Artaxias I King of Armenia

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Արտաշես Առաջին Բարեպաշտ

Nicknames: "The Conqueror"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: of, Sophene, Armenia
Death: Died in Armenia
Immediate Family:

Husband of Satenik
Father of I Artaces; Tigranes I King of Armenia; Vruyr; Artavasdes I King of Armenia; Mazhan and 2 others

Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Artaxias I King of Armenia

ARTAXIAS I reigned 189-160 B.C., founder of the Artaxiad dynasty in Greater Armenia.

ARTAXIAS I (Arm. Artašēs), reigned 189-160 B.C., founder of the Artaxiad dynasty in Greater Armenia (Mec Haykʿ). At the end of the 3rd century, Armenia was a patchwork of 120 dynastic states called “kingdoms” (regna) by Pliny (Natural history 6.9); these were, presumably, the domains of local dynastic houses (Arm. naxarans), loosely united under the Orontid kings of Greater and Lesser Armenia. Although Alexander had not conquered Armenia, the influence of Greek culture and Seleucid power was evident in the 3rd century B.C. In Greater Armenia, Antiochus appointed Artaxias as stratēgos. In 191 B.C., Antiochus was defeated at Magnesia by the Romans, who confirmed their control over Asia Minor three years later by the treaty of Apamea. The two Armenian stratēgoi, rebelling against Antiochus, “joined the Romans and were ranked as autonomous, with the title of king” (Strabo, Geography 11.14.15). In 95, the Artaxiad Tigran II (the Great) annexed Sophene; the Artaxiad dynasty was to last until the first decade of the Christian era.

In his History of the Armenians 2.56, Movsēs Xorenacʿi describes in accurate detail the stone boundary-steles that Artaxias caused to be erected on the lands belonging to towns and estates (Arm. agarak-kʿ); perpetual boundary litigation, motivated by the fear of crop failure and starvation, was a marked feature of life in many lands during the Hellenistic period. A large number of these steles have been found, with inscriptions in Aramaic. The name of the king, ʾRTḤŠS[Y] in the inscriptions, corresponds to the Aramaic form of the name of the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes in an inscription of the first half of the 3rd century B.C. from Naqš-e Rostam, and the use of Aramaic may be seen as a survival of the chancellery Aramaic of the Achaemenid administration in Armenia, although the steles appear to be an innovation of Artaxias, for none have been found of earlier rulers. Artaxias calls himself MLK RWNDKN (or ʾRWND[KN]) “Orontid king”; the ending -akān, attested in classical sources for Old Persian, is widely employed in the Parthian ostraca from Nisa and in later Armenian texts. Although Artaxias had overthrown Orontes, he based his claim to legitimacy on his presumed Orontid lineage; this attitude accords at once with both Iranian and Armenian conceptions: certain status was inherited by blood, but could not be acquired.

Although Movsēs Xorenacʿi (2.49) mentions that Artaxias built a temple (mehean) in Artaxata to which he transferred statues of Artemis (i.e., Anahit, see Armenian religion) and the royal ancestors from the Orontid holy city of Bagawan, no temples have been found. Terra-cotta figurines have been unearthed which probably depict the Anatolian divine pair, Cybele and Attis, and a large number of terra-cotta bas-reliefs of a rider in Parthian dress may represent the Zoroastrian yazata Mithra. A single word in Greek uncials, probably to be read PHOYHNA, *Rēvēna, is incised into one terra-cotta pediment from which the figurine is missing; it may be a proper name, based on Mid. Ir. rēw “rich,” an important attribute of Ahura Mazdā.

Nearly all the Artaxiads minted coins, unlike the Orontids, to whom only a few coins are attributed, and those only tentatively. One Artaxiad coin depicts on the reverse an eagle standing on a mountain-top; the same scene appears on a Cappadocian coin, where the mountain has been identified as Argaeus which towers over the city of Caesarea/Mazaca, (Turkish Kayseri), which was worshipped as sacred. In the Armenian case, the mountain shown may be Ararat, which the Armenians held in similar sanctity. Figurines of eagles perched atop mountains, in bronze and terra-cotta, have been found in Armenia and elsewhere in Asia Minor. The eagle, a symbol of royalty in many cultures, may represent here the Kayanian xᵛarənah- of Zoroastrianism; it appears also on the Artaxiad royal tiara.

http://www.iranica.com/articles/artaxias-i-arm

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Artaxias I From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Artashes or Artaxias I

King
reign
Armenia: 190 BC/189 BC–160 BC/159 BC

Successor

Artavasdes I

Consort Satenik

Dynasty

Artaxiad Dynasty

Artaxias I (also called Artaxes or Artashes, Armenian: Արտաշես Առաջին Բարեպաշտ) (reigned 190 BC/189 BC–160 BC/159 BC) was the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty whose members ruled the Kingdom of Armenia for nearly two centuries.

By the end of the 3rd century BC, the kingdom of Armenia was made up of around 120 dynastic domains ruled by nakharars, loosely united under the Orontid kings of Greater and Lesser Armenia.[1] Even though Alexander the Great did not conquer Armenia, Hellenistic culture had strongly impacted Armenian society. When Antiochus the Great wrestled Armenia from Orontid rule, he appointed Artaxias as strategos.

Artaxias I Funeral Following his monarch's defeat by the Romans at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, Artaxias and his co-strategos Zariadres revolted and, with Roman consent, began to reign autonomously with the title of king; Artaxias over Greater Armenia and Zariadres over Sophene/Lesser Armenia.[2]

According to Strabo and Plutarch, Artashes also founded the Armenian capital Artashat (Artaxata) with the aid of the Carthaginian general Hannibal who was being sheltered from the Romans within Artashesians' court. The population of the previous Yervanduni (Orontid) capital of Yervandashat was transferred to Artashat (Artaxata). Over a dozen stone boundary markers have been discovered on the territory of modern Armenia from the time of the reign of Artashes with Aramaic inscriptions, before their discovery the existence of these stones was attested by Moses of Chorene. In these inscriptions Artashes claims descent from the Yervanduni (Orontid) Dynasty: King Artaxias, the son of Orontid Zariadres.

From the time of the state of Hayasas, until that of Artaxias I, more than one thousand years elapsed, and during that period the Hayasas, the Armens, the people of Nairi and other ethnic elements were integrated, became one nation, spoke the same language, and lived together in a country that became known as Armenia.[3]

Artaxias was married to Satenik, daughter of the king of Alans. They had six sons: Artavasdes (Artavazd), Vruyr, Mazhan, Zariadres (Zareh), Tiran and Tigranes (Tigran). Artaxias founded a capital, Artaxata on the Araks River near Lake Sevan. Hannibal took refuge there at his court when Antiochus could not protect him any longer. Artaxias was taken captive by Antiochus IV Epiphanes when he attacked Armenia around 165 BC.

[edit] Quotes

It is said that when Hannibal fled from the Romans and came to Armenia, he suggested different projects to the Armenian king and taught him several useful things. When he saw the beautiful landscape and nature in Armenia he drew a sketch for the future city. Then he took Artashes to the spot and asked him to personally supervise the building of the city. Thus a big and beautiful city was named after the king, Artashat, and became his capital. [4]

[edit] Notes

1.^ Pliny, Natural history 6.9.

2.^ Strabo, Geography 11.14.15
3.^ Kersam Aharonian. A Historical Survey of the Armenian Case. Baikar Publishings, Watertown, Massachusetts, 1989, p. 62
4.^ Plutarch, Roman historian (AD 46–120), Lucullus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artaxias_I

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Artaxias I

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Artashes or Artaxias I

King

Reign

Armenia: 190 BC/189 BC–160 BC/159 BC

Predecessor

None

Successor

Artavasdes I

Consort

Satenik

Dynasty

Artaxiad Dynasty

Artaxias I (also called Artaxes or Artashes, Armenian: Արտաշես Առաջին Բարեպաշտ) (reigned 190 BC/189 BC–160 BC/159 BC) was the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty whose members ruled the Kingdom of Armenia for nearly two centuries.

By the end of the 3rd century BC, the kingdom of Armenia was made up of around 120 dynastic domains ruled by nakharars, loosely united under the Orontid kings of Greater and Lesser Armenia.[1] Even though Alexander the Great did not conquer Armenia, Hellenistic culture had strongly impacted Armenian society. When Antiochus the Great wrestled Armenia from Orontid rule, he appointed Artaxias as strategos.

Artaxias I Funeral Following his monarch's defeat by the Romans at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, Artaxias and his co-strategos Zariadres revolted and, with Roman consent, began to reign autonomously with the title of king; Artaxias over Greater Armenia and Zariadres over Sophene/Lesser Armenia.[2]

According to Strabo and Plutarch, Artashes also founded the Armenian capital Artashat (Artaxata) with the aid of the Carthaginian general Hannibal who was being sheltered from the Romans within Artashesians' court. The population of the previous Yervanduni (Orontid) capital of Yervandashat was transferred to Artashat (Artaxata). Over a dozen stone boundary markers have been discovered on the territory of modern Armenia from the time of the reign of Artashes with Aramaic inscriptions, before their discovery the existence of these stones was attested by Moses of Chorene. In these inscriptions Artashes claims descent from the Yervanduni (Orontid) Dynasty: King Artaxias, the son of Orontid Zariadres.

From the time of the state of Hayasas, until that of Artaxias I, more than one thousand years elapsed, and during that period the Hayasas, the Armens, the people of Nairi and other ethnic elements were integrated, became one nation, spoke the same language, and lived together in a country that became known as Armenia.[3]

Artaxias was married to Satenik, daughter of the king of Alans. They had six sons: Artavasdes (Artavazd), Vruyr, Mazhan, Zariadres (Zareh), Tiran and Tigranes (Tigran). Artaxias founded a capital, Artaxata on the Araks River near Lake Sevan. Hannibal took refuge there at his court when Antiochus could not protect him any longer. Artaxias was taken captive by Antiochus IV Epiphanes when he attacked Armenia around 165 BC.

[edit] Quotes

It is said that when Hannibal fled from the Romans and came to Armenia, he suggested different projects to the Armenian king and taught him several useful things. When he saw the beautiful landscape and nature in Armenia he drew a sketch for the future city. Then he took Artashes to the spot and asked him to personally supervise the building of the city. Thus a big and beautiful city was named after the king, Artashat, and became his capital. [4]

[edit] Notes

1.^ Pliny, Natural history 6.9.

2.^ Strabo, Geography 11.14.15
3.^ Kersam Aharonian. A Historical Survey of the Armenian Case. Baikar Publishings, Watertown, Massachusetts, 1989, p. 62
4.^ Plutarch, Roman historian (AD 46–120), Lucullus

[edit] External links

Artaxias I entry in Encyclopaedia Iranica
Artashes biography
King Artashes Illustrations
About King Artashes

Regnal titlesKing Artashes

Preceded by

None

King of Armenia

190 BC–160 BC

Succeeded by

Artavasdes I

This Armenian biographical article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

This biography of a member of a European royal house is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

This biography of a member of an Asian royal house is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Categories: Monarchs of Armenia | 2nd-century BC rulers | Ancient Armenian people | Armenian people stubs | European royalty stubs | Asian royalty stubs

Log in / create account

Article Discussion

Read Edit View history

Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia

Interaction

Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia

Toolbox

Print/export

Languages

Català Deutsch Español Esperanto Français ქართული Polski Português Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски Svenska Tiếng Việt

This page was last modified on 9 May 2011 at 14:40.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

About Արտաշես Առաջին Բարեպաշտ (Armenian)

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