Audoin, King of the Lombards

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Audoin, re dei Longobardi

Also Known As: "Auduin", "ex genere Gausus"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Lombardy, Italy
Death: Died in Pannonia (Present Hungary)
Immediate Family:

Son of Pitzias dei Longobardi and Menia
Husband of Rodelinde
Father of ... of the Lombards; Alboin, King of the Lombards and ... of the Lombards

Occupation: King of the Lombards, Roi, des Lombards, King of Lombards, Roy des Lombards, Roi des Lombards (10e, 546-561)
Managed by: Ben M. Angel
Last Updated:

About Audoin, King of the Lombards

Ben M. Angel's summary:

Relationships:

Parents:

  • Unknown Lombard King of the Pissa Clan, family name Gausus
  • Menia (from her second marriage)

Siblings: Unknown.

Spouses and children:

First wife Rodelinda/Roddenda

  • 1. Alboin (d. 572), King of the Lombards (560-572)
  • 2. Unknown father of Gisulf, Shield-bearer for Alboin King of the Lombards, Duke of Friuli (parentage uncertain, but FMG presumes from first wife)

Second wife, unknown daughter of Hermanafrid, King of the Thuringians, and Amalaberga of the Ostrogoths. (English Wikipedia apparently combines the two wives, regarding Rodelinda/Roddenda as the daughter of Hermanafrid and Amalaberga.)

Basic information and justifications:

Birth: Unknown.

Marriages: Unknown dates and locations.

Death: 560 - Pannonia (present Hungary)

Burial: Unknown.

Occupation: King of the Lombards (547-560) in Pannonia.

Alternate names: Auduin, dynastic name Gausus.

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From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Hungary Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_Toc146273206

AUDOIN 547-560, ALBOIN 560-572


[---] . (Unknown) King of the Pissa.

m MENIA ---. The Historia Langobardorum names "mater…Audoin…Menia uxor fuit Pissæ regis"[149]. This wording suggests that "Pissæ regis" was not the father of Audoin, presumably Menia's second husband. It is assumed that "Pissæ" indicates that he was king of a tribe of that name.

[King of the Pissa] & his wife had one child:

1. AUDOIN (-in Pannonia 560).

  • The Historia Langobardorum names "Audoin ex genere…Gausus" and his mother "Menia uxor…Pissæ regis"[150].
  • He was installed as AUDOIN King of the Lombards in Hungary in [547] in succession to King Walthari. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Auduin" reigned after Walthari, specifying that he brought the Lombards into Pannonia and, in a later passage, stating that they remained in Pannonia for 43 years[151]. Byzantium encouraged the Lombards to consolidate their position in Pannonia by granting them the city of Noricum and other strongholds, though it is reported that they celebrated by raiding Dalmatia and Illyricum[152].
  • The war with the Gepids, which started in [547], was settled by a peace treaty imposed by Emperor Justinian in 552, under which the Lombards sent troops to Italy to help Narses rout the Ostrogoths[153].
  • The Historia Langobardorum records that Audoin died in Pannonia[154].

m firstly RODELINDA [Roddenda], daughter of ---.

  • The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Roddenda" as mother of "Albuin filius [Auduini]"[155]. The Historia Langobardorum names "Rodelenda" as mother of Alboin[156]. Paulus Diaconus names "Rodelindam" as wife of Audoin and mother of Alboin[157].

m secondly --- of the Thuringians, daughter of HERMINAFRID King of the Thuringians & his wife Amalaberga the Ostrogoth.

  • Procopius records that "Amalafridus, vir Gotthus, ex filia nepos Amalafridæ sororis Theoderici Gotthorum regis et filius Hermenefridi regis Thoringorum…sororem eius” married "Anduino Langobardorum regi"[158]. The Codex Theodosianus records that the daughter of Amalaberga became the second wife of King Audoin[159].

King Audoin & his first wife had [two] children:

a) ALBOIN (-murdered 28 Jun 572).

  • The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Albuin" as son of "Auduin"[160]. Paulus Diaconus names "Alboin, filius Audoin" when recording his succession[161]. He succeeded in 560 as ALBOIN King of the Lombards in Pannonia. He was crowned ALBOIN King of the Lombards in Italy at Milan in [570].

b) [---. m ---.] (or father of...) GISULF .

  • Shield-bearer of Alboin King of the Lombards, who installed him as duke in the region of Friuli after the Longobard migration into Italy in [569][162]. Paulus Diaconus records that King Alboin installed "Gisulfum…suum nepotem" as "ducem…[in] Foroiulanæ civitati"[163]. The Chronicle of Andreas Bergomatis records that Alboin conceded Friuli to "nepoti sui Gisolfi"[164]. The precise relationship between Gisulf and King Alboin is unknown and may have been more remote than implied by "nephew" if the word nepos if translated strictly in these passages.

References:

  • [149] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9.
  • [150] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9.
  • [151] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4.
  • [152] Procopius, III 33, cited in Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), p. 35.
  • [153] Christie (1998), p. 36.
  • [154] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9.
  • [155] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4.
  • [156] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9.
  • [157] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 68.
  • [158] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico IV.25, p. 593.
  • [159] Mommsen, T. (ed) (1954) Codex Theodisianus Vol 1 (2nd edn. reprint, Berlin), VII 8.5, p. 328, cited in Wolfram (1998), pp. 320 and 470.
  • [160] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4.
  • [161] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.23, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 61.
  • [162] Christie (1998), pp. 76-7.
  • [163] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.9, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 77.
  • [164] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232.

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From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#_Toc203638177


Chapter 3. KINGS of the LANGOBARDS (LOMBARDS) [570]-774

The Langobards, more often referred to as the Lombards, were a nomadic people who installed themselves in what is now Hungary. The Istoria Longobardorum states that their name derives from "langeth" (long) and "bardozab" (beard) in their own language[339].

The first historically attested homeland of the "Langobardi" was in the lower Elbe valley in northern Germany[340]. They migrated southeastwards, probably along the valley of the River Elbe, towards Bohemia, where the first Lombard king Agelmund, son of Agio, was elected[341]. He was killed in a Hunnic assault on a Lombard settlement, although his successor king Lamissio achieved a notable victory against the Huns[342].

The migration of the Lombards continued in the late 5th century into Moravia, where they displaced the Heruls who had been the allies of the Ostrogoths of Italy, and into Pannonia (north-west Hungary) in the 520s.


After the Byzantines finally defeated the Italian Ostrogoth kings in 552, the Lombards quickly took control of the whole of Italy as far as the Alps. However, their position was not strong, especially after Emperor Justin II forced the retirement of the veteran governor Narses. He retired to Naples and from there, it is alleged, invited the Lombards to migrate en masse from Pannonia into Italy[343].

The migration took place in 568/69, maybe involving around 150,000 persons, although it is not known whether this involved a complete abandonment of the Lombard settlements in Pannonia[344].

Alboin was crowned first Lombard king in Italy at Milan in [570], and subsequently installed his capital at Pavia. Lombard rule continued in northern Italy until 774, when the Carolingian Frankish King Charles I (later Emperor Charlemagne) invaded, deposed King Desiderius and proclaimed himself king of Italy.


The dating of the kings of the Lombards must be considered approximate as it depends on calculation from the lengths of their reigns as stated in Lombard primary sources, not all of which are consistent with each other. Few dates can be corroborated accurately against non-Lombard sources. There are no known descents from the Lombard kings linking to families either of later Italian rulers or nobles in other European states.

However, it is likely that the Lombards rulers did leave descendants. For example, Paulus Diaconus records that Gumpert, younger brother of King Aripert II, emigrated to France with three sons[345]. It also interesting to note onomastic connections between the Lombard kings and later nobility in Germany. Of particular note in this respect are the names Godeschalk, Cunincpert [Kunbert] and Liutpert.


As will be seen below, according to the primary sources there were nine separate family groups of Lombard kings in Italy. There is no information which links any of these families to each other through the agnatic line.

It appears that the Lombard nobles were formed into clans, probably named after early leaders. The primary sources name four such clans:

  • 1. Lethings. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum specifies that King Wacho and his family were "Lethinges"[346], presumably descendants of King Leth, the third Lombard ruler. This line became extinct in the known male line in 547, before the Lombard migration into Italy. Details of are set out in HUNGARY.
  • 2. Gausus. The Historia Langobardorum states that King Audoin was "ex genere…Gausus"[347], ancestors of the first family group shown below, that of King Alboin who was installed as the first Lombard king in Italy in [570].
  • 3. Caupus. A late manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that King Ariowalt (who ruled in Italy from 625 to 636) was "ex genere Caupus"[348].
  • 4. Arodus. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum states that King Rothari (who ruled in Italy from 636 to 652) was "ex genere Arodus"[349].

No documentary evidence has been found which names the clans of the other six royal family groups shown below.


The genealogies of the Lombard kings are sparse, containing little information on collateral lines, daughters, children who died young or, more surprisingly, the Lombard queens.

---

ALBOIN 570-572 (Audoin's son):


ALBOIN, son of AUDOIN King of the Lombards & his first wife --- (-murdered Verona 28 Jun 572).

  • The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Albuin" as son of "Auduin"[353]. Paulus Diaconus names "Alboin, filius Audoin" when recording his succession[354].
  • He succeeded in 560 as ALBOIN King of the Lombards in Pannonia.

References:

  • [339] Epitome ex Pauli Historia Factæ II, Istoria Lonogobardorum, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 196.
  • [340] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), p. 1.
  • [341] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.13-14, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 56-7.
  • [342] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.16-17, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 57-8.
  • [343] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 74.
  • [344] Christie (1998), p. 64.
  • [345] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176.
  • [346] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 3 and 4.
  • [347] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9.
  • [348] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 6 and 7.
  • [349] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6.
  • [353] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4.
  • [354] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.23, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 61.

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From the Wikipedia page on Audoin:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audoin

Alduin, Auduin, or Audoin was king of the Lombards from 546 to 565. The Lombards became, under him, fœderati of the Byzantines (541), signing a treaty with Justinian I which gave them power in Pannonia and the north. Beginning in 551, he was obliged to send troops to serve Narses in Italy against the Ostrogoths. The next year (552), he sent over 5,000 men to defeat the Goths on the sides of Vesuvius. He died in 563 or 565 and was succeeded by his son, Alboin, who brought the Lombards into Italia.

He married Rodelinda, the daughter of Amalaberga and Hermanfrid, king of the Thuringii.[1]

Notes

1.^ "German Tribes org Lombard Kings". GermanTribes.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-18.

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From the Wikpedia page on Walthari, Audoin's predecessor as King of the Lombards:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waltari,_King_of_the_Lombards

Waltari son of Wacho from his third wife Silinga, was a king of the Lombards from 539-46. He was an infant king, and the rule was administered by Audoin. Audoin probably killed Waltari before he reached manhood, in order to gain the throne for himself in ca. 546, and led the Lombards into Pannonia.[1] Procopius says he died of disease. He was the last of the Lething Dynasty

Notes

1.^ "German Tribes org Lombard Kings". GermanTribes.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-18. -------------------- Alduin, Auduin, or Audoin was king of the Lombards from 546 to 565. The Lombards became, under him, a fœderatus of the Byzantines (541), signing a treaty with Justinian I which gave them power in Pannonia and the north. Beginning in 551, he was obliged to send troops to serve Narses in Italy against the Ostrogoths. The next year (552), he sent over 5,000 men to defeat the Goths on the sides of Vesuvius. He died in 563 or 565 and was succeeded by his son, Alboin, who brought the Lombards into Italia.

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Audoin, King of the Lombards's Timeline

495
495
Lombardy, Italy
500
500
Lombardy, Italy
505
505
Age 5
Bavaria, Schwaben, Germany
525
525
Age 25
530
530
Age 30
Regnum Langobardorum, Pannonia Basin
565
565
Age 65
Pannonia (Present Hungary)
????