Archelaus II "Minor", Cappadocian Prince; Roman client king of Cilicia,Trachea & E Ly (c.-7 - 38)

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About Archelaus II "Minor", Cappadocian Prince; Roman client king of Cilicia,Trachea & E Ly

Archelaus (Greek: Ἀρχέλαος, born before 8 BC-38) was a Cappadocian Prince[1] from Anatolia and a Roman client king[2] of Cilicia Trachea and Eastern Lycaonia.[3] He is sometimes called Archelaus Minor (Minor Latin for the younger)[1] and Archelaus II[4] to distinguish him from his father Archelaus of Cappadocia.

Family Background

Archelaus was a Monarch of Greek, Armenian and Persian descent. He was fifth and final Archelaus to be named after the first Archelaus (his paternal great-great grandfather), who was a General of King Mithridates VI of Pontus.[5] He was the son and heir of the Roman Client King Archelaus of Cappadocia from his first marriage to an unnamed Princess from Armenia and his sister was the Cappadocian Princess Glaphyra.[5] There is a possibility that his parents may have been distantly related. His father is descended from Mithridates VI. His mother may have been a daughter of King Artavasdes II of Armenia (reigned 53 BC-34 BC) of the Artaxiad Dynasty. The father of Artavasdes II was Tigranes the Great [6], who married Cleopatra of Pontus a daughter of Mithridates VI from his first wife, his sister Laodice [7], thus Artavasdes II was a maternal grandson to Mithridates VI and Laodice. Archelaus was the maternal uncle of Glaphyra’s children: Tigranes, Alexander and her unnamed daughter. [edit]Life

Little is known on Archelaus' life prior to becoming king. He was born and raised on the mainland and spent his later life at the harbor city of Elaiussa Sebaste. The Roman Emperor Augustus in 25 BC gave his father extra territories to govern, among them Elaiussa Sebaste.[8] After 25 BC, Archelaus and his family settled there, while his father developed the city, built a royal residence and a palace on the island in the harbor and renamed the city in honor of Augustus.[9]

When Archelaus' father died in 17, Cappadocia became a Roman province and Armenia Minor was given to Artaxias III to be ruled by this as by a Roman client king. The Romans mandated Archelaus to rule, as a client king, Cilicia Trachea including its maritime possessions,[10] Derbe, Laranda and all the surrounding regions up to Eastern Lycaonia,[3] which all were further territories of his father. Archelaus was also allowed to continue his rule over the small Cilician region of Cetis.[11]

Historic sources mention little on Archelaus' life and his reign as king. The main sources are surviving inscriptions from his dominion. In 36, the Cappadocian tribe of the Cietae, who were subjects to Archelaus, resisted against the monarch because of compulsion to supply property returns and taxes in Roman fashion.[1] The tribe withdrew to the heights of the Taurus Mountains aided by the local natural environment, where they held out against Archelaus' unwarlike troops. For Archelaus to end the rebellion, Imperial Governor of Syria Lucius Vitellius the Elder sent four thousand legionaries from the Syrian army, who were commanded by Marcus Trebellius, along with auxiliary troops.[12] When the Roman legionaries arrived to the Taurus Mountains, they constructed earthworks round two hills held by the leaders Cadra and Davara. After the Romans had started to kill some who attempted to break out, Trebellius forced the rest of the tribe to surrender.[1] Archelaus died in 38, leaving no heir to his throne. Later that year, the monarch Antiochus IV of Commagene was restored to his ancestral dominion as a Roman client king and given Cilicia Trachaea.[13] The Roman Emperor Caligula also gave territories of Archelaus to Antiochus to be ruled by this as a part of his dominion.[11] When Antiochus and his sister-wife Iotapa became Roman client monarchs over their dominions and Iotapa bore Antiochus their first child, the couple, as a posthumous honor to Archelaus and as a mark of respect to the former king and their distant relative, named their son Gaius Julius Archelaus Antiochus Epiphanes.

References

  1. a b c d Tacitus, Annals, 6.41
  2. Wilson, Encyclopedia of ancient Greece, p.161
  3. a b Levick, Tiberius the Politician, p.110
  4. Vogt, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 1, p.2091
  5. a b Dueck, Strabo’s cultural geography: the making of a kolossourgia, p.208
  6. Sandler, Ground warfare: an international encyclopedia, Volume 1, p.884
  7. Mayor, The Poison King: the life and legend of Mithradates, Rome’s deadliest enemy, p.p.114&138
  8. Dueck, Strabo’s cultural geography: the making of a kolossourgia, p.205
  9. Rigsby, Asylia: territorial inviolability in the Hellenistic world, p.464
  10. Syme, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, p.162
  11. a b Vogt, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 1, p.2093
  12. Syme, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, p.230
  13. Wolfgang Haase, Hildegard Temporini, Rise and decline of the Roman world, part 2, vol. 26, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1995, p. 1223

Sources

  • Tacitus, Annals, 6.41
  • J. Vogt, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Volume 1, Walter de Gruyter, 1972
  • R. Syme & A.R. Birley, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, Oxford University Press, 1995
  • W. Haase & H. Temporini, Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Part 2, Volume 26, Walter de Gruyter, 1995
  • K.J. Rigsby, Asylia: territorial inviolability in the Hellenistic world, University of California Press, 1996
  • S. Sandler, Ground warfare: an international encyclopedia, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2002
  • B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician, Routledge, 2003
  • D. Dueck, H. Lindsay & S. Pothecary, Strabo’s cultural geography: the making of a kolossourgia, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  • N.G. Wilson, Encyclopedia of ancient Greece, Routledge, 2006
  • A. Mayor. The Poison King: the life and legend of Mithradates, Rome’s deadliest enemy, Princeton University Press, 2009

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archelaus_of_Cappadocia

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