Arvirargus Gweirdd ap Cunobelin, King of the Catuvellauni

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Arvirargus Gweirdd ap Cunobelin, King of the Catuvellauni

Also Known As: "Caradog", "Caradoc", "Caractacus", "Caratacus", "Gweniwith", "Arviragus", "Gwenivyth", "Arvirargus", "Aviragus", "Arviragas", "Arfyrag", "Gweirydd", "Caractacus of the Britons", "Caraticous", "Cundbelin", "King of the Britons and the Catuvellauni"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Catuvellauni Territory, Wales
Death: Died in Rome, Lazio, Italy
Place of Burial: Wales
Immediate Family:

Son of Cunobelinus (Cunobelinus) ap Tasciovanus, King of the Britons and the Catuvellauni and NN . NN
Husband of Genuissa, Queen of Siluria
Father of Eurgen of Siluria ap Caradog, Princess Of Britain; Saint Claudia; St. Cyllin / Marius ap Caradog, King of Britain; Linus Lleyn "The Martyr" ap Caradoc, Pope, 1st Bishop of Rome and Guid Gen ap Caradog
Brother of Adminius ap Cunobelin; Guiderius ap Cunobelin; Togodumnus ap Cunobelin, of Catuvellauni & Dumnonii and Gladys . ferch Cunobelin

Occupation: King of Britain, Ruled 44-74 as tribute-paying king of Claudius, whose daughter he married, King of Britain (62), Kung över Silurisk stam. Blev ca 59 år., aka Gweirdd (Gweirydd) Arviragus (King) of SILURIA, King, Kung, britisk konge, King of the Britons
Managed by: Gail Kern Harbert
Last Updated:

About Arvirargus Gweirdd ap Cunobelin, King of the Catuvellauni

Arvirargus (or Arviragus) was a legendary, and possibly historical, British king of the 1st century AD. A shadowy historical Arviragus is known only from a cryptic reference in a satirical poem by Juvenal, in which a giant turbot presented to the Roman emperor Domitian (AD 81 – 96) is said to be an omen that "you will capture some king, or Arviragus will fall from his British chariot-pole".

Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (1136) presents a legendary Arviragus who is contemporary with the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54).[2][3] However, Geoffrey's work is highly romanticized and contains little trustworthy historical fact, rendering his account of Arvirargus suspect.

According to Geoffrey, Arvirargus is a son of the former king Kimbelinus. He succeeds to the throne of Britain after his elder brother, Guiderius, dies fighting the invading Romans under Claudius. Arviragus puts on his brother's armour and leads the army of the Britons against the Romans. When he learns that Claudius and his commander, Hamo, have fled into the woods, Arvirargus follows him until they reach the coast. The Britons kill Hamo as he tries to flee onto a ship and the place is named Southampton after him. Claudius is able to reassemble his troops elsewhere and he besieges Portchester until it falls to his forces.

Following Hamo's death, Arvirargus seeks refuge at Winchester, but Claudius follows him there with his army. The Britons break the siege and attack the Romans, but Claudius halts the attack and offers a treaty. In exchange for peace and tribute with Rome, Claudius offers Arvirargus his own daughter in marriage. They accept each other's terms and Arvirargus aids Claudius in subduing Orkney and other northern lands.

In the following spring, Arvirargus weds Claudius' daughter, Genvissa, and names the city of Gloucester after her father. Following the wedding, Claudius leaves Britain in the control of Arvirargus. In the years following Claudius' departure, Arvirargus rebuilds the cities that have been ruined and becomes feared by his neighbours. This causes him to halt his tribute to Rome, forcing Claudius to send Vespasian with an army to Britain. As Vespasian prepares to land, such a large British force stands ready that he flees to another port, Totnes, where he sets up camp.

Once a base is established, he marches to Exeter and besieges the city. Arvirargus meets him in battle there and the fight is stalemated. The following morning, Queen Genvissa mediates peace between the two foes. Vespasian returnes to Rome and Arvirargus rules the country peacefully for some years. When he finally dies, he is buried in Gloucester, the city he built with Claudius. He is succeeded by his son, Marius.

Geoffrey's legendary Arvirargus appears to correspond to some degree to the historical Caratacus, son of Cunobelinus, who, along with his brother Togodumnus, led the initial resistance to the Roman invasion of AD 43, and went on to be a thorn in Rome's side for nearly a decade after Togodumnus's death.[4] Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia call him Gweirydd and his brother Gwydr.

Arvirargus is a character in William Shakespeare's play Cymbeline. He and his brother Guiderius had been kidnapped in childhood by Belarius, a nobleman wrongly banished by Cymbeline, and brought up in secret in Wales, but are reunited with their father and sister Imogen in time for the Roman invasion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arvirargus

--------------------

Taking command of the British forces on the death of his brother Guiderius, Arvirgu s emerged victor from a major skirmish with Claudius' troops. He eventually ruled the British as Rome's puppet-king, being interred in the city of Gloucester. British warriors at that time were famed for their ability to fight whilst standing on the pole of the chariot, and Arviragus was particularly adept at this as a certain Roman author testified: "Either you will catch a certain king, or else Arviragus will tumble from the British chariot-pole." Cassivelaunus. It was this king who withstood, in the year 55 BC, the invading armies of Julius Caesar. Arviragus was starved into submission after betrayal by Androgeus, his brother Lud's eldest son. The British resistance, however, had been great and fierce, evoking from the Roman author Lucan much praise concerning one particular engagement : Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis, when Caesar fled in terror from the very Britons whom he'd come to attack!".The leader of the resistance to Caesar in both of his British campaigns. Cassivellaunus possibly formed the tribe later to become known as the Catuvellauni from a federation of smaller like-minded Belgic tribes living north of the Thames, specifically to counter Caesar.

The next identifiable ruler of the Catuvellauni was Tasciovanus who came to power, though wh ether he was the son or grandson of Cassivellaunus is not known. [It is possible that Cassivellaunus should be translated as 'Vellaunus of the Cassi', i.e. his tribe was the Cassi and his name was Vellaunus. It follows that the name given to the amalgamated tribe gathered under his command could mean 'the Followers1 or Smiters2 of Vellaunus'. 1 Latin caterva crowd, troop, company, flock. 2 Gaelic cath to smite.]

Author: Bill Cooper Title: After the Flood, Appendix 13 Britain's First Christian

Author: Bill Cooper Title: The Table of Nations

King of the Silures In a classical poem by Juvenal he is called the Black Bull. This probabl y refered to his strength and his black hair. The Welsch believe he was the King of Silures and lead forces against the Romans. He captured and taken to Rome where he was pardoned. Tradition says he returned to Wales and established the royal line from with the legendary King Arthur was descended. It is claimed that he was the King who welcomed Joseph of Arimathea to Britian in 63 b.c. and granted him land at Flastonbury for his church. Geoffrey of Monmouth, an ancient historian, who paid tribute to Roman and married Claudius' daughter.

http://www.gencircles.com/users/nannyelc/1/data/12473

  • ******************************

{John S. Wurts, "Magna Charta," p. 2795: "...Arviragus, a Druid king, eleventh son of Cymbeline. Shakespeare tells

of the kidnapping by Belarius of Cymbeline and his brother Guiderius."}

--------------------

Granted land to Joseph of Arimathea (Jesus' uncle) in Glastonbury

--------------------

Refered to by the classical poet Juvenal as a "Black Bull", probably meaning his strength & his dark flowing hair, as he rode his chariot recklessly through the Romas streets terrifying Nero.

Captured & taken to Rome where he was pardoned & married Genuissa Vanessa Claudia, the daughter of the Emperor Claudius.

He returned to Britain & built the city of Gloucester, later defending Britain from invasion by Vespasian.

Tradition states that Arviragus is the king who welcomed Joseph of Arimathea to Britain around 63 AD & granted him land at Glastonbury for his church.

--------------------

Though some people state his birth circa o44AD, having stated his eldest son was born circa 020 and the one following this, circa 025, it's probably that his birth might have occurred circa 023 or in between those two dates. --------------------


Ruled 44-74 as tribute-paying king of Claudius, whose daughter he married

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Källor

1)  http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~jamesdow/s072/f000538.htm 
 
 

-------------------- Taking command of the British forces on the death of his brother Guiderius, Arvirgu s emerged victor from a major skirmish with Claudius' troops. He eventually ruled the British as Rome's puppet-king, being interred in the city of Gloucester. British warriors at that time were famed for their ability to fight whilst standing on the pole of the chariot, and Arviragus was particularly adept at this as a certain Roman author testified: "Either you will catch a certain king, or else Arviragus will tumble from the British chariot-pole." Cassivelaunus. It was this king who withstood, in the year 55 BC, the invading armies of Julius Caesar. Arviragus was starved into submission after betrayal by Androgeus, his brother Lud's eldest son. The British resistance, however, had been great and fierce, evoking from the Roman author Lucan much praise concerning one particular engagement : Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis, when Caesar fled in terror from the very Britons whom he'd come to attack!".The leader of the resistance to Caesar in both of his British campaigns. Cassivellaunus possibly formed the tribe later to become known as the Catuvellauni from a federation of smaller like-minded Belgic tribes living north of the Thames, specifically to counter Caesar.

The next identifiable ruler of the Catuvellauni was Tasciovanus who came to power, though wh ether he was the son or grandson of Cassivellaunus is not known. [It is possible that Cassivellaunus should be translated as 'Vellaunus of the Cassi', i.e. his tribe was the Cassi and his name was Vellaunus. It follows that the name given to the amalgamated tribe gathered under his command could mean 'the Followers1 or Smiters2 of Vellaunus'. 1 Latin caterva crowd, troop, company, flock. 2 Gaelic cath to smite.]

Author: Bill Cooper Title: After the Flood, Appendix 13 Britain's First Christian

Author: Bill Cooper Title: The Table of Nations

King of the Silures In a classical poem by Juvenal he is called the Black Bull. This probabl y refered to his strength and his black hair. The Welsch believe he was the King of Silures and lead forces against the Romans. He captured and taken to Rome where he was pardoned. Tradition says he returned to Wales and established the royal line from with the legendary King Arthur was descended. It is claimed that he was the King who welcomed Joseph of Arimathea to Britian in 63 b.c. and granted him land at Flastonbury for his church. Geoffrey of Monmouth, an ancient historian, who paid tribute to Roman and married Claudius' daughter. -------------------- King of Britain -------------------- King Gweirydd of the Britons was also called Arviragus of the Trinovantes.

Gweirydd was a legendary, and possibly historical, British king of the 1st century AD. A shadowy historical Gweirydd (Arviragus) is known only from a cryptic reference in a satirical poem by Juvenal, in which a giant turbot presented to the Roman Emperor Domitian (AD 81 – 96) is said to be an omen that "you will capture some king, or Arviragus will fall from his British chariot-pole".

Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (1136) presented a legendary Gweirydd who was contemporary with the Emperor Claudius. However, Geoffrey's work was highly romanticized and contains little trustworthy historical fact, rendering his account of Gweirydd suspect. There was "neuer king more highly magnifide, Nor dred of Romanes, then was Aruirage, For which the Emperour to him allide His daughter Genuiss' in marriage: Yet shortly he renounst the vassalage Of Rome againe, who hither hastly sent Vespasian, that with great spoile and rage Forwasted all, till Genuissa gent Perswaded him to ceasse, and her Lord to relent."

According to Geoffrey, Gweirydd was a son of the former King Kimbelinus. He succeeded to the throne of Britain after his elder brother, Guiderius, died fighting the invading Romans under Claudius. Gweirydd put on his brother's armor and led the army of the Britons against the Romans. When he learned that Claudius and his commander, Hamo, had fled into the woods, Gweirydd followed him until they reached the coast. The Britons killed Hamo (in AD 44) as he tried to flee onto a ship, and the place was named Southampton after him. Claudius was able to reassemble his troops elsewhere and he besieged Portchester until it fell to his forces.

Following Hamo's death, Gweirydd sought refuge at Winchester, but Claudius followed him there with his army. The Britons broke the siege and attacked the Romans, but Claudius halted the attack and offered a treaty. In exchange for peace and tribute with Rome, Claudius offered Gweirydd his own daughter in marriage. They accepted each other's terms and Gweirydd aided Claudius in subduing Orkney and other northern lands.

In the following spring, Gweirydd wed Claudius's daughter, Genvissa, and named the city of Gloucester after her father. Following the wedding, Claudius left Britain in the control of Gweirydd. In the years following Claudius's departure, Gweirydd rebuilt the cities that had been ruined and became feared by his neighbors. This caused him to halt his tribute to Rome, forcing Claudius to send Vespasian with an army to Britain. As Vespasian prepared to land, such a large British force stood ready that he fled to another port, Totnes, where he set up camp.

Once a base was established, he marched to Exeter and besieged the city. Gweirydd met him in battle there, and the fight was stalemated. The following morning, Queen Genvissa mediated peace between the two foes. Vespasian returned to Rome and Gweirydd ruled the country peacefully for some years. When he finally died, he was buried in Gloucester, the city he had built with Claudius. He was succeeded by his son, Marius.

Geoffrey's legendary Gweirydd (Arvirargus) appeared to correspond to some degree to the historical Caratacus, son of Cunobelinus, who, along with his brother Togodumnus, led the initial resistance to the Roman invasion of AD 43, and went on to be a thorn in Rome's side for nearly a decade after Togodumnus's death.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arvirargus for more information.

Also see "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p268.htm#i10322 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) -------------------- Kung över Silurisk stam. Blev ca 59 år.

Noteringar

Ruled 44-74 as tribute-paying king of Claudius, whose daughter he married

-------------------- Caradog ap Bran is the son of Bran the Blessed in Welsh mythology. According to the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, Caradog was chief of seven leaders left in charge of Britain when Bran's company travels to Ireland to rescue his sister Branwen from her abusive husband Matholwch. While Bran is away, the disgruntled Caswallawn (based on the historical Cassivellaunus, who fought Julius Caesar) dons a cloak of invisibility and slays Caradog's associates. He had intended to spare Caradog, his cousin, but Caradog dies of shock upon seeing what appeared to be a floating sword murdering his companions. Caswallawn then takes Bran's place as King of the Britons.

Caradog's death is mentioned in one of the Welsh Triads; another Triad names him as one of the Three Supreme Servants of the Isle of Britain. Several children are attributed to him, including Caradog ap Caradog and Eudaf. Caradog is often confused with several others named Caradoc. One of these is Caratacus, who fought the Roman legions at the time of Roman Emperor Claudius' invasion of Britain in AD 43. He is also confused with the Arthurian character Caradoc Vreichvras.

wikipedia.com

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caratacus

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Taken prisoner in Rome by Claudius

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Taken prisoner in Rome by Claudius

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Taken prisoner in Rome by Claudius

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Taken prisoner in Rome by Claudius

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Caratacus King of Britain (Cantii tribe)

Born :

Died : Taken prisoner in Rome by Claudius

Ruled Cantii from c40, Catuvellauni and Silures 43-51

Father Cynfelyn King of Britain (Trinovantes tribe)

Mother

Marriage ?

Children - - Cyllin Prince of Britain (Catuvellauni tribe)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per08611.htm#0

--------------------

CARACTACUS 'CARADOG' PENDRAGON ap CUNOBELINAS-'CYMBELINE'

BIRTH: Abt 6 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

DEATH: 54 A.D. in Rome, Italy

FATHER: Cunobelinas-'Cymbeline' ap TASCIOVANUS-TENANTIUS - Abt 34 B.C. in Glamorganshire, Wales

MOTHER: Cartismandua of the BRIGATES

FIRST MARRIAGE: Abt 35 A.D. - Julia Gerunda verch TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS NERO

BIRTH: Abt 10 A.D. in Lugundum, (Lyons), Gaul (France)

CHILD:

1. Gladys 'Claudia' verch CARACTACUS - Abt 36 A.D. in Lugundum, (Lyons), Gaul (France)

SECOND MARRIAGE: Abt 38 A.D. - Eurgain verch MEURIG

BIRTH: Abt 15 A.D. in Colchester, Essex, England

CHILDREN:

2. Lleyn ap CARACTACUS - Abt 39 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

3. Eurgain verch CARACTACUS - Abt 41 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

4. Cyllin Seal ap CARACTACUS - Abt 45 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

5. Linus 'Kynan' ap CARACTACUS - Abt 47 A.D. in Silures, Glamorganshire, Wales

Caractacus was a historical British chieftain and the main Welsh leader of the Catuvellauni tribe. He led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. He was also known as Caradog.

Caratacus and his brother Togodumnus led the initial defence of the country against Aulus Plautius's legions, primarily using guerrilla tactics, but were defeated in two crucial battles on the rivers Medway (see Battle of Medway) and Thames. Togodumnus was killed and the Catuvellauni's territories conquered, but Caratacus survived and carried on the resistance further west.

Caratacus is found in Tacitus's Annals, leading the Silures and Ordovices in what is now Wales against Plautius's successor as governor, Publius Ostorius Scapula. A fort was erected in 49 AD near what is now Gloucester. Along with this fort and a network of others brought pressure to bear upon the Silures, which forced Caratacus to flee to the Ordovices. In 51, Scapula managed to defeat Caractacus in the Battle of Caer Caradock somewhere in Ordivician territory, capturing Caractacus's wife and daughter and receiving the surrender of his brothers. Caratacus himself escaped, and fled north to the lands of the Brigantes. The Brigantian queen, Cartimandua, however, was loyal to Rome, and she handed him over in chains.

Caractacus supposedly made the following speech taken from the 'Tacitus Annals':

"Had my moderation in prosperity been equal to my noble birth and fortune,

I should have entered this city as your friend rather than as your

captive; and you would not have disdained to recieve, under a treaty of

peace, a king descended from illustrious ancestors and ruling many

nations. My present lot is as glorious to you as it is degrading to

myself. I had men and horses, arms and wealth. What wonder if I parted

with them reluctantly? If you Romans choose to lord it over the world,

does it follow that the world is to accept slavery? Were I to have been

at once delivered up as a prisoner, neither my fall nor your triumph would

have become famous. My punishment would be followed by oblivion, whereas,

if you save my life, I shall be an everlasting memoirial of your clemency."

Tacitus tells us that Agrippina granted clemency to Caratacus and his family

after this speech.

SOURCE: Ancient Cultures: Welshpool History:

http://www.welshpool.org/welshpool1/history_ancient.html

--------------------

CARACTACUS 'CARADOG' PENDRAGON ap CUNOBELINAS-'CYMBELINE'

BIRTH: Abt 6 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

DEATH: 54 A.D. in Rome, Italy

FATHER: Cunobelinas-'Cymbeline' ap TASCIOVANUS-TENANTIUS - Abt 34 B.C. in Glamorganshire, Wales

MOTHER: Cartismandua of the BRIGATES

FIRST MARRIAGE: Abt 35 A.D. - Julia Gerunda verch TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS NERO

BIRTH: Abt 10 A.D. in Lugundum, (Lyons), Gaul (France)

CHILD:

1. Gladys 'Claudia' verch CARACTACUS - Abt 36 A.D. in Lugundum, (Lyons), Gaul (France)

SECOND MARRIAGE: Abt 38 A.D. - Eurgain verch MEURIG

BIRTH: Abt 15 A.D. in Colchester, Essex, England

CHILDREN:

2. Lleyn ap CARACTACUS - Abt 39 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

3. Eurgain verch CARACTACUS - Abt 41 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

4. Cyllin Seal ap CARACTACUS - Abt 45 A.D. in Trevan, Llanillid, Glamorganshire, Wales

5. Linus 'Kynan' ap CARACTACUS - Abt 47 A.D. in Silures, Glamorganshire, Wales

Caractacus was a historical British chieftain and the main Welsh leader of the Catuvellauni tribe. He led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. He was also known as Caradog.

Caratacus and his brother Togodumnus led the initial defence of the country against Aulus Plautius's legions, primarily using guerrilla tactics, but were defeated in two crucial battles on the rivers Medway (see Battle of Medway) and Thames. Togodumnus was killed and the Catuvellauni's territories conquered, but Caratacus survived and carried on the resistance further west.

Caratacus is found in Tacitus's Annals, leading the Silures and Ordovices in what is now Wales against Plautius's successor as governor, Publius Ostorius Scapula. A fort was erected in 49 AD near what is now Gloucester. Along with this fort and a network of others brought pressure to bear upon the Silures, which forced Caratacus to flee to the Ordovices. In 51, Scapula managed to defeat Caractacus in the Battle of Caer Caradock somewhere in Ordivician territory, capturing Caractacus's wife and daughter and receiving the surrender of his brothers. Caratacus himself escaped, and fled north to the lands of the Brigantes. The Brigantian queen, Cartimandua, however, was loyal to Rome, and she handed him over in chains.

Caractacus supposedly made the following speech taken from the 'Tacitus Annals':

"Had my moderation in prosperity been equal to my noble birth and fortune,

I should have entered this city as your friend rather than as your

captive; and you would not have disdained to recieve, under a treaty of

peace, a king descended from illustrious ancestors and ruling many

nations. My present lot is as glorious to you as it is degrading to

myself. I had men and horses, arms and wealth. What wonder if I parted

with them reluctantly? If you Romans choose to lord it over the world,

does it follow that the world is to accept slavery? Were I to have been

at once delivered up as a prisoner, neither my fall nor your triumph would

have become famous. My punishment would be followed by oblivion, whereas,

if you save my life, I shall be an everlasting memoirial of your clemency."

Tacitus tells us that Agrippina granted clemency to Caratacus and his family

after this speech.

SOURCE: Ancient Cultures: Welshpool History:

http://www.welshpool.org/welshpool1/history_ancient.html -------------------- King of Siluria (now Monmouthshire, etc.), where he died. He was born at Trevan, Llanilid, in Glamorganshire. His valiant services to his country have been told in connection with the attempted invasions of the island. The Bards record his wise saying: "Oppression persisted in brings on death."

Caradoc (Caractacus) was King of Siluria (now Monmouthshire, etc.),

where he died. He was born at Trevan, Llanilid, in Glamorganshire. His

valiant services to his country have been told in connection with the

attempted invasions of the island. The Bards record his wise saying:

"Oppression persisted in brings on death." He had three sons and two

daughters as follows:

o 1. Cyllin (Cyllinus). See below.

o 2. Lleyn (Linus) the Martyr.

o 3. Cynon

o 4. Eurgain

o 5. Gladys (Claudia), was adopted by Emperor Claudius and became

Claudius Britannica. In her 17th year she married Rufus Pudens., a

Roman Senator. She died in 97 A.D. She and her two sons and two

daughters were instructed by St. Paul in the Christian faith.

Around 100 A.D. all the children suffered martyrdom in Rome under

Nero, who at age 16 succeeded Claudius as Emperor on September 28,

53 A.D. -------------------- Reference: http://awt.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=rwfurtaw&id=I71348&ti=5538 -------------------- AVARIGUS ap CUNOBELINAS'CYMBELINE'

BIRTH: Abt 10 A.D. on Isle of Avalon, Glastonbury, Somerset, England

DEATH: Abt 74 A.D.

FATHER: Cunobelinas-'Cymbeline' ap TASCIOVANUS TENANTIUS - Abt 34 B.C.

MOTHER: Cartismandua of the BRIGATES

MARRIAGE: Genuissa 'Vanessa' ap TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS DRUSUS NERO of Rome

BIRTH: Abt 10 A.D. in (Lugundum) Lyons, (Gaul) France

CHILD:

1. Marius Meric ap AVARIGUS - Abt 30 A.D. probably in Somerset, England

He became a christian converted by Joseph of Arimathea

after his arrival to Britain.

NOTE: Some believe that "Avarigus" was a TITLE meaning "High King",

and that AVARIGUS was the same person as CARADOC/CARACTACUS,

and not his brother.

I have kept them as separate individuals until I see further evidence.

(Researcher: Dale Updike, Dec., 2005) -------------------- 2108788192027528. King Arviragus BRITAIN,1601,1746 son of King Cymbeline BRITAIN and Unknown, was born in 50 in , Avalon, Southern England and died in 74 at age 24.

General Notes:

[From Geoffey of Monmouth, The History of the Kings of Britain, trans. Lewis Thorpe (London:1966)]

He (Claudius) therefore proposed peace to him (Arvirargus), promising to give him his own daughter, if only he would recognize that the kingdom of Britain was under the sway of Rome. His nobles persuaded Arvirargus to abandon his plans for battle and to accept the proposals of Claudius. Their argument was that it could be no disgrace for him to submit to the Romans, since they were the acknowledged overlords of the whole world. Arvirargus was swayed by these arguments and by others of a similar nature. He accepted their advice and submitted to Claudius. Claudius soon sent to Rome for his daughter. With the help of Arvirargus he subdued the Orkneys and the other islands in that neighbourhood.

At the end of that winter the messengers returned with Claudius' daughter and handed her over to her father. The girl's name was Genvissa (=Genuissa). Her beauty was such that everyone who saw her was filled with admiration. Once she had been united with him in lawful marriage, she inflamed the King with such burning passion that he preferred her company to anything else in the world. As a result of this Arvirargus made up his mind to give some special mark of distinction to the place where he had married her. He suggested to Claudius that the two of them should found there a city which should perpetuate in times to come the memory of so happy a marriage. Claudius agreed and ordered a town to be built which should be called Kaerglou or Gloucester. Down to our own day it retains its site on the bank of the Severn, between Wales and Loegria. Some, however, say that it took its name from Duke Gloius, whom Claudius fathered in that city and to whom he granted control of the duchy of the Welsh after Arvirargus.

Arviragus married Queen Of Brittany Venus Julia (Venissa) ROMAN EMPIRE 1601 in <, , , Great Britain>. Venus was born in 25 in Rome, Roma, , Lazio, Italy and died in Britain. Other names for Venus were Queen of Brittany Genuissa ROMAN EMPIRE, and Queen of Brittany Venissa ROMAN EMPIRE.

The child from this marriage was:

1054394096013764 i. Meric "Marius" King Of Britain (born in , , , Great Britain - died in 125 in , , , Great Britain)

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mgholler/Caden/a51.htm#i547458883 -------------------- biographical and/or anecdotal: King of Siluria (now Monmouthshire, etc.), where he died. He was born at Trevan, Llanilid, in Glamorganshire. His valiant services to his country have been told in connection with the attempted invasions of the island. The Bards record his wise saying: "Oppression persisted in brings on death."

notes or source: ancestry.com & HBJ King Caradoc's birth-book (pedigree register) records his own as well as others' descent from illustrious ancestors, through thirty-six generations from *Aedd Mawr

Caratacus, the First British Hero

An historical person with some legendary accretions, Caratacus (also spelled Caractacus) was the king of the Catuvellauni at the time of the Roman invasion under their commander, Aulus Plautius. Caratacus emerges from history as one of the few early Britons with a distinct personality, thanks in large part to the accounts of Tacitus and Cassius Dio. He and his brother, Togodumnus, were said to be sons of the British king, Cunobelinus, and, after the king's death, became the leaders of the anti-Roman campaign that managed to resist the invaders for a period of nearly nine years.*

After some early defeats in the east, Caratacus moved west into more rugged territories that would be easier to defend. His numerically inferior forces survived an indecisive engagement with the Romans in the land of the Silures (modern-day Glamorgan in Wales) and so Caratacus moved north, to the land of the Ordovices (central Gwynedd, southern Clwyd, northern Powys) to find the ideal location for a battle which he intended to be decisive.

Caratacus' final defeat came at the hands of the Roman governor, Ostorious Scapula, in 51 AD. Although his forces were defeated, Caratacus was not killed in the battle and managed to escape to the land of the Brigantes in northern Britain, where he hoped to find safety and a base for future resistance to the Romans. Unfortunately for him, Cartimandua, the Queen of the Brigantes, was bound by a client-ruler relationship with the Romans, so she handed Caratacus over to them.

He was sent to Rome along with other captives, where he came to Claudius' attention for his courtesy and bearing and so was pardoned. He and his family were permitted to live out their lives in peace in Italy, but the date of his death is unknown.

The account of these events is taken from Tacitus' "Annals," Book XII (translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb): The army then marched against the Silures, a naturally fierce people and now full of confidence in the might of Caratacus, who by many an indecisive and many a successful battle had raised himself far above all the other generals of the Britons. Inferior in military strength, but deriving an advantage from the deceptiveness of the country, he at once shifted the war by a stratagem into the territory of the Ordovices, where, joined by all who dreaded peace with us, he resolved on a final struggle. He selected a position for the engagement in which advance and retreat alike would be difficult for our men and comparatively easy for his own, and then on some lofty hills, wherever their sides could be approached by a gentle slope, he piled up stones to serve as a rampart. A river too of varying depth was in his front, and his armed bands were drawn up before his defences.

Then too the chieftains of the several tribes went from rank to rank, encouraging and confirming the spirit of their men by making light of their fears, kindling their hopes, and by every other warlike incitement. As for Caratacus, he flew hither and thither, protesting that that day and that battle would be the beginning of the recovery of their freedom, or of everlasting bondage. He appealed, by name, to their forefathers who had driven back the dictator Caesar, by whose valour they were free from the Roman axe and tribute, and still preserved inviolate the persons of their wives and of their children. While he was thus speaking, the host shouted applause; every warrior bound himself by his national oath not to shrink from weapons or wounds.

Such enthusiasm confounded the Roman general. The river too in his face, the rampart they had added to it, the frowning hilltops, the stern resistance and masses of fighting men everywhere apparent, daunted him. But his soldiers insisted on battle, exclaiming that valour could overcome all things; and the prefects and tribunes, with similar language, stimulated the ardour of the troops. Ostorius having ascertained by a survey the inaccessible and the assailable points of the position, led on his furious men, and crossed the river without difficulty. When he reached the barrier, as long as it was a fight with missiles, the wounds and the slaughter fell chiefly on our soldiers; but when he had formed the military testudo, and the rude, ill-compacted fence of stones was torn down, and it was an equal hand-to-hand engagement, the barbarians retired to the heights. Yet even there, both light and heavy-armed soldiers rushed to the attack; the first harassed the foe with missiles, while the latter closed with them, and the opposing ranks of the Britons were broken, destitute as they were of the defence of breast-plates or helmets. When they faced the auxiliaries, they were felled by the swords and javelins of our legionaries; if they wheeled round, they were again met by the sabres and spears of the auxiliaries. It was a glorious victory; the wife and daughter of Caratacus were captured, and his brothers too were admitted to surrender.

There is seldom safety for the unfortunate, and Caratacus, seeking the protection of Cartimandua, queen of the Brigantes, was put in chains and delivered up to the conquerors, nine years after the beginning of the war in Britain. His fame had spread thence, and travelled to the neighbouring islands and provinces, and was actually celebrated in Italy. All were eager to see the great man, who for so many years had defied our power. Even at Rome the name of Caratacus was no obscure one; and the emperor, while he exalted his own glory, enhanced the renown of the vanquished. The people were summoned as to a grand spectacle; the praetorian cohorts were drawn up under arms in the plain in front of their camp; then came a procession of the royal vassals, and the ornaments and neck-chains and the spoils which the king had won in wars with other tribes, were displayed. Next were to be seen his brothers, his wife and daughter; last of all, Caratacus himself. All the rest stooped in their fear to abject supplication; not so the king, who neither by humble look nor speech sought compassion.

When he was set before the emperor's tribunal, he spoke as follows: "Had my moderation in prosperity been equal to my noble birth and fortune, I should have entered this city as your friend rather than as your captive; and you would not have disdained to receive, under a treaty of peace, a king descended from illustrious ancestors and ruling many nations. My present lot is as glorious to you as it is degrading to myself. I had men and horses, arms and wealth. What wonder if I parted with them reluctantly? If you Romans choose to lord it over the world, does it follow that the world is to accept slavery? Were I to have been at once delivered up as a prisoner, neither my fall nor your triumph would have become famous. My punishment would be followed by oblivion, whereas, if you save my life, I shall be an everlasting memorial of your clemency."

Upon this the emperor granted pardon to Caratacus, to his wife, and to his brothers. Released from their bonds, they did homage also to Agrippina who sat near, conspicuous on another throne, in the same language of praise and gratitude. Tacitus, in his account, gives us all the other details but fails to name the location of Caratacus' final battle. "One particular problem that has prompted much debate centres on locating the so-called last stand of Caratacus - who had strategically chosen to move the scene of his activities from the territory of the Silures to that of the Ordovices. Folk memory or antiquarianism has given the name Caer Caradog (Caratacus' fort) to three hillforts, one dominating the Church Stretton gap, another south of Clun and the third in Clwyd. Although the second is relatively close to known Roman marching camps around Leintwardine, none have produced and evidence of investment. Moreover, all lack the nearby river required by the Tacitean narrative. . ."A more likely possibility is offered by the massive limestone spur of Llanymynech which dominates the western edge of the north Shropshire plain. Evidence of a Roman campaign base has now emerged at the western foot of the massif close to a newly discovered Julio-Claudian fort at Llansantffraid to make Llanymynech a strong candidate for identification as Caratacus' chosen position." **

Excavations done at the above-mentioned locales have failed to produce any conclusive archaeological fruit. So, it would seem that any location that one chooses as one's favourite candidate for Caratacus' "last stand," so long as it meets Tacitus' topographical qualifications and is found in northeastern Wales or western Shropshire, is as valid a place as any.

Some investigators have come to the conclusion that Caratacus is the historic original for King Arthur, while others insist that he and Arviragus, another early British figure in the anti-Roman resistance, are one and the same.

....................................................

  • Cottrell, Leonard, "The Roman Invasion of Britain," Barnes & Noble, New York, 1992, p.91
    • Jones, Barri and David Mattingly, "An Atlas of Roman Britain," Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, 1990. p. 66-7

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   Caratacus
   From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
   Caratacus (also spelled Caractacus) was a historical British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. He may correspond with the legendary Welsh character Caradog (also written Caradoc, Caradawg) and the legendary British king Arvirargus.
   History
   Caratacus is named by Dio Cassius as a son of the Catuvellaunian king Cunobelinus (the inspiration for William Shakespeare's Cymbeline). Based on coin distribution Caratacus appears to have been the protegé of his uncle Epaticcus, who expanded Catuvellaunian power westwards into the territory of the Atrebates. After Epaticcus died ca. 35 AD, the Atrebates, under Verica, regained some of their territory, but it appears Caratacus completed the conquest, as Dio tells us Verica was ousted, fled to Rome and appealed to the emperor Claudius for help. This was the excuse Claudius used to launch his invasion of Britain in 43.
   Cunobelinus had died some time before the invasion. Caratacus and his brother Togodumnus led the initial defence of the country against Aulus Plautius's legions, primarily using guerilla tactics, but were defeated in two crucial battles on the rivers Medway (see Battle of Medway) and Thames. Togodumnus was killed and the Catuvellauni's territories conquered, but Caratacus survived and carried on the resistance further west.
   We next hear of Caratacus in Tacitus's Annals, leading the Silures and Ordovices in what is now Wales against Plautius's successor as governor, Publius Ostorius Scapula. Finally, in 51, Scapula managed to defeat Caratacus in a set-piece battle somewhere in Ordivician territory (see the Battle of Caer Caradock), capturing Caratacus's wife and daughter and receiving the surrender of his brothers. Caratacus himself escaped, and fled north to the lands of the Brigantes. The Brigantian queen, Cartimandua, however, was loyal to Rome, and she handed him over in chains. This was one of the events that led to an eventual Brigantian uprising against Cartimandua, and then the Romans, from 69-71AD led by Venutius, who had once been Cartimandua's husband.
   Legend places Caratacus' last stand at British Camp in the Malvern Hills, but the description of Tacitus makes this unlikely:
   Caracticus played his final card and chose a site for a battle so that the approaches, the escape routes, everything, was awkward for us and to his side's advantage. On one side there were steep hills. Wherever approaches were gentle he piled boulders into a sort of rampart. In front of him flowed a river of doubtful fordability and squadrons of armed men were in position on the defences.
   Although the Severn is visible from British Camp, it is nowhere near it, so this battle must have taken place elsewhere.
   After his capture, Caratacus was sent to Rome as a war prize, presumably to be killed after a triumphal parade. Although a captive, he was allowed to speak to the Roman senate. Tacitus records a version of his speech in which he says that his stubborn resistance made Rome's glory in defeating him all the greater, viz;
   Had my moderation in prosperity been equal to my noble birth and fortune, I should have entered this city as your friend rather than as your captive; and you would not have disdained to receive, under a treaty of peace, a king descended from illustrious ancestors and ruling many nations. My present lot is as glorious to you as it is degrading to myself. I had men and horses, arms and wealth. What wonder if I parted with them reluctantly? If you Romans choose to lord it over the world, does it follow that the world is to accept slavery? Were I to have been at once delivered up as a prisoner, neither my fall nor your triumph would have become famous. My punishment would be followed by oblivion, whereas, if you save my life, I shall be an everlasting memorial of your clemency.
   He made such an impression that he was pardoned and allowed to live in peace in Rome. After his liberation, according to Dio Cassius, Caratacus was so impressed by the city of Rome that he said "Why do you, who possess so many palaces, covet our poor tents?"
   Caratacus's name
   Older translations of Tacitus tend to favour the spelling "Caractacus", but modern scholars agree, based on historical linguistics and source criticism, that the correct form is "Caratacus", pronounced "ka-ra-TAH-kus", which gives the attested names Caradog in Welsh and Carthach in Irish.
   British legend
   Caratacus's name survived in British legend as Caradawg, Cradawg or Caradog, although his true historical context appears to have been forgotten. He appears in the Mabinogion, where he is named as a son of Bran the Blessed. He is left in charge of Britain while his father makes war in Ireland, but is overthrown by Caswallawn (the historical Cassivellaunus, who lived a century earlier than Caratacus). The Welsh Triads agree that he was the son of Bran the Blessed and name two sons, Cawrdaf and Eudaf. A later collection of Triads compiled by the 18th century Welsh antiquarian Iolo Morganwg, the authenticity of which is doubtful, adds that Caradawg's father Bran was held hostage by the Romans for seven years, and brought Christianity to Britain on his return. Iolo also makes the legendary king Coel a son of Caradawg's son Cyllen. Caradawg's line is traced through Bran to Aedd Mawr, giving him claim to the throne of Siluria (Monmouthshire).
   A genealogy of Lot, king of Lothian, Orkney, and Norway in Arthurian legend, appears in the medieval manuscript known as Harleian MS 3859. Three generations of his line read "Caratauc map Cinbelin map Teuhant". This is the equivalent of "Caratacus, son of Cunobelinus, son of Tasciovanus", putting the three historical figures in the correct order, although the wrong historical context, the degree of linguistic change suggesting a long period of oral transmission. This is particularly interesting as Tasciovanus's name does not appear in any surviving classical text or legendary tale, and has only been rediscovered in the 20th century through coin legends. The remainder of the genealogy contains the names of a sequence of Roman emperors, and two Welsh mythological figures, Guidgen (Gwydion) and Lou (Llew).
   Caratacus does not appear in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, although he may correspond to Arvirargus, a son of Cymbeline (Gweirydd, son of Cynfelyn, in Welsh versions).
   Caratacus and Christianity
   Caratacus is described as a "barbarian Christian" in Dio Cassius's Roman History (Epitome of Book LXI, 33:3c [1], Earnest Cary's translation for the Loeb Classical Library, 1914-1927). This is a fragment of a lost passage of Dio, preserved in two variant versions in the 6th century Excerpta Vaticana and by the 12th century chronicler Joannes Zonaras, both Christian documents which may not accurately reflect Dio's original. It should be noted that Herbert Baldwin Foster's 1904 translation [2] reads "Carnetacus, a barbarian chieftain".
   A theory popularised in The Drama of the Lost Disciples, a 1961 book by the British Israelite pseudohistorian George Jowett, claims that he was a Christian before he came to Rome, and members of his family who were brought to Rome with him became important figures in the early Christian movement.
   The theory centres on Claudia Rufina, a historical British woman known to the poet Martial (Epigrams XI:53). Jowett identifies her as a daughter of Caratacus, and with the the Claudia mentioned in 2 Timothy in the New Testament. Martial describes Claudia's marriage to a man named Pudens (Epigrams IV:13), in all likelihood his friend Aulus Pudens, to whom he addresses numerous poems; Jowett's theory identifies him with St. Pudens, an early Christian saint whom he claims was the half-brother of St. Paul. The historical Pope Linus is claimed to be Caratacus's son on the basis of being described as the "brother of Claudia" in an early church document. The basilica of Santa Pudenziana in Rome was supposedly once called the Palatium Britannicum and was the home of Caratacus and his family.
   However, Jowett's book is a pious fraud based on the deliberate distortion of sources and cannot be relied upon.

-------------------- Some historians and writers place an alternative birthplace in Archenfield, Herefordshire, England, as well as being his parents 19 or 20 years old at his birth. -------------------- About Arvirargus ap Cunobelin, King of the Britons and the Catuvellauni: Arvirargus (or Arviragus) was a legendary, and possibly historical, British king of the 1st century AD. A shadowy historical Arviragus is known only from a cryptic reference in a satirical poem by Juvenal, in which a giant turbot presented to the Roman emperor Domitian (AD 81 – 96) is said to be an omen that "you will capture some king, or Arviragus will fall from his British chariot-pole". Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (1136) presents a legendary Arviragus who is contemporary with the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54). However, Geoffrey's work is highly romanticized and contains little trustworthy historical fact, rendering his account of Arvirargus suspect. According to Geoffrey, Arvirargus is a son of the former king Kimbelinus. He succeeds to the throne of Britain after his elder brother, Guiderius, dies fighting the invading Romans under Claudius. Arviragus puts on his brother's armour and leads the army of the Britons against the Romans. When he learns that Claudius and his commander, Hamo, have fled into the woods, Arvirargus follows him until they reach the coast. The Britons kill Hamo as he tries to flee onto a ship and the place is named Southampton after him. Claudius is able to reassemble his troops elsewhere and he besieges Portchester until it falls to his forces. Following Hamo's death, Arvirargus seeks refuge at Winchester, but Claudius follows him there with his army. The Britons break the siege and attack the Romans, but Claudius halts the attack and offers a treaty. In exchange for peace and tribute with Rome, Claudius offers Arvirargus his own daughter in marriage. They accept each other's terms and Arvirargus aids Claudius in subduing Orkney and other northern lands. In the following spring, Arvirargus weds Claudius' daughter, Genvissa, and names the city of Gloucester after her father. Following the wedding, Claudius leaves Britain in the control of Arvirargus. In the years following Claudius' departure, Arvirargus rebuilds the cities that have been ruined and becomes feared by his neighbours. This causes him to halt his tribute to Rome, forcing Claudius to send Vespasian with an army to Britain. As Vespasian prepares to land, such a large British force stands ready that he flees to another port, Totnes, where he sets up camp. Once a base is established, he marches to Exeter and besieges the city. Arvirargus meets him in battle there and the fight is stalemated. The following morning, Queen Genvissa mediates peace between the two foes. Vespasian returnes to Rome and Arvirargus rules the country peacefully for some years. When he finally dies, he is buried in Gloucester, the city he built with Claudius. He is succeeded by his son, Marius. Geoffrey's legendary Arvirargus appears to correspond to some degree to the historical Caratacus, son of Cunobelinus, who, along with his brother Togodumnus, led the initial resistance to the Roman invasion of AD 43, and went on to be a thorn in Rome's side for nearly a decade after Togodumnus's death. Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia call him Gweirydd and his brother Gwydr. Arvirargus is a character in William Shakespeare's play Cymbeline. He and his brother Guiderius had been kidnapped in childhood by Belarius, a nobleman wrongly banished by Cymbeline, and brought up in secret in Wales, but are reunited with their father and sister Imogen in time for the Roman invasion. Taking command of the British forces on the death of his brother Guiderius, Arvirgu s emerged victor from a major skirmish with Claudius' troops. He eventually ruled the British as Rome's puppet-king, being interred in the city of Gloucester. British warriors at that time were famed for their ability to fight whilst standing on the pole of the chariot, and Arviragus was particularly adept at this as a certain Roman author testified: "Either you will catch a certain king, or else Arviragus will tumble from the British chariot-pole." Cassivelaunus. It was this king who withstood, in the year 55 BC, the invading armies of Julius Caesar. Arviragus was starved into submission after betrayal by Androgeus, his brother Lud's eldest son. The British resistance, however, had been great and fierce, evoking from the Roman author Lucan much praise concerning one particular engagement : Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis, when Caesar fled in terror from the very Britons whom he'd come to attack!".The leader of the resistance to Caesar in both of his British campaigns. Cassivellaunus possibly formed the tribe later to become known as the Catuvellauni from a federation of smaller like-minded Belgic tribes living north of the Thames, specifically to counter Caesar. Arviragus gave Joseph of Arimathea (tin merchant and uncle of the virgin Mary) land to establish the first above ground Christian church in Britain. This happened just after the death of Jesus when the family of Christ were placed in a boat without oars and set adrift (see Tulmud). Because of the tin trade Joseph of Arimathea was well acquainted with the British kings Beli, Lud, Llyr and Arviragus, who gave Joseph and his companions twelve 160 acres. Of course all of this had nothing to do with the Roman Catholic Church as they would have you believe.

-------------------- http://www.our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p573.htm#i17226

-------------------- http://www.our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p573.htm#i17225

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Arvirargus Gweirdd ap Cunobelin, King of the Catuvellauni's Timeline

10
10
Wales
25
25
Age 14
Great Britain
34
34
Age 23
AD 36
40
40
Age 29
Britain
40
Age 29
England, United Kingdom
45
45
Age 34
Trevan, Llanilid, Glamorganshire, Wales
60
60
Age 49
Rome, Lazio, Italy
60
Age 49
Wales
????
P74
????
Britain