrek der som Eirik for bror-våpn sin bane fekk, og med hestens hovud-reimar frendane hans Dag drap kvarandre. Aldri fyrr de spurdest at Ynglingar heste-beisl hadde til verju. Historia Norvegiæ fortel berre at Alrik drap bror sin med eit beisl. Tjodolv kallar brørne "frendene hans Dag", noko som tyder på at dei er nærare knytt til Dag enn til Agne (søner av Dag). I så fall er det Snorre som har snudd om på ættelista.

Nokre forskarar reknar namnet Alrik eller Alrek som ein variant av Alarik, og at forteljinga er knytt til ei minning om vestgotarkongen Alarik på eit eller anna vis. Moglegvis har dette med å gjera at gotarane og var kjende for å bruke hestar (Hreidgotar).

Henta frå «http://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alrek_og_Eirik»

-------------------- Notes for Kong Alrek Agneson Sønnene Alv og Yngve dreper hverandre.

-------------------- Noteringar Sveakonung. Son till Agne Skjafarbonde. Född ca 370, död 410. Nämns så tidigt som 395. Höglagd i Lillhersbyn. Regerade tillsammans med sin bror Erik I. De var mäktiga män, stora krigare och idrottskämpar.De älskade att tävlingsrida mot varandra, men en gång efter en sådan ritt kom de aldrig mer tillbaks. Man fann dem båda två med huvudena sönderslagna. Man fann inga andra vapen än deras hästbetsel och troligt är att de slagit ihjäl varandra i en tvist om vem som egentligen vann ritten. Under flera hundra år fortsatte sedan tvisten bland deras ättlingar om vem som egentligen vunnit. Slutligen stod det klart att det var Alrik. Gift med Dagoid, dotter till Dag den mäktige. Troligen höglagd tillsammans med sin bror Erik i den numer bortodlade kungshögen i G:a Uppsala.

-------------------- Alrek Agnasson King In Sweden 331 SmartMatches

Birth: About 445 in , , , Sweden 1 2

Death:

Sex: M

Father: Agni Dagsson b. About 424 in , , , Sweden

Mother: Skjalf Frostasson b. About 428 in , , , Finland

   

Unknown: , , , Sweden 3 2

LDS Baptism: 12 Jan 1954

LDS Endowment: 24 Jun 1955

LDS Sealing Child: Done

Changed: 25 Mar 2002 00:00

  Spouses & Children    
  
  

 Dageith Dagsdotter (Wife) b. About 449 in , , , Sweden  

1 2

Marriage: Abt 465 in (, , , Sweden) 6 Nov 2004 14:29

Children:

Yngvi Alreksson b. About 466 in , , , Sweden

Alf Alreksson King In Sweden b. About 468 in , , , Sweden

Thorborg Alreksdotter b. About 470 in , , , Sweden


 

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  Notes    
  
  

 Individual:

Name Suffix: King In Sweden

REFN: HWS8893

Ancestral File Number: G6SZ-C8

OBJE: C:\LEGACY\PICTURES\c_crown.gif

OBJE: C:\LEGACY\PICTURES\Suede_Ancien.GIFCHAN20 Mar 2001


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  Sources    
  
  

 Title: "FamilySearch® Ancestral Fileâ„¢ v4.19"

Author: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Publication: 3 Feb 2001

Title: "Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson"

Author: Larson, Kirk

Publication: Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Desce

ndants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, Private Library

Title: "Héraldique européenne"

Author: Arnaud Bunel

Publication: Coats of Arms for European Royalty and Nobility (http://www

.heraldique-europeenne.org, Arnaud Bunel, 1998) , Internet"Armigerous" (ahr-MIJ-ehr-us) adjective

Bearing or entitled to bear heraldicarms.

The reason the notion of a family crest was brought into th

e languagewas that those who were armigerous (entitled to bear arms) used to put their crest or achieveme




-------------------- According to the Ynglinga saga, Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.

However, in other sources, only Alrek died, and in the piece of Ynglingatal quoted by Snorri Sturluson it is only Alrek who dies explicitly. Erik's death seems to be a misunderstanding on Snorri's part due to an influence from the succeeding kings

Gautreks saga also makes Alrek and Eirík sons of Agni by Skjálf and co-kings and it was to them that the warrior Starkad fled after his slaying of King Vikar. Starkad served them first as a companions on their viking expeditions and then, after Alrek and Eirík had settled down, went on further Viking expeditions alone.

But King Alrek had a short life, for Eirík struck Alrek dead with a bridle when they were out to train their horses and then ruled as sole ruler over Sweden. This version says that Eirík reigned for a long time as told in Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar (Saga of Hrólf son of Gautrek).

This second saga introduces Thornbjörg, the daughter of King Eirík and Queen Ingigerd, who was a skillful shieldmaiden and ruled over part of the kingdom. Thornbjörg even called herself King Thorberg. But eventually she fell in love with Hrólf son of Gautrek and agreed to marry him, at which point she gave up her weapons to her father King Eirík and took up embroidery.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alrek_and_Eir%C3%ADk -------------------- Roi de Uppland -------------------- Alrek and Eirík (Old Norse Alrekr and Eiríkr ), English: Alaric and Eric, were two legendary kings of Sweden.

Contents [hide]

1 In the Ynglinga saga

2 In Gautreks saga and Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar

3 In Gesta Danorum

4 Commentary

5 Notes

6 Secondary sources


[edit] In the Ynglinga saga

According to the Ynglinga saga, Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.

However, in other sources, only Alrek died, and in the piece of Ynglingatal quoted by Snorri Sturluson it is only Alrek who dies explicitly. Erik's death seems to be a misunderstanding on Snorri's part due to an influence from the succeeding kings (see also the other sources below):

Fell Alrekr,

þar er Eiríki

bróður vápn

at bana urðu,

ok hnakkmars

með höfuðfetlum

Dags fríendr

of drepask kváðu;

frá-at maðr áðr

eykja greiði

Freys afspring

í folk hafa.[1][2] Alrek fell, by Eric slain,

Eric's life-blood dyed the plain,

Brother fell by brother's hand;

And they tell it in the land,

That they worked the wicked deed

With the sharp bits that guide the steed.

Shall it be said of Frey's brave sons,

The kingly race, the noble ones,

That they have fought in deadly battle

With the head-gear of their cattle?[3][4]

Ynglingatal then gives Yngvi and Alf as Alrekr's and Eiríkr's successors.

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

Qui [Dagr] genuit Alrik; hunc frater suus Erikr freno percussit ad mortem. Alricr autem genuit Hogna [...][5] This man [Dag] engendered Alrek, who was beaten to death with a bridle by his brother, Eirik. Alrek was father to Agne, [...][6]

 

Hogna is an error for Agne.[5] Unlike Ynglingatal, Historia Norwegiæ gives Dagr as Alrekr's predecessor. Instead Alrekr precedes Agne and Agne is succeeded by Yngvi (incorrectly called Ingialdr[5]). The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession as Historia Norwegiæ: xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi.[7]

[edit] In Gautreks saga and Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar

Gautreks saga also makes Alrek and Eirík sons of Agni by Skjálf and co-kings and it was to them that the warrior Starkad fled after his slaying of King Vikar. Starkad served them first as a companions on their viking expeditions and then, after Alrek and Eirík had settled down, went on further Viking expeditions alone.

But King Alrek had a short life, for Eirík struck Alrek dead with a bridle when they were out to train their horses and then ruled as sole ruler over Sweden. This version says that Eirík reigned for a long time as told in Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar (Saga of Hrólf son of Gautrek).

This second saga introduces Thornbjörg, the daughter of King Eirík and Queen Ingigerd, who was a skillful shieldmaiden and ruled over part of the kingdom. Thornbjörg even called herself King Thorberg. But eventually she fell in love with Hrólf son of Gautrek and agreed to marry him, at which point she gave up her weapons to her father King Eirík and took up embroidery.

[edit] In Gesta Danorum

Saxo Grammaticus in Book 5 of his Gesta Danorum introduces Ericus Desertus, that is Erik the Eloquent, son of a champion named Regnerus (Ragnar), both Norwegians in the service of King Gøtarus (Götar) of Norway, a monarch otherwise unknown. This Erik is likely to be the Eirík the Eloquent or Eiríkr the Wise in Speech mentioned by Snorri Sturluson in the Skáldskaparmál as being of Ylfing lineage. But he otherwise has left no clear record in surviving Norse literature.

Saxo makes up for it by telling at greath length of Erik's amusing deeds. He relates how Erik outwitted all foes with clever tricks and became the counselor of Fróði son of Fridleif, king of Denmark. Erik's expeditions on Fróði's behalf always went well because of Erik's cunning and way with words. Erik finally married Fróði's sister Gunvara and Erik's elder half-brother Rollerus (Roller) was made king of Norway.

Saxo then brings in a king of the Swedes named Alricus (Alrik) who corresponds to Alrek of the Norse tradition. Alrik was at war with Gestiblindus king of the Gautar (Geats) and Gestiblindus now sought Fróði's aid. (In the Norse Hervarar saga Gestumblindi is the name assumed by the disguised Odin and it is possible that this Gestiblindus is also Odin in disguise.)

Erik and Skalk the Scanian pursued the war and slew Alrik's son Gunthiovus (Old Norse Gunnþjófr) leader of the men of Vermland and Solongs. Then occurred a parley and secret interview between Alrik and Erik in which Alrik attempted to win Erik over to his cause. When this failed, Alrik asked that the war be settled by a single combat between himself and Gestiblindus. Erik refused the offer because of Gestiblind's unfitness and advanced years but made a counter-offer to fight such a duel with Alrik himself if Alrik were willing. The fight occurred straightaway. Alrik was slain and Erik seemed to be fatally wounded so that a report actually came to King Fróði that Erik was dead. Indeed Erik was long in recovering. However Fróði was disabused when Erik himself returned announcing that Fróði was now also king of Sweden, Värmland, Helsingland, and Soleyar. Fróði then gave all those lands to Erik to rule directly and also gave Erik the two Laplands, Finland, and Estonia as dependencies paying annual tribute.

Saxo explains that this Erik was the first Swedish king to be called Erik but that after him it became a very common name among the Swedish kings. He also writes that Erik met and helped the champion Arngrim, an account that agrees with Hervarar saga, where Arngrim's sons meet Erik's successor Yngvi (see e.g. Angantyr and Hjalmar).

That the duel occurred at the end of a "secret interview" suggests that Alrik and Erik were alone when they fought just as were their counterparts in the Norse accounts. That Erik was believed to have died suggests knowledge of the Ynglinga saga version in which both fighters met their death. There is no mention of horse bridles. But Erik is not elsewhere a great duelist or champion but instead a trickster who wins through stratagems and deceiving words so that is it likely that Saxo or his source passed over a stratagem in which a horse bridle played a part.

Saxo also mentions Starkad's stay in Sweden in Book 6 in a summary of Starkad's life up to that point in his history. But Saxo does not indicate what king or kings then ruled Sweden, saying only:

... he went into the land of the Swedes, where he lived at leisure for seven years' space with the sons of Frø.

Frø is of course the god Frey, the ancestor of the Swedish dynasty.

At the beginning of Book 6, Saxo notes that Erik died of a disease and was succeeded by his son Haldanus (Halfdan). Halfdan was later slain by rivals for the throne but the warrior Starkad established Halfdans' heir Siward as the new king. Siward's daughter Signe was married to King Harald of Denmark who was co-king his brother Fróði. Later Harald's son Halfdan, now king of Denmark, slew Siward in war. But Siward's grandson Erik, the son of Halfdan's uncle Fróði by Signe, the direct heir to the throne, now rose up against Halfdan. After a long war this second Erik was captured by Haldfan and left in the woods in chains to be devoured by beasts. With him, it seems, the Swedish line of Erik the Eloquent, as set forth by Saxo, came to an end.

[edit] Commentary

It is not clear whether or not the accounts in the Gesta Danorum and the accounts in the Ynglinga saga' tales of a Danish king named Halfdan who became king of Sweden are at all related. See Halfdan.

Traditions of twin brothers connected with horses appear are a commonplace in Indo-European cultures as are foundation legends about two twin brothers, one of whom kills the other. It is possible that Alrek and Eirik are reflexes of such traditions.

Saxo's identification of the legendary Eirík the Eloquent with the legendary Swedish king Eirík probably originated as a flourish by a pro-Danish or pro-Norwegian story teller.

[edit] Notes

1.^ Ynglinga saga at Norrøne Tekster og Kvad

2.^ A second online presentation of Ynglingatal

3.^ Laing's translation at the Internet Sacred Text Archive

4.^ Laing's translation at Northvegr

5.^ a b c Storm, Gustav (editor) (1880). Monumenta historica Norwegiæ: Latinske kildeskrifter til Norges historie i middelalderen, Monumenta Historica Norwegiae (Kristiania: Brøgger), p. 99

6.^ Ekrem, Inger (editor), Lars Boje Mortensen (editor) and Peter Fisher (translator) (2003). Historia Norwegie. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 8772898135, p. 77.

7.^ Guðni Jónsson's edition of Íslendingabók

[edit] Secondary sources

Nerman, B. Det svenska rikets uppkomst. Stockholm, 1925.

-------------------- Alrek and Eirík (Old Norse Alrekr and Eiríkr ), English: Alaric and Eric, were two legendary kings of Sweden.

In the Ynglinga saga

According to the Ynglinga saga, Alrek and Eirík were sons and heirs of the previous king Agni by his wife Skjálf. They shared the kingship. They were mighty in both war and sports, but were especially skillful horsmen and vied with one another about their horsemanship and their horses.

One day they rode off from their retinue and did not return. They were found dead with their heads battered but no weapons with them save the bridle bits of their horses. Accordingly it was believed that they had quarreled and come to blows and had slain each other with their bridle bits. They were succeeded by Alrik's sons Yngvi and Alf.

However, in other sources, only Alrek died, and in the piece of Ynglingatal quoted by Snorri Sturluson it is only Alrek who dies explicitly. Erik's death seems to be a misunderstanding on Snorri's part due to an influence from the succeeding kings (see also the other sources below):

   Fell Alrekr,
   þar er Eiríki
   bróður vápn
   at bana urðu,
   ok hnakkmars
   með höfuðfetlum
   Dags fríendr
   of drepask kváðu;
   frá-at maðr áðr
   eykja greiði
   Freys afspring
   í folk hafa.[1][2]

   Alrek fell, by Eric slain,
   Eric's life-blood dyed the plain,
   Brother fell by brother's hand;
   And they tell it in the land,
   That they worked the wicked deed
   With the sharp bits that guide the steed.
   Shall it be said of Frey's brave sons,
   The kingly race, the noble ones,
   That they have fought in deadly battle
   With the head-gear of their cattle?[3][4]

Ynglingatal then gives Yngvi and Alf as Alrekr's and Eiríkr's successors.

The Historia Norwegiæ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

   Qui [Dagr] genuit Alrik; hunc frater suus Erikr freno percussit ad mortem. Alricr autem genuit Hogna [...][5]

This man [Dag] engendered Alrek, who was beaten to death with a bridle by his brother, Eirik. Alrek was father to Agne, [...][6]

Hogna is an error for Agne.[5] Unlike Ynglingatal, Historia Norwegiæ gives Dagr as Alrekr's predecessor. Instead Alrekr precedes Agne and Agne is succeeded by Yngvi (incorrectly called Ingialdr[5]). The even earlier source Íslendingabók cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it gives the same line of succession as Historia Norwegiæ: xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi.[7]

In Gautreks saga and Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar

Gautreks saga also makes Alrek and Eirík sons of Agni by Skjálf and co-kings and it was to them that the warrior Starkad fled after his slaying of King Vikar. Starkad served them first as a companions on their viking expeditions and then, after Alrek and Eirík had settled down, went on further Viking expeditions alone.

But King Alrek had a short life, for Eirík struck Alrek dead with a bridle when they were out to train their horses and then ruled as sole ruler over Sweden. This version says that Eirík reigned for a long time as told in Hrólfs saga Gautrekssonar (Saga of Hrólf son of Gautrek).

This second saga introduces Thornbjörg, the daughter of King Eirík and Queen Ingigerd, who was a skillful shieldmaiden and ruled over part of the kingdom. Thornbjörg even called herself King Thorberg. But eventually she fell in love with Hrólf son of Gautrek and agreed to marry him, at which point she gave up her weapons to her father King Eirík and took up embroidery.

In Gesta Danorum

Saxo Grammaticus in Book 5 of his Gesta Danorum introduces Ericus Desertus, that is Erik the Eloquent, son of a champion named Regnerus (Ragnar), both Norwegians in the service of King Gøtarus (Götar) of Norway, a monarch otherwise unknown. This Erik is likely to be the Eirík the Eloquent or Eiríkr the Wise in Speech mentioned by Snorri Sturluson in the Skáldskaparmál as being of Ylfing lineage. But he otherwise has left no clear record in surviving Norse literature.

Saxo makes up for it by telling at greath length of Erik's amusing deeds. He relates how Erik outwitted all foes with clever tricks and became the counselor of Fróði son of Fridleif, king of Denmark. Erik's expeditions on Fróði's behalf always went well because of Erik's cunning and way with words. Erik finally married Fróði's sister Gunvara and Erik's elder half-brother Rollerus (Roller) was made king of Norway.

Saxo then brings in a king of the Swedes named Alricus (Alrik) who corresponds to Alrek of the Norse tradition. Alrik was at war with Gestiblindus king of the Gautar (Geats) and Gestiblindus now sought Fróði's aid. (In the Norse Hervarar saga Gestumblindi is the name assumed by the disguised Odin and it is possible that this Gestiblindus is also Odin in disguise.)

Erik and Skalk the Scanian pursued the war and slew Alrik's son Gunthiovus (Old Norse Gunnþjófr) leader of the men of Vermland and Solongs. Then occurred a parley and secret interview between Alrik and Erik in which Alrik attempted to win Erik over to his cause. When this failed, Alrik asked that the war be settled by a single combat between himself and Gestiblindus. Erik refused the offer because of Gestiblind's unfitness and advanced years but made a counter-offer to fight such a duel with Alrik himself if Alrik were willing. The fight occurred straightaway. Alrik was slain and Erik seemed to be fatally wounded so that a report actually came to King Fróði that Erik was dead. Indeed Erik was long in recovering. However Fróði was disabused when Erik himself returned announcing that Fróði was now also king of Sweden, Värmland, Helsingland, and Soleyar. Fróði then gave all those lands to Erik to rule directly and also gave Erik the two Laplands, Finland, and Estonia as dependencies paying annual tribute.

Saxo explains that this Erik was the first Swedish king to be called Erik but that after him it became a very common name among the Swedish kings. He also writes that Erik met and helped the champion Arngrim, an account that agrees with Hervarar saga, where Arngrim's sons meet Erik's successor Yngvi (see e.g. Angantyr and Hjalmar).

That the duel occurred at the end of a "secret interview" suggests that Alrik and Erik were alone when they fought just as were their counterparts in the Norse accounts. That Erik was believed to have died suggests knowledge of the Ynglinga saga version in which both fighters met their death. There is no mention of horse bridles. But Erik is not elsewhere a great duelist or champion but instead a trickster who wins through stratagems and deceiving words so that is it likely that Saxo or his source passed over a stratagem in which a horse bridle played a part.

Saxo also mentions Starkad's stay in Sweden in Book 6 in a summary of Starkad's life up to that point in his history. But Saxo does not indicate what king or kings then ruled Sweden, saying only:

   ... he went into the land of the Swedes, where he lived at leisure for seven years' space with the sons of Frø.

Frø is of course the god Frey, the ancestor of the Swedish dynasty.

At the beginning of Book 6, Saxo notes that Erik died of a disease and was succeeded by his son Haldanus (Halfdan). Halfdan was later slain by rivals for the throne but the warrior Starkad established Halfdans' heir Siward as the new king. Siward's daughter Signe was married to King Harald of Denmark who was co-king his brother Fróði. Later Harald's son Halfdan, now king of Denmark, slew Siward in war. But Siward's grandson Erik, the son of Halfdan's uncle Fróði by Signe, the direct heir to the throne, now rose up against Halfdan. After a long war this second Erik was captured by Haldfan and left in the woods in chains to be devoured by beasts. With him, it seems, the Swedish line of Erik the Eloquent, as set forth by Saxo, came to an end.

Commentary

It is not clear whether or not the accounts in the Gesta Danorum and the accounts in the Ynglinga saga' tales of a Danish king named Halfdan who became king of Sweden are at all related. See Halfdan.

Traditions of twin brothers connected with horses appear are a commonplace in Indo-European cultures as are foundation legends about two twin brothers, one of whom kills the other. It is possible that Alrek and Eirik are reflexes of such traditions.

Saxo's identification of the legendary Eirík the Eloquent with the legendary Swedish king Eirík probably originated as a flourish by a pro-Danish or pro-Norwegian story teller. -------------------- 11. ALRIK - King from 260 until 280. He was born in 240 A.D. and had a brother, Erik. The Saga tells that the two brothers rode out into the fields one day and did not return. Upon investigating, they were found dead, their heads crushed. As they had no weapons, it was believed they had used the bridles of their horses to beat each other to death. Alrik's son was:

12. YNGVE ALRICKSSON - King in Svitjod from 280 until killed by his brother in the year 306 A.D. -------------------- Fridubald (vand. Fridubalth, lat. Fredibalum) - King of the Vandals-Silings in the beginning of V century, known only by chronicle Idatsius.

birth of male child: Vislav II [Vandals] d. 486

birth of male child: Etichus (Ediko) Skirus (Skirs, Skirer) [Skirer]

Title: Germany, the king of the Vandals

between 449 - 470 Death.

Under his leadership, the Vandals-Silings settled in southern Spain, in the province Betika. The memory of their stay here preserved, according to one version, the name of the Spanish province of Andalusia. The Roman government was forced to admit that the situation officially but secretly sought the means got rid of uninvited guests. In 416 the Romans called for help against Vandals and Alan Valiyu Visigothic king, who defeated Silings, captured their king, and sent him to the emperor Honorius.

Also subjected to the destruction were Alans, who ruled the Vandals and the Svevans, and their king Ataxia was killed. After these events Silings abandoned the political independence and voluntarily submitted to the King of Asdings- Vandals, Gunderih. Their example was followed by Alans. -------------------- Alrekr Agnison ble født ca 445 i Uppsaløa og døde ca 536 i Svitjod,Sverige. Dagreid ble født ca 449 og døde ca 481 i Sverige. De hadde to barn til, Alf Alreksson Konge i Sverige født ca 468, og Thorborg Arleksdotter født ca 470 i Sverige. -------------------- BIOGRAFI:

Nicknames: "Agneson", "Alrekur", "Airek", "Eirik", "Alrik Agneson", "Alrekr", "Alrek", "Skjalksson de Värmland", "Fredebald / ?????????? / ?????????? / Fridubalth", "Fredibalum"

Birthdate: cirka 430

Birthplace: Sverige

Death: Died 470 in Uppsala, Sweden

Occupation: King of Sweden, Konge i Svitjord, King in Sweden, konge, Roi de Svitjod (Novgorod, Russie; Uppsala, Suede et Vingulmark Norvege), ????, Konge i Uppsala, Konge, King of Upsal, Swedish King of the House of Yngling, King.260, konge.260 - 280

Alrek og Eirik var kongar av Ynglingeætta. Etter Snorre Sturlason var dei søner av Agne, medan Historia Norvegiæ (Den eldste Noregshistoria) fortel at dei var søner av Dag Dyggveson, og at Alrek var far til Agne.

Om desse to er det fortald at dei var glade i hestar, og kappast med kvarandre om kven som var best til å ri dei. Ein dag vart dei funne på vollen, daude båe to, og hausane deira var krasa. Folk trudde dei hadde drepe kvarandre med beisla til hestane sine.

Tjodolv frå Kvine fortel i Ynglingatal:

Fall der Alrek der som Eirik for bror-våpn sin bane fekk, og med hestens hovud-reimar frendane hans Dag drap kvarandre. Aldri fyrr de spurdest at Ynglingar heste-beisl hadde til verju. Historia Norvegiæ fortel berre at Alrik drap bror sin med eit beisl. Tjodolv kallar brørne "frendene hans Dag", noko som tyder på at dei er nærare knytt til Dag enn til Agne (søner av Dag). I så fall er det Snorre som har snudd om på ættelista.

Nokre forskarar reknar namnet Alrik eller Alrek som ein variant av Alarik, og at forteljinga er knytt til ei minning om vestgotarkongen Alarik på eit eller anna vis. Moglegvis har dette med å gjera at gotarane og var kjende for å bruke hestar (Hreidgotar).

Birth: About 445 in , , , Sweden 1 2

Death:

Sex: M

Father: Agni Dagsson b. About 424 in , , , Sweden

Mother: Skjalf Frostasson b. About 428 in , , , Finland

Unknown: , , , Sweden 3 2

LDS Baptism: 12 Jan 1954

LDS Endowment: 24 Jun 1955

LDS Sealing Child: Done

Changed: 25 Mar 2002 00:00

Spouses & Children

Dageith Dagsdotter (Wife) b. About 449 in , , , Sweden

1 2

Marriage: Abt 465 in (, , , Sweden) 6 Nov 2004 14:29

Children:

Yngvi Alreksson b. About 466 in , , , Sweden

Alf Alreksson King In Sweden b. About 468 in , , , Sweden

Thorborg Alreksdotter b. About 470 in , , , Sweden

view all 27

Alrek Agnasson, king of Sweden's Timeline

430
430
Sverige
460
460
Age 30
Sweden
465
465
Age 35
Sweden
468
468
Age 38
Uppsala, Sweden
470
470
Age 40
Sweden
1954
January 12, 1954
Age 40
January 12, 1954
Age 40
January 12, 1954
Age 40
1955
June 24, 1955
Age 40
June 24, 1955
Age 40