Attakullakulla "Little Carpenter" Onacona, Ukwaniequa Moytoy (Uku of Tanasi), Cherokee Emissary to England (c.1699 - c.1797) MP

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Nicknames: "Attacullaculla", "Leaning Wood", "Little Carpenter", "Ukwaniequa", "Atta-kulla-kulla", "Ata-Kullakilla", "Ata-culculla", "Atagulkalu"
Birthplace: Seviers Island, Tennessee
Death: Died in Nachestown, North Carolina
Occupation: Supreme Chief of the Cherokee, 1760-1775, Little Carpenter, Peace Chief of the Cherokee, 1730-1797, Cherokee Chief
Managed by: Elizabeth Ann Quick
Last Updated:

About Attakullakulla "Little Carpenter" Onacona, Ukwaniequa Moytoy (Uku of Tanasi), Cherokee Emissary to England

Attakullakulla (ca. 1708–ca. 1777) or Atagulkalu (Cherokee, Ata-gul' kalu) — known to whites as Little Carpenter — was First Beloved Man of the Cherokee Indians from 1761 to around 1775. Dragging Canoe, war leader of the Cherokee during the Chickamauga wars, was his son.


According to James Mooney, Attakullakulla's Cherokee name could be translated "leaning wood", from "ada" meaning "wood", and "gulkalu", a verb that implies something long and unsupported, leaning against some other object. His name "Little Carpenter" derived from the English meaning of his Cherokee name along with a reference to his physical stature.

According to one of his sons, Turtle-at-Home, Attakullakulla was originally a member of a subtribe of the Algonquin Nipissing in the north captured as an infant during a raid and adopted by a minor chief. He married Nionne Ollie, who was the daughter of his cousin Oconostota The marriage was permissible because they were of different clans; he was Wolf Clan and she was Paint Clan.

He was a member of the Cherokee delegation that traveled to England in 1730. In 1736, he rejected the advances of the French, who sent emissaries to the Overhill Cherokee. Three or four years later, he was captured by the Ottawa, allies of the French, who held him captive in Canada until 1748. Upon his return, he became one of the Cherokees' leading diplomats and an adviser to the Beloved Man of Chota.

In May 1759, following a series of attacks by settlers and Cherokees against each other, Attakullakulla joined a delegation that went to Charleston to try to negotiate with South Carolina authorities. Governor William Henry Lyttleton seized the delegates as hostages until the Cherokees responsible for killing white settlers were surrendered. Having raised an expeditionary force, Lyttleton set out for Fort Prince George with the hostages in tow and arrived with 1700 men on December 9, 1759. Though freed soon after, Attakullakulla returned to Fort Prince George to negotiate for peace, but his efforts were thwarted by the more hawkish Oconostota. The Cherokees gave up two individuals and negotiated the release of a few hostages including Oconostota, who soon after lured Lt. Richard Coytmore out of the fort, waving a bridle over his head, and incited Cherokee warriors hiding in the woods to fire upon and kill Coytmore; white soldiers inside the fort then proceeded to murder all the Cherokees inside, and hostilities continued between the Cherokees and Anglo-Americans.

His death is believed to have occurred in 1775, after which he was succeeded by his cousin, Oconostota (who was also his father-in-law).

-------------------- known as Ata'-gul-kalu, "Prince of Chota", Tathtowe, Tiftowe, Clogoittah, Chunconnunta, Ukwaneequa, Truconita, Chungonanta, Chugonanta Tommy, Tommy of Tenase, Occounaco, The White Owl, Chukenataa Warrior, Ookanaska, and Little Corn. There may be others.

He was mentor to his niece, Tsistuna-gis-ke "Wildrose", who became Nanye-hi the Ghighau.

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sandrahunter1&id=I061634

According to James Mooney, Attakullakulla's Cherokee name could be translated "leaning wood", from "ada" meaning "wood", and "gulkalu", a verb that implies something long and unsupported, leaning against some other object. His name "Little Carpenter" derived from the English meaning of his Cherokee name along with a reference to his physical stature.

According to one of his sons, Turtle-at-Home, Attakullakulla was originally a member of a subtribe of the Algonquin Nipissing in the north captured as an infant during a raid and adopted by a minor chief.[1] He married Nionne Ollie, who was the daughter of his cousin Oconostota The marriage was permissible because they were of different clans; he was Wolf Clan and she was Paint Clan.

He was a member of the Cherokee delegation that traveled to England in 1730. In 1736, he rejected the advances of the French, who sent emissaries to the Overhill Cherokee. Three or four years later, he was captured by the Ottawa, allies of the French, who held him captive in Canada until 1748. Upon his return, he became one of the Cherokees' leading diplomats and an adviser to the Beloved Man of Chota.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attakullakulla

Father: White Owl Raven - An Algonquin

Mother: Nancy (called Nancy by the British) of the

Marriage 1 Nionne Ollie - of the Paint Clan

Children

  1. Has Children Dutsi Tachee -Paint Clan
  2. Has Children Wurtagua - Paint Clan
  3. Has Children Olli - 2 - of the Paint Clan
  4. Has No Children Occunna Ocuma - The Paint Clan
  5. Has No Children Ooskiah Oskuah -Paint Clan
  6. Has No Children Ookoonaka Nahoola Ookoovsdi -Paint Clan
  7. Has No Children Chief Savanooka Colonah - the Raven of Chota
  8. Has Children Tai-ya-gansi-ni (he is) Dragging (the) Canoe b: 1730
  9. Has Children Turtle at Home - 1 b: 1754

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sandrahunter1&id=I061634

Little Carpenter, Peace Chief of the Cherokee, 1699-1797

NATIVE NAME: Okoonaka Attakullakulla

ENGLISH NAME: Little Carpenter

ALTERNATE NAMES: Ata'-gul-kalu, Captain Owean Nakan, Leaning Wood, Little Corn Planter, The Civil Chief, The Peace Chief, or White Chief; Chuconnunta, Clogoittah, Prince of Chota; Tathatowe, Tiftowe Truconita, Tommy, Tommy of Tenase; Ukwaneequa and The White Owl. There may be others.

ALTERNATE SPELLINGS: Attakullakulia, Attacullaculla, Attakullaculla, Chugonanta, Chukenata; Occounaco, Ouconaco, Onacona, Ookanaska, Ookeeneka, Oukahakah, Oukounaka

MEANING OF NAMES:

   * Chuconnunta - Warrior
   * Okoonaka or Onacona - White Owl
   * Little Carpenter - He was called The Little Carpenter by the British, because he was small in stature (just a little over 5 foot tall), but astute in negotiating treaties to benefit his people.
   * Leaning Wood - from Atagulkalu. Ata, meaning wood, and galkalu, meaning something or someone leaning.

BIRTHPLACE / DATE: 1699? (could have been as late as 1712), Big Island of the French Broad River, later called Sevier's Island, TN. He first appears in the written records of 1730.

RESIDENCE: According to his son, Turtle At Home, his father was originally a Mishwakihha, one of the divisions of the Nipissing Indians, and had been captured as an infant and adopted by the Cherokees. As a young boy he lived in the Overhill Towns which lay along the banks of the Little Tennessee and Hiwassie rivers. Later, he resided at Tellico, and Chota, E. Indian Nation, TN.

DEATH DATE / LOCATION: 1797, Nacheztown, North Carolina (now part of the state of Tennessee).

BURIAL PLACE:

MOTHER: Nancy MOYTOY, sister of Connecorte, better known as Old Hop or Standing Turkey, who was the nominal leader of the Cherokees during the 1750's. Her father was Chief Amatoya Moytoy of Chota and her mother was Quatsy, of the Wolf Clan of Tellico.

FATHER:White Owl Raven, was an Algonquin chief.

SIBLINGS: Unknown.

1ST WIFE: Nionne Ollie, of the Paint Clan, daughter of Oconostota

CHILDREN WITH WIFE #1:

   * Dragging Canoe (first child)
   * Tache - same as Tarchee?
   * Dutsi Tarchee (also known as Dutch), born about 1740. Dutch was the father of Major Ridge and Oowatie. Oowatie, born about 1773, married Susanna Reese.
   * The Badger
   * Little Owl
   * Raven
   * Turtle At Home
   * Alexander Cameron, (an adopted white)
   * John Stuart was a soldier at Fort Loudon who was adopted by Attakullakulla and who later became Superintendent of Indian Affairs.

BAND / CLAN AFFILIATIONS: Wolf Clan

SIGNIFICANT POSITIONS: Supreme Chief of the Cherokee 1760-1775

MISCELLANEOUS HISTORY:

In 1730-1735 Attakullakulla went with a small group of other Cherokees to visit London. He was the youngest of the seven who went. At that time he was called Okoonaka, the White Owl, although some English newspapers persisted in calling him Captain Owean Nakan. It is estimated he was in his early twenties when he made this trilp.

The Cherokee Indians delighted the English residents and had their own eyes broadly opened to the attributes and strengths of white civilization. When they returned home, the English traders and officials made the most of this and over the next twenty years carefully cultivated the Cherokees by offering to help whenever the Cherokees needed it.

Attakullakulla was especially responsive and in 1757 he was instrumental in persuading the Governor of South Carolina to construct Fort Loudon to strengthen England's control over the area and to encourage more trade between the Cherokee and the Eastern coastal towns. In addition, Chief Little Carpenter invited several more traders to set up headquarters in Chota and to take Cherokee wives.

White Owl was related to the family from which many Cherokee leaders were drawn and was thus destined for greatness if he showed the mettle to grasp the opportunity which circumstances presented to him. He did, and he became Attakullakulla, whose voice was influential, and often dominated in the councils of the Cherokee Nation for nearly 50 years.

Nancy Ward and Attacullaculla were known as Peace Chiefs. During times of Peace the Chiefs wore white. The war council was composed of additional chiefs that only sat on the council during times of war. During times of war the chiefs wore Red. Thus, the color white symbolized peace and the color red symbolized war.

Attakullakulla was one of the few Cherokee leaders who depended not on words but on actions to secure a following. He commanded respect beacuse of his courage and fighting ability, which he ably demontrated in 1755 by netting five French prisoners in an expedition to the Illinois-Wasbash region, and by leading the unprecedented number of five hundred warriors to a decisive victory at Taliwa over the Creeks, whom they drove out of nothern Georgia.

Most of the modern American History books say Attakullakulla fought with the Americans in the American Revolution. His son, Dragging Canoe fought on the side of the British, with the Chickamagua Cherokees.

http://www.aaanativearts.com/cherokee/little-carpenter.htm

--------------------

ATTAKULLAKULLA

ca. 1700-1780

Attakullakulla was a powerful eighteenth-century Overhill Cherokee leader who played a critical and decisive role in shaping diplomatic, trade, and military relationships with the British Colonial governments of South Carolina and Virginia for over fifty years. He effectively led and acted as the primary spokesman for the Overhill Cherokees in the 1750s and 1760s, although apparently he never attained the official title of Uko, or foremost chief, within Cherokee society. He was probably born in the early 1700s, most likely along the French Broad River. In 1730 he was one of seven Cherokees who accompanied Sir Alexander Cumming to England. From about 1743 to 1748 Attakullakulla resided as captive among the Ottawas of eastern Canada, where he was afforded considerable freedom and became well regarded among the French.

He returned to the Overhill country about 1750 and quickly became second in authority to Connecorte, or Old Hop, the Uko at Chota, who was probably his uncle. By this time, whites knew Attakullakulla as Little Carpenter. Popular stories attributed his name to his ability to construct amicable relationships with whites, but it more likely referred to his small stature and to his woodworking skills. James Mooney suggested the derivation of Attakullakulla from the words for "wood" and for "something long leaning against another object."

In the 1750s Attakullakulla negotiated repeatedly with the Virginia and South Carolina Colonies as well as the French and British traders in the Ohio Valley to improve the abundance and availability of trade goods to the Cherokees. He also argued for increased colonial military presence in the Overhill villages, which led to the construction of the Virginia Fort and Fort Loudoun near the Overhill villages in 1756. In 1759 Chief Oconastota and twenty-eight of his followers were taken hostage at Fort Prince George as the result of misunderstandings concerning a joint military action with the British against the French. Although Attakullakulla secured Oconastota's release, some of the hostages were killed; the Cherokees retaliated with the siege of Fort Loudoun. Attakullakulla worked to prevent an escalation of violence. Placing himself at great personal risk, he managed to save John Stuart from massacre along with most of the Fort's garrison. Stuart was subsequently appointed superintendent of Indian affairs south of the Ohio.

Attakullakulla remained an active leader and negotiator for the Cherokees into the 1770s. When American Revolutionary forces under the command of William Christian occupied the Overhill villages in 1776, Attakullakulla arranged for their withdrawal and played a leading role in the 1777 peace negotiated at Long Island on the Holston. His influence diminished as Dragging Canoe, his son, and other young leaders continued Cherokee resistance to the Americans. Sometime between 1780 and 1785 Attakullakulla died.

Gerald F. Schroedl, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Suggested Reading(s): David Cockran, The Cherokee Frontier: Conflict and Survival, 1740-1762 (1962); James C. Kelly, "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Attakullakulla," Journal of Cherokee Studies 3 (1): 2-34.

http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=A045

Attacullaculla of Chota-Tenase, Principal Chief of the Cherokee, (ca. 1708–ca. 1777), also known as Little Carpenter, was a leading chief of the Cherokee Indians from 1761 to around 1775. He was known to the British as the "Prince of Chote-Tenase", or Prince of Chota, because his grandfather, Moytoy of Chota, had been the chief of the capital city, Chota-Tanasi. His name is also spelled Attakullakulla. His son was Dragging Canoe.

According to James Mooney, his Cherokee name was "Ata'-gul-kalu", which could be translated "leaning wood", from "ata" meaning "wood", and "gulkalu", a verb that implies something long and unsupported, leaning against some other object. His name "Little Carpenter" came from a maternal ancestor, Thomas Pasmere Carpenter, and Englishman of Norman descent.

Family tradition maintains that he was born on Seivers Island (near Chota) around 1708 to Nancy Moytoy (eldest daughter of Moytoy I b. 1683) and her husband Moytoy IV. Moytoy IV was an Algonquin named White Owl Raven Carpenter (also called Raven of Chota) who had been adopted by Moytoy II (Trader Tom Carpenter). He married Nionne Ollie, who was the daughter of his cousin Oconostota (the marriage was permissible because they were of different clans; he was Wolf Clan and she was Paint Clan). Among their children were Dragging Canoe and Dutsi, through whom Major Ridge and David Watie were grandchildren of Attacullaculla.

He was a member of the Cherokee delegation that traveled to England in 1730. In 1736, he rejected the advances of the French, who sent emissaries to the Overhill Cherokees. Three or four years later, he was captured by the Ottawa, allies of the French, who held him captive in Canada until 1748. Upon his return, he became one of the Cherokees' leading diplomats and an adviser to the Beloved Man of Chota. In May 1759, following a series of attacks by settlers and Cherokees against each other, Attacullaculla joined a delegation that went to Charleston to try to negotiate with South Carolina authorities. Governor William Henry Lyttleton seized the delegates as hostages until the Cherokees responsible for killing white settlers were surrendered. Having raised an expeditionary force, Lyttleton set out for Fort Prince George with the hostages in tow and arrived with 1700 men on December 9, 1759. Though freed soon after, Attacullaculla returned to Fort Prince George to negotiate for peace, but his efforts were thwarted by the more hawkish Oconostota. The Cherokees gave up two individuals and negotiated the release of a few hostages including Oconostota, who soon after lured Lt. Richard Coytmore out of the fort, waving a bridle over his head, and incited Cherokee warriors hiding in the woods to fire upon and kill Coytmore; white soldiers inside the fort then proceeded to murder all the Cherokees inside, and hostilities continued between the Cherokees and Anglo-Americans.

His death is believed to have occurred either in 1775 or 1777, after which he was succeeded by his cousin, Oconostota (who was also his father-in-law). Attacullaculla did not use the European title "Emperor of the Cherokees" that his uncles had.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attacullaculla

From James Hicks:

Attakullaculla "Leaning Wood"

Little Carpenter

Oukanaekah "the White Owl"

The Wise Councillor

  • ******************************************

from Don Chesnut's web page; www.users.mis.net/~chesnut/pages/cherokee.htm

Ata’-gul kalu’ :

a noted Cherokee chief, recognized by the British government as the head chief or "emperor" of the Nation, about 1760 and later, and commonly known to the whites as the Little Carpenter (Little Cornplanter, by mistake, in Haywood). The name is frequently spelled Atta-kulla-kulla, Ata-kullakulla or Ata-culculla. It may be rendered "Leaning wood," from ata’, "Wood" and gul kalu, a verb implying that something long is leaning, without sufficient support, against some other object; it has no first person form. Bartram describes him as "A man of remarkably small stature, slender and of a delicate frame, the only instance I saw in the Nation; but he is a man of superior abilities."

More About A-TA-GU-LA-GU-LA:

Attended: 1730, Delegation to King George II

Blood: 1/2 Cherokee, 1/2 Algonquin(?)

Chief: Bet. 1761 - 1775, Principal Chief, CN

Clan: Ani'-Wa'ya = Wolf Clan (Quatsy)

Signer: March 1775, Henderson's Treaty, Sycamore Shoals

from Sharon Reed, http://thejamesscrolls.blogspot.com/2009/04/chief-attakullakulla-little-carpenter.html:

Attacullaculla of Chota-Tenase, Principal Chief of the Cherokee, (ca. 1708–ca. 1777), also known as Little Carpenter, was a leading chief of the Cherokee Indians from 1761 to around 1775. He was known to the British as the "Prince of Chote-Tenase", or Prince of Chota, because his grandfather, Moytoy of Chota, had been the chief of the capital city, Chota-Tanasi. His name is also spelled Attakullakulla. His son was Dragging Canoe.

According to James Mooney, his Cherokee name was "Ata'-gul-kalu", which could be translated "leaning wood", from "ata" meaning "wood", and "gulkalu", a verb that implies something long and unsupported, leaning against some other object. His name "Little Carpenter" came from a maternal ancestor, Thomas Pasmere Carpenter, and Englishman of Norman descent.

Family tradition maintains that he was born on Seivers Island (near Chota) around 1708 to Nancy Moytoy (eldest daughter of Moytoy I b. 1683) and her husband Moytoy IV. Moytoy IV was an Algonquin named White Owl Raven Carpenter (also called Raven of Chota) who had been adopted by Moytoy II (Trader Tom Carpenter). He married Nionne Ollie, who was the daughter of his cousin Oconostota (the marriage was permissible because they were of different clans; he was Wolf Clan and she was Paint Clan). Among their children were Dragging Canoe and Dutsi, through whom Major Ridge and David Watie were grandchildren of Attacullaculla.

He was a member of the Cherokee delegation that traveled to England in 1730. In 1736, he rejected the advances of the French, who sent emissaries to the Overhill Cherokees. Three or four years later, he was captured by the Ottawa, allies of the French, who held him captive in Canada until 1748. Upon his return, he became one of the Cherokees' leading diplomats and an adviser to the Beloved Man of Chota.

In May 1759, following a series of attacks by settlers and Cherokees against each other, Attacullaculla joined a delegation that went to Charleston to try to negotiate with South Carolina authorities. Governor William Henry Lyttleton seized the delegates as hostages until the Cherokees responsible for killing white settlers were surrendered. Having raised an expeditionary force, Lyttleton set out for Fort Prince George with the hostages in tow and arrived with 1700 men on December 9, 1759. Though freed soon after, Attacullaculla returned to Fort Prince George to negotiate for peace, but his efforts were thwarted by the more hawkish Oconostota. The Cherokees gave up two individuals and negotiated the release of a few hostages including Oconostota, who soon after lured Lt. Richard Coytmore out of the fort, waving a bridle over his head, and incited Cherokee warriors hiding in the woods to fire upon and kill Coytmore; white soldiers inside the fort then proceeded to murder all the Cherokees inside, and hostilities continued between the Cherokees and Anglo-Americans.

He was actually a rather small man, not much over 5 feet. Most of the modern American History books contain the name of this man as having fought with the Americans in the American Revolution. His son, Dragging Canoe fought on the side of the British, the Chickamagua Cherokees.

His death is believed to have occurred either in 1775 or 1777, after which he was succeeded by his cousin, Oconostota (who was also his father-in-law). Attacullaculla did not use the European title "Emperor of the Cherokees" that his uncles had.

From Wikipedia:

Attakullakulla (Atagulkalu), known to whites as the Little Carpenter ... was the primary diplomat of the Cherokee in the mid-years of the 18th century and headman of Chota. He travelled to London in 1730, where he and six others signed the Articles of Friendship and Trade with George I of Great Britain. He served as the leading chief of the Cherokee until his death in 1777.

Attakullakulla (ca. 1708–ca. 1777), or Atagulkalu, known as Little Carpenter (Cherokee name Ata-gul' kalu, was First Beloved Man of the Cherokee Indians from 1761 to around 1775. Dragging Canoe, war leader of the Cherokee during the Chickamauga wars, was his son.

According to James Mooney, his Cherokee could be translated "leaning wood", from "ata" meaning "wood", and "gulkalu", a verb that implies something long and unsupported, leaning against some other object. ...

According to one of his sons, Turtle-at-Home, he was originally a member of a subtribe of the Algonquin Nipissing in the north captured as an infant during a raid and adopted by a minor chief. [1] He married Nionne Ollie, who was the daughter of his cousin Oconostota The marriage was permissible because they were of different clans; he was Wolf Clan and she was Paint Clan.

He was a member of the Cherokee delegation that traveled to England in 1730. In 1736, he rejected the advances of the French, who sent emissaries to the Overhill Cherokee. Three or four years later, he was captured by the Ottawa, allies of the French, who held him captive in Canada until 1748. Upon his return, he became one of the Cherokees' leading diplomats and an adviser to the Beloved Man of Chota.

In May 1759, following a series of attacks by settlers and Cherokees against each other, Attakullakulla joined a delegation that went to Charleston to try to negotiate with South Carolina authorities. Governor William Henry Lyttleton seized the delegates as hostages until the Cherokees responsible for killing white settlers were surrendered. Having raised an expeditionary force, Lyttleton set out for Fort Prince George with the hostages in tow and arrived with 1700 men on December 9, 1759. Though freed soon after, Attakullakulla returned to Fort Prince George to negotiate for peace, but his efforts were thwarted by the more hawkish Oconostota. The Cherokees gave up two individuals and negotiated the release of a few hostages including Oconostota, who soon after lured Lt. Richard Coytmore out of the fort, waving a bridle over his head, and incited Cherokee warriors hiding in the woods to fire upon and kill Coytmore; white soldiers inside the fort then proceeded to murder all the Cherokees inside, and hostilities continued between the Cherokees and Anglo-Americans.

His death is believed to have occurred in 1775, after which he was succeeded by his cousin, Oconostota (who was also his father-in-law).

References

  1. ^ Klink and Talman, The journal of Major John Norton, p. 42

Sources

   * Entry from the Tennessee Encyclopedia
   * Kelly, James C. "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Attakullakulla." Journal of Cherokee Studies 3:1 (Winter 1978), 2-34.
   * Klink, Karl, and James Talman, ed. The Journal of Major John Norton. (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1970).
   * Mooney, James. "Myths of the Cherokee" (1900, reprint 1995).
   * Litton, Gaston L. "The Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation", Chronicles of Oklahoma 15:3 (September 1937), 253-270 (retrieved August 18, 2006).

____________________________________________________

Treaty with the Cherokee

Treaty of Sycamore Shoals

a.k.a Henderson’s Purchase

Transylvania Land Company

Mar. 17 1775 | Private Purchase

On 27 August 1774, Richard Henderson, a judge from North Carolina, organized a land speculation company with a number of other prominent North Carolinians. Originally called "Richard Henderson and Company", the name was changed to the "Louisa Company", and then to the "Transylvania Company" on 6 January 1775. The men hoped to purchase Kentucky land from the Cherokees, who still had a claim to the region, and establish a British proprietary colony.

In March 1775, Henderson met with more than 1,200 Cherokees at Sycamore Shoals (present day Elizabethton in northeastern Tennessee), including Cherokee leaders such as Attacullaculla, Oconostota, and Dragging Canoe. In the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, also known as the Treaty of Watauga, dated March 14, 1775, Henderson purchased all the land lying between the Cumberland River, the Cumberland Mountains, and the Kentucky River, and situated south of the Ohio River. The land thus delineated, 20 million acres (81,000 km²), encompassed an area half the size of present-day Kentucky. Henderson's purchase was in violation of North Carolina and Virginia law, as well as the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited private purchase of American Indian land. Henderson may have believed that a recent British legal opinion (the Camden-Yorke opinion) had made such purchases legal. (wikipedia.com)

Robert Addington (in A History of Scott County, Virginia, 1932) reports that Daniel Boone negotiated the treaty with the Cherokee on Henderson's behalf, and that more than 1200 Indians attended the meeting, and that the Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee, excepting Dragging Canoe, accepted and signed the treaty.

Hawkins County Tennessee Deed Book

[Pages 147-150]

The transcription is made from a typescript copy.

Original transcriber unknown.

http://www.tngenweb.org/cessions/17750317.html

       This is a copy of the original deed recorded in Deed Book 1 Page 147.
       There may be typographical errors or misspelled word in this copy.
           This indenture made this 17th day of March in the year of our Lord Christ 1775, between Oconistoto, chief warrior and first representative of the Cherokee Nation or tribe of Indians, and Attacuttuillah and Sewanooko, otherwise Coronok, chiefs appointed by the warriors and other head men to convey for the whole nation --- 

Beginning the aborigines and sole owners by occupancy from the beginning of time of the lands on the waters of the Ohio River from the mouth of the Tennessee River up the said Ohio to the mouth or emptying of the Great Canaway or New River, and so cross by a southward line to the Virginia line by a direction that shall stretch or hit the Holston River six English miles above or eastward of the Long Islands therein, and other lands and territories thereunto adjoining [Great Grant*], on the one part,

and Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, Nathaniel Hart, John Williams, John Lutterell, William Johnston, James Hogg, David Hart, and Leonard Hendly Bullock, of the province of North Carolina, of the other part,

witnesseth that the said Oconistoto for himself and the rest of the said nation of Indians, for and in consideration of the sum of ten thousand pounds lawfull money of Great Britton to them in hand paid by the said Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, Nathaniel Hart, John Williams, John Lutterell, William Johnston, James Hogg, David Hart, and Leonard Hendly Bullock,

the receipt whereof the said Oconistoto and his whole nation do for themselves and the whole tribe of people, have granted, bargained, and sold, aliened, enfeoffed, released, and confirmed, and by presents do grant, bargain, and sell, alien, enfeoff, release, and confirm to the said Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, Nathaniel Hart, John Williams, John Lutterell, William Johnston, James Hogg, David Hart, and Leonard Hendly Bullock, their heirs and assigns forever,

all the tract, territory, or parcel of land beginning on the Holston River where the courses of Powels Mountain strikes the same, thence up the said river as it meanders to where the Virginia line crosses the same, thence along the line run by Donelson & Co. to a point six English miles eastward of the Long Islands in said Holston River; thence a direct course toward the mouth of the Great Canaway until it reaches the top of Powels Mountain, thence westward along the said ridge to the beginning [Path Deed*], (End of Page 147)

...Under the yearly rent of four pence as to be holden of the chief Lord or Lords of the fee ot the premises by the rents and service thereof due and to right accustomed.

And the said Oconistoto and the said nation for themselves do covenant and grant to and with the said Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, Nathaniel Hart, John Williams, John Lutterell, William Johnston, James Hogg, David Hart, and Leonard Hendly Bullock, their heirs and assigns that they, the said Oconistoto and the rest of the Nation and people now are lawfully and rightly seized and in their own right of a good, sure, perfect, absolute, and indefeasible estate of inheritance in fee simple of and in all and singular the said Messuage and premise above mentioned and of all and every part and parcel thereof, with the appurtinances without any manner of condition, mortgage, limitation of use or uses, or other matter, course, or thing to alter, change, charge, or determine the same and also the said Oconistoto and the aforesaid nation now have good right, full power, and lawfull authority in their own right to grant, bargain, and sell and convey the Messuage territory and premises above mentioned with appurtinances unto the said Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, Nathaniel Hart, John Williams, John Lutterell, William Johnston, James Hogg, David Hart, and Leonard Hendly Bullock, their heirs and assigns to the only proper use and behoof of the said Richard Henderson & Co. according to the true intent and meaning of these presents

... In witness whereof the said Oconistoto, Attacullacullah, Sewanooko, otherwise Coronok, the three cheifs appointed by the warriors and other head men to sign for and in behalf of the whole nation hath hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals the day and year above written.

           Signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of
           William Bailey Smith	Oconistoto (His Mark) Seal
           George Lumpkins	
           Thomas Houghton	Attacullacullah (His Mark) Seal
           Caselton Brooks	Sewanooko, otherwise Coronok (His Mark) Seal
           John Bacon	
           Tilman Dixon	
           Valention Sercey	
           Thomas Price	Joseph Vann Linquister

Kurt Kuhlman, in his 1994 dissertation proposal (http://www.warhorsesim.com/papers/Cherokee.htm), wrote:

Henderson's "purchase" was tainted in several ways. Not only was it illegal under British law (the Proclamation of 1763 prohibited private land deals with the Indians), other tribes had claims on the land in question (it was used as hunting grounds by several tribes, including the Shawnee), and it was even questionable whether the Cherokees actually sold Henderson the land as he claimed. Worse, the cession was denounced during the negotiations by Dragging Canoe, leader of the militant Cherokee faction and the son of Attakullaculla, one of the chiefs who signed the treaty with Henderson.

Henderson's purchase did not immediately lead to war, but it discredited the leaders who had negotiated the treaty (Attakullaculla, Oconostota, and the Raven), thus strengthening the position of the militant Cherokees. As the turmoil of the Revolution reached the frontiers of European settlement, the militants prevailed and the request for war delivered by a delegation of northern Indians in 1776 was accepted. The result was disastrous for the Cherokee. Three separate militia armies invaded the Cherokee lands during 1776, burning towns and crops and leaving devastation in their wake. At the price of additional land cessions, the Cherokees managed to secure peace with the state governments in 1777. Dragging Canoe refused to accept this policy and his militant faction seceded from the Cherokee, moving west and establishing new towns on the Tennessee River. The Chickamauga, as they became known, remained at war with the foreign settlements west of the mountains almost continually for the next 17 years.

-------------------- Attakullakulla (ca. 1708–ca. 1777) or Atagulkalu (Cherokee, Ata-gul' kalu) — known to whites as Little Carpenter — was First Beloved Man of the Cherokee Indians from 1761 to around 1775. Dragging Canoe, war leader of the Cherokee during the Chickamauga wars, was his son.

According to James Mooney, Attakullakulla's Cherokee name could be translated "leaning wood", from "ada" meaning "wood", and "gulkalu", a verb that implies something long and unsupported, leaning against some other object. His name "Little Carpenter" derived from the English meaning of his Cherokee name along with a reference to his physical stature.

According to one of his sons, Turtle-at-Home, Attakullakulla was originally a member of a subtribe of the Algonquin Nipissing in the north captured as an infant during a raid and adopted by a minor chief.[1] He married Nionne Ollie, who was the daughter of his cousin Oconostota The marriage was permissible because they were of different clans; he was Wolf Clan and she was Paint Clan.

He was a member of the Cherokee delegation that traveled to England in 1730. In 1736, he rejected the advances of the French, who sent emissaries to the Overhill Cherokee. Three or four years later, he was captured by the Ottawa, allies of the French, who held him captive in Canada until 1748. Upon his return, he became one of the Cherokees' leading diplomats and an adviser to the Beloved Man of Chota.

In May 1759, following a series of attacks by settlers and Cherokees against each other, Attakullakulla joined a delegation that went to Charleston to try to negotiate with South Carolina authorities. Governor William Henry Lyttleton seized the delegates as hostages until the Cherokees responsible for killing white settlers were surrendered. Having raised an expeditionary force, Lyttleton set out for Fort Prince George with the hostages in tow and arrived with 1700 men on December 9, 1759. Though freed soon after, Attakullakulla returned to Fort Prince George to negotiate for peace, but his efforts were thwarted by the more hawkish Oconostota. The Cherokees gave up two individuals and negotiated the release of a few hostages including Oconostota, who soon after lured Lt. Richard Coytmore out of the fort, waving a bridle over his head, and incited Cherokee warriors hiding in the woods to fire upon and kill Coytmore; white soldiers inside the fort then proceeded to murder all the Cherokees inside, and hostilities continued between the Cherokees and Anglo-Americans.

His death is believed to have occurred in 1775, after which he was succeeded by his cousin, Oconostota (who was also his father-in-law).

References1.^ Klink and Talman, The journal of Major John Norton, p. 42 SourcesEntry from the Tennessee Encyclopedia Kelly, James C. "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Attakullakulla." Journal of Cherokee Studies 3:1 (Winter 1978), 2-34. Klink, Karl, and James Talman, ed. The Journal of Major John Norton. (Toronto: Champlain Society, 1970). Mooney, James. "Myths of the Cherokee" (1900, reprint 1995). Litton, Gaston L. "The Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee Nation", Chronicles of Oklahoma 15:3 (September 1937), 253-270 (retrieved August 18, 2006). Preceded by Standing Turkey First Beloved Man 1761–1775 Succeeded by Oconostota

-------------------- According to one of his sons, Turtle-at-Home, Attakullakulla was originally a member of a subtribe of the Algonquin Nipissing in the north captured as an infant during a raid and adopted by a minor chief.[1] He married Nionne Ollie, who was the daughter of his cousin Oconostota The marriage was permissible because they were of different clans; he was Wolf Clan and she was Paint Clan.

He was a member of the Cherokee delegation that traveled to England in 1730. In 1736, he rejected the advances of the French, who sent emissaries to the Overhill Cherokee. Three or four years later, he was captured by the Ottawa, allies of the French, who held him captive in Canada until 1748. Upon his return, he became one of the Cherokees' leading diplomats and an adviser to the Beloved Man of Chota.

In May 1759, following a series of attacks by settlers and Cherokees against each other, Attakullakulla joined a delegation that went to Charleston to try to negotiate with South Carolina authorities. Governor William Henry Lyttleton seized the delegates as hostages until the Cherokees responsible for killing white settlers were surrendered. Having raised an expeditionary force, Lyttleton set out for Fort Prince George with the hostages in tow and arrived with 1700 men on December 9, 1759. Though freed soon after, Attakullakulla returned to Fort Prince George to negotiate for peace, but his efforts were thwarted by the more hawkish Oconostota. The Cherokees gave up two individuals and negotiated the release of a few hostages including Oconostota, who soon after lured Lt. Richard Coytmore out of the fort, waving a bridle over his head, and incited Cherokee warriors hiding in the woods to fire upon and kill Coytmore; white soldiers inside the fort then proceeded to murder all the Cherokees inside, and hostilities continued between the Cherokees and Anglo-Americans.

His death is believed to have occurred in 1775, after which he was succeeded by his cousin, Oconostota (who was also his father-in-law).

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Attakullakulla / Onacona's Timeline

1699
1699
Seviers Island, Tennessee
1723
1723
Age 24
1726
1726
Age 27
1730
1730
Age 31
1730
Age 31
Cherokee, Alabama, United States
1731
1731
Age 32
Monroe, TN, USA
1734
1734
Age 35
Overhill Settlements, Monroe, Tennessee, United States
1735
1735
Age 36
Cherokee, Alabama, USA
1736
1736
Age 37
Cherokee, Alabama, United States
1737
1737
Age 38
Cherokee Nation Bird Clan