Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria

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Marie Louise Leopoldine Franziska Theresia Josepha Lucia Bonaparte (Habsburg-Lothringen), Duchess of Parma, Empress of the French

Nicknames: "Maria Luise Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia", "Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Vienna, Austria
Death: Died in Parma, Emilia Romagna, Italia
Place of Burial: Wien, Österreich
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Franz II, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches and Maria Theresia von Neapel-Sizilien, Kaiserin von Österreich
Wife of Napoléon I, empereur des Français; Adam Adalbert, Graf von Neipperg and Charles-René Comte de Bombelles
Mother of Napoleon II Bonaparte; Albertina María von Montenuovo; Wilhelm Albrecht, Fürst von Montenuovo; Countess Mathilde of Montenuovo and Tři neznáme děti von Montenuovo
Sister of Ferdinand I, Kaiser von Österreich (Emperor of Austria); Erzherzogin Marie Karoline von Österreich; Caroline Ludovika Leopoldine von Habsburg-Lorraine, Erzherzogin; Maria Leopoldina Habsburg-Lothringen; Maria Klementine Franziska Josepha Habsburg-Lothringen, Erzherzogin von Österreich and 6 others
Half sister of Archduchess Ludovika Elisabeth of Austria

Occupation: Duchess of Parma 1814-1847, Empress of France, Queen of Italy 1810-1814
Managed by: Andrzej Hennel
Last Updated:

About Marie Louise Leopoldine Franziska Theresia Josepha Lucia Bonaparte (Habsburg-Lothringen), Duchess of Parma, Empress of the French

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Ludwika_%28cesarzowa_francuska%29

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Louise,_Duchess_of_Parma

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Marie Louise of Austria (German: Marie Louise von Österreich 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847), born Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria (German: Erzherzogin Marie Louise von Österreich), became upon marriage Empress of the French (French: impératrice Marie Louise des Français), and in 1817 became Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (Italian: Maria Luisa, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza e Guastalla).

She was the second wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus Empress of the French. She was also a double grandniece of Marie Antoinette. She was the mother of Napoleon II, King of Rome.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Louise,_Duchess_of_Parma

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Nascimento: segundo a Wikipédia italiana, no Palácio Imperial de Hofburg.

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Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Empress of the French.

Consort 11 April 1814 - 17 December 1847

March 11, 1810 - April 6, 1814

Spouse Napoleon I

Father Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Mother Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies

Born 12 December 1791

Vienna, Austria

Died 17 December 1847 (aged 56)

Parma, Italy

Marie Louise of Austria; December 12, 1791 – December 17, 1847), born Archduchess Maria Luisa of Austria (German: Erzherzogin Maria Luisa von Österreich), became upon marriage Empress of the French (French: impératrice Marie Louise des Français), and in 1817 became Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (Italian: Maria Luisa, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza e Guastalla).

She was the second wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus Empress of the French. She was also a double grandniece of Marie Antoinette. She was the mother of Napoleon II, King of Rome.

Marie Louise (who was given the Latin baptismal name of Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia) was born in Vienna, the daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (Francis I of Austria) and of his second wife, Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies. Marie Louise was also a double great-granddaughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, thus a double grandniece of Marie Antoinette, as she was a paternal granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (Maria Theresa's son, Marie Antoinette's brother) and a maternal granddaughter of Marie Caroline of Austria, Queen of Naples and Sicily (Maria Theresa's daughter, Marie Antoinette's sister).

To make her more marriageable, her parents had her tutored in many languages. In addition to her native German, she became fluent in English, French, Italian, Latin, and Spanish.

On March 11, 1810, the 18-year-old archduchess married French Emperor Napoléon I by proxy, with a subsequent ceremony taking place in the chapel of the Louvre on 1 April 1810. The bride's father intended the marriage to strengthen links between the Austrian Empire and the First French Empire. Napoleon sought the validation and legitimation of his Empire by marrying a member of the House of Habsburg, one of the oldest ruling families of Europe. He also hoped to cement his position by fathering a legitimate heir. Napoleon had previously tried to marry Grand Duchess Anna of the House of Romanov, younger sister of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, but his proposal had been refused.

When Marie Louise moved to France, she brought with her a number of Austrian recipes. She developed a recipe for roquefort-stuffed chopped beef that later became quite popular in restaurants.

On March 20, 1811, Marie Louise (as she was known in France) gave birth to a son, Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, styled King of Rome and later Duke of Reichstadt. Marie Louise acted as Regent of France from April to December 1812 during the Russian campaign and again from April 1813 to January 1814 during her husband's absence in the German campaign. After Napoléon was forced to abdicate his throne in April 1814, he was exiled to the island of Elba. Marie Louise returned to Austria, never to see her husband again.

Napoléon claimed at one point to prefer Marie Louise to his first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais; while he had loved Joséphine, he claimed, he had not respected her, whereas with Marie Louise, there was "Never a lie, never a debt" — presumably a reference to Josephine's rumoured extramarital affairs and reputation as a spendthrift ].

After Napoleon's abdication in April 1814, Marie Louise and her son fled Paris to Blois, and then to Vienna. The Treaty of Fontainebleau of April 11, 1814 allowed her to retain her imperial rank and style and made her the ruler of the duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, with her son as heir. However, in 1815, the Congress of Vienna revised this arrangement and made her Duchess of Parma for her life only, with the details of who would become Duke of Parma after her death unspecified. In 1817, a treaty was signed which would leave the duchies to a member of the House of Bourbon. In 1844 it was determined that the duchy of Guastalla would be inherited by the Duke of Modena.

By most accounts, Marie Louise was an able and intelligent ruler of Parma, introducing various reforms and working hard to benefit her new subjects. She died in 1847 at Parma.

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Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marie Louise of Austria (German: Maria Luisa von Österreich; French: Marie Louise d'Autriche; Italian: Maria Luisa d'Austria; b. December 12, 1791 – d. December 17, 1847), born Archduchess Maria Luisa of Austria (German: Erzherzogin Maria Luisa von Österreich), became upon marriage Empress of the French (French: impératrice Marie Louise des Français), and in 1817 became Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (Italian: Maria Luigia, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla).

She was the second wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus Empress of the French. She was also a double grandniece of Marie Antoinette. She was the mother of Napoleon II, King of Rome.

Biography

[edit]Early life

Marie Louise (who was given the Latin baptismal name of Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia) was born in Vienna, the daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (Francis I of Austria) and of his second wife, Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies. To make her more marriageable, her parents had her tutored in many languages. In addition to her native German, she became fluent in English, French, Italian, Latin, and Spanish [1].

Empress of the French

On March 11, 1810, the 18-year-old archduchess married French Emperor Napoléon I by proxy, with a subsequent ceremony taking place in the chapel of the Louvre on 1 April 1810. The bride's father intended the marriage to strengthen links between the Austrian Empire and the First French Empire. Napoleon sought the validation and legitimation of his Empire by marrying a member of the House of Hapsburg, one of the oldest ruling families of Europe. He also hoped to cement his position by fathering a legitimate heir. Napoleon had previously tried to marry Grand Duchess Anna of the House of Romanov, younger sister of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, but his proposal had been refused.

On March 20, 1811, Marie Louise (as she was known in France) gave birth to a son, Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, styled King of Rome and later Duke of Reichstadt. Marie Louise acted as Regent of France from April to December 1812 during the Russian campaign and again from April 1813 to January 1814 during her husband's absence in the German campaign. After Napoléon was forced to abdicate his throne in April 1814, he was exiled to the island of Elba. Marie Louise returned to Austria, never to see her husband again.

Napoléon claimed at one point to prefer Marie Louise to his first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais; while he had loved Joséphine, he claimed, he had not respected her, whereas with Marie Louise, there was "Never a lie, never a debt" — presumably a reference to Josephine's rumoured extramarital affairs and reputation as a spendthrift [2].

Duchess of Parma

After Napoleon's abdication in April 1814, Marie Louise and her son fled Paris to Blois, and then to Vienna. The Treaty of Fontainebleau of April 11, 1814 allowed her to retain her imperial rank and style (Her Imperial Majesty The Empress Marie Louise) and made her the ruler of the duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, with her son as heir. However, in 1815, the Congress of Vienna revised this arrangement and made her Duchess of Parma for her life only, with the details of who would become Duke of Parma after her death unspecified. In 1817, a treaty was signed which would leave the duchies to a member of the House of Bourbon. In 1844 it was determined that the duchy of Guastalla would be inherited by the Duke of Modena.

In 1821, four months after Napoleon's death, Marie Louise married morganatically her lover, Count Adam Albert von Neipperg (1775-1829). The couple had three children, the first two of whom were born before Marie Louise and Neipperg were married:

Albertine, Countess of Montenuovo (1817-1867), married Luigi Sanvitale, Count of Fontanellato)

Wilhelm Albrecht, Count of Montenuovo, later created Prince of Montenuovo (1819-1895), married Countess Juliana Batthyány von Németújvár)

Mathilde, Countess of Montenuovo (born 1822)

On February 17, 1834 Marie Louise married, again morganatically, her grand chamberlain, Charles-René, Count of Bombelles (1785-1856).[3]

By most accounts, Marie Louise was an able and intelligent ruler of Parma, introducing various reforms and working hard to benefit her new subjects. She died in 1847 at Parma.

[edit]Titles

Marie Louise held the following styles from birth to death:

Her Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Luisa of Austria, Princess of Hungary and Bohemia (1791-1804)

Her Imperial and Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Luisa of Austria, Princess of Hungary and Bohemia (1804-1810)

Her Imperial Majesty The Empress of the French (1810-1815)

Her Imperial Majesty The Empress Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (1815-1847)

Marie Louise also held, by marriage, the title Countess of Neipperg (1821-1834) and later Countess of Bombelles (1834-1847). She retained her imperial rank due to the 1814 Treaty of Paris.

Marie Louise was also a double grandniece of Marie Antoinette, as she was a paternal granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (Marie Antoinette's brother) and a maternal granddaughter of Marie Caroline of Austria, Queen of Naples and Sicily (Marie Antoinette's sister).

References

^ Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. p. 548

^ Markham, Felix, Napoleon, p.245

^ The Peerage.com

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Louise,_Duchess_of_Parma

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Marie Louise

Marie-Louise, Duchess of Parma

Empress consort of the French

Tenure 11 March 1810 – 6 April 1814

Queen consort of Italy

Tenure 11 March 1810 – 6 April 1814

Duchess of Parma

Tenure 11 April 1814 – 17 December 1847

Spouse Napoleon I of France

Adam Albert von Neipperg

Charles Réné de Bombelles

Issue

Napoleon II of France

Albertine von Neipperg

Wilhelm-Albrecht von Neipperg

Mathilde von Neipperg

Full name

Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia

House House of Bonaparte

House of Habsburg

Father Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

Mother Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily

Born 12 December 1791(1791-12-12)

Hofburg, Vienna, Austria, HRE

Died 17 December 1847 (aged 56)

Parma, Italy

Burial Imperial Crypt, Vienna

Empress Marie Louise of France, Archduchess of Austria (German: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia von Österreich 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847), was the second wife of Emperor Napoleon I of France. During her first marriage, she was Empress of the French. In 1817, she became Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.

She was the mother of Napoleon II, King of Rome.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Empress of the French
   * 3 Duchess of Parma
   * 4 Titles, styles, honours and arms
         o 4.1 Title and styles
   * 5 Ancestors
   * 6 References
   * 7 Further reading
   * 8 External links
   * 9 See also

[edit] Early life

Marie Louise (who was given the Latin baptismal name of Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia) was born in at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, the daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (Francis I of Austria) and of his second wife, Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily. Marie Louise was also a double great-granddaughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, thus a double grandniece of Marie Antoinette, as she was a paternal granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (Maria Theresa's son, Marie Antoinette's brother) and a maternal granddaughter of Maria Carolina of Austria, Queen of Naples and Sicily (Maria Theresa's daughter, Marie Antoinette's favorite sister).

To make her more marriageable, her parents had her tutored in many languages. In addition to her native German, she became fluent in English, French, Italian, Latin, and Spanish [1].

[edit] Empress of the French

Marie Louise, Empress of the French (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)

On 11 March 1810, the 18-year-old archduchess married French Emperor Napoléon I by proxy, with a subsequent ceremony taking place in the chapel of the Louvre on 1 April 1810.

The bride's father intended the marriage to strengthen links between the Austrian Empire and the First French Empire. Napoleon sought the validation and legitimation of his Empire by marrying a member of the House of Habsburg, one of the oldest ruling families of Europe. He also hoped to cement his position by fathering a legitimate heir. Napoleon had previously tried to marry Grand Duchess Anna of the House of Romanov, younger sister of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, but his proposal had been refused.

Georges Rouget, Marriage of Napoleon and Marie-Louise (1811)

When Marie Louise moved to France, she brought with her a number of Austrian recipes. She developed a recipe for roquefort-stuffed chopped beef that later became quite popular in restaurants.

On 20 March 1811, Marie Louise (as she was known in France) gave birth to a son, Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, styled King of Rome and later Duke of Reichstadt. Marie Louise acted as Regent of France from April to December 1812 during the Russian campaign and again from April 1813 to January 1814 during her husband's absence in the German campaign. After Napoléon was forced to abdicate his throne in April 1814, he was exiled to the island of Elba. Marie Louise returned to Austria, never to see her husband again.

10 soldi coin of Parma, 1815, bearing the head of Marie Louise on the obverse, and her "ML" monogram on the reverse.

Napoléon claimed at one point to prefer Marie Louise to his first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais; while he had loved Joséphine, he claimed, he had not respected her, whereas with Marie Louise, there was "Never a lie, never a debt" — presumably a reference to Josephine's rumoured extramarital affairs and reputation as a spendthrift [2].

[edit] Duchess of Parma

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma with her son Napoleon II

After Napoleon's abdication in April 1814, Marie Louise and her son fled Paris to Blois, and then to Vienna. The Treaty of Fontainebleau of 11 April 1814 allowed her to retain her imperial rank and style (Her Imperial Majesty The Empress Marie Louise) and made her the ruler of the duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, with her son as heir. However, in 1815, the Congress of Vienna revised this arrangement and made her Duchess of Parma for her life only, with the details of who would become Duke of Parma after her death unspecified. In 1817, a treaty was signed which would leave the duchies to a member of the House of Bourbon. In 1844 it was determined that the duchy of Guastalla would be inherited by the Duke of Modena.

In 1821, four months after Napoleon's death, Marie Louise married morganatically her lover, Count Adam Albert von Neipperg (1775-1829). The couple had three children, the first two of whom were born before Marie Louise and Neipperg were married:

   * Albertine, Countess of Montenuovo (1817-1867), married Luigi Sanvitale, Count of Fontanellato)
   * Wilhelm Albrecht, Count of Montenuovo, later created Prince of Montenuovo (1819-1895), married Countess Juliana Batthyány von Németújvár)
   * Mathilde, Countess of Montenuovo (born 1822)

The Duke of Reichstadt was the son of Marie Louise and Napoleon I. He was at one time in the line of succession to become the Duke of Parma and, prior to that, was known as Napoleon II.

On 17 February 1834 Marie Louise married, again morganatically, her grand chamberlain, Charles-René, Count of Bombelles (1785-1856).[3]

By most accounts, Marie Louise was an able and intelligent ruler of Parma, introducing various reforms and working hard to benefit her new subjects. She died in 1847 at Parma.

[edit] Titles, styles, honours and arms

[edit] Title and styles

   * 12 December 1791 – 11 August 1804 Her Royal Highness Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, Princess of Hungary and Bohemia
   * 11 August 1804 – 2 April 1810 Her Imperial and Royal Highness Princess Imperial & Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia
   * 2 April 1810 – 6 April 1814 Her Imperial and Royal Majesty The Empress of the French, Queen of Italy
         o 2 April 1810 – 22 June 1815 Her Imperial and Royal Majesty the Queen of Italy
   * 22 June 1815 – 17 December 1847 Her Imperial Majesty The Empress Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (1815-1847)

Marie Louise also held, by marriage, the title Countess of Neipperg (1821-1834) and later Countess of Bombelles (1834-1847). She retained her imperial rank due to the 1814 Treaty of Paris as well as her titles Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia.

References

Search Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Marie-Louise of Austria, Duchess of Parma

  1. ^ Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. p. 548
  2. ^ Markham, Felix, Napoleon, p.245
  3. ^ The Peerage.com

[edit] Further reading

   * Potocka-Wąsowiczowa, Anna z Tyszkiewiczów. Wspomnienia naocznego świadka. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1965.

[edit] External links

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine

Born: 12 December 1791 Died: 17 December 1847

French royalty

Preceded by

Joséphine de Beauharnais Empress consort of the French

11 March 1810–22 June 1815 Succeeded by

Marie Thérèse of France

as Queen of France and Navarre

Regnal titles

Part of the First French Empire Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla

1814–1847 Succeeded by

Charles II

This page was last modified on 16 June 2010 at 20:17. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Louise,_Duchess_of_Parma

Empress Marie Louise of France, Archduchess of Austria (German: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Francisca Theresa Josepha Lucia von Österreich 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847), was the second wife of Emperor Napoleon I of France. During her first marriage, she was Empress of the French. In 1817, she became Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.

She was the mother of Napoleon II, King of Rome.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Louise,_Duchess_of_Parma

view all 12

Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria's Timeline

1791
December 12, 1791
Vienna, Austria
1810
March 11, 1810
Age 18
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1811
March 20, 1811
Age 19
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1817
May 1, 1817
Age 25
Parma, Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
1819
August 8, 1819
Age 27
Parma, Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
1821
September 1821
Age 29
1822
1822
Age 30
1834
February 17, 1834
Age 42
1847
December 17, 1847
Age 56
Parma, Emilia Romagna, Italia
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