Balian d'Ibelin, Lord of Ibelin (c.1143 - 1193) MP

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Nicknames: "he is sometimes known as Balian the Younger or Balian II when his father is also referred to as Balian. He is also called Balian of Ramla or Balian of Nablus. In Latin his name appears variously as Balian", "Barisan", "Barisanus", "Balianus", "Balisan", "and Bal..."
Birthplace: Of,Ibelin,,Palestine
Death: Died in Principality of Antioch, Syria
Occupation: Seigneur, Sieur, d'Ibelin, de Naplouse, Herre i Nablus
Managed by: Erik Harald Meier
Last Updated:

About Balian d'Ibelin, Lord of Ibelin

The family of Balian II d'IBELIN and Marie COMNÈNE

[132085] IBELIN (d'), Balian II (..), seigneur de Naplouse

  • married about 1180

COMNÈNE, Marie (Jean & Marie TARONITÈS [132086])

     1) Helvise, married 1202 fin Guy de MONTFORT

Bibliographie : Mémoires (Société généalogique canadienne-française); Histoire de la maison royale de France (Père Anselme)

http://www.francogene.com/quebec--genealogy/132/132085.php -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balian_of_Ibelin

Balian of Ibelin (early 1140s—1193) was an important noble in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century. -------------------- Balian of Ibelin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Balian of Ibelin (early 1140s – 1193) was an important noble in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century.

Early life

Balian was the youngest son of Barisan of Ibelin, and brother of Hugh and Baldwin. His father, who was probably Italian, had been a knight in the County of Jaffa, and had been rewarded with the lordship of Ibelin after the revolt of Hugh II of Le Puiset. Barisan married Helvis of Ramla, heiress of the wealthy lordship of Ramla. Balian's name was also Barisan, but he seems to have adapted the name (found in Tuscany and Liguria) to the Old French "Balian" c. 1175-76; he is sometimes known as Balian the Younger or Balian II when his father is also referred to as Balian. He is also called Balian of Ramla or Balian of Nablus. In Latin his name appears variously as Balian, Barisan, Barisanus, Balianus, Balisan, and Balisanus. Arabic sources call him Balian ibn Barzan. His precise year of birth is unknown, but he was of the age of majority (usually 15) by 1158, when he first appears in charters, having been described as under-age ("infra annos") in 1155. (H. E. Mayer has suggested a limited degree of competence may have been accepted from the age of 8, reducing Balian's age further, but the examples given of this are of males of the royal house, whose situation was somewhat different.)

After the death of Balian's eldest brother Hugh c. 1169, the castle of Ibelin passed to the next brother, Baldwin. Baldwin, preferring to remain lord of Ramla, gave it to Balian. Balian held Ibelin as a vassal of his brother, and indirectly as a rear-vassal of the king, from whom Baldwin held Ramla.

[edit]Succession disputes

Balian and Baldwin supported Raymond III of Tripoli over Miles of Plancy as regent for King Baldwin IV in 1174, and in 1177 the brothers were present at the Battle of Montgisard, leading the vanguard victoriously against the strongest point of the Muslim line. That year Balian also married Maria Comnena, widow of King Amalric I, and became stepfather to their daughter Princess Isabella. He received the lordship of Nablus, which had been a dower gift to Maria following her marriage to Amalric. In 1179, Baldwin was captured by Saladin after the Battle of Jacob's Ford, and Balian helped arrange for his ransom and release the next year; the ransom was eventually paid by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus, Maria's great-uncle.

In 1183 Balian and Baldwin supported Raymond against Guy of Lusignan, husband of Sibylla of Jerusalem and by now regent for Baldwin IV, who was dying of leprosy. The king had his 5-year-old nephew Baldwin of Montferrat crowned as co-king in his own lifetime, in an attempt to prevent Guy from succeeding as king. Shortly before his death in spring 1185, Baldwin IV ordered a formal crown-wearing by his nephew at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. It was Balian himself - a notably tall man - who carried the child Baldwin V on his shoulder at the ceremony, signifying the support of Isabella's family for her nephew. Soon after, the 8-year old boy became sole king. When he, too, died in 1186, Balian and Maria, with Raymond's support, put forward Maria's daughter Isabella, then about 14, as a candidate for the throne. However, her husband, Humphrey IV of Toron, refused the crown and swore fealty to Guy. Balian reluctantly also paid homage to Guy, while his brother refused to do so and exiled himself to Antioch. Baldwin placed Balian in charge of raising his son Thomas, the future lord of Ramla, who did not go with his father to Antioch.

[edit]Dispute between Raymond and Guy

Balian remained in the kingdom, as an advisor to Guy. At the end of 1186, Saladin, the sultan of Egypt and Damascus, threatened the borders of the kingdom after Guy's ally Raynald of Chatillon, lord of Oultrejordain, had attacked a Muslim caravan. Saladin was allied with the garrison of Tiberias in the north of the kingdom, a territory held by Raymond III. Guy gathered his army at Nazareth, planning to besiege Tiberias, but Balian disagreed with this, and instead suggested that Guy send an embassy to Raymond in Tripoli, hoping the two could be reconciled before Guy made a foolish attack on Saladin's larger army. The first embassy was a failure and the situation remained unchanged throughout the early months of 1187. After Easter of that year, Balian, Gerard of Ridefort (Grand Master of the Knights Templar), Roger des Moulins (Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller), Reginald of Sidon, and Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre were sent on a new embassy to Tripoli. During the journey they stopped at Balian's fief of Nablus, and Balian planned to remain behind briefly while the others went ahead. On May 1, the Templars and Hospitallers were defeated by Saladin's son al-Afdal at the Battle of Cresson; Balian was still a day behind, and had also stopped at Sebastea to celebrate a feast day. After reaching the castle of La Fève, where the Templars and Hospitallers had camped, he found that the place was deserted, and soon heard news of the disastrous battle from the few survivors. Raymond heard about the battle as well and met the embassy at Tiberias, and agreed to accompany them back to Jerusalem.

[edit]The Battle of Hattin

Since al-Afdal's army had been allowed to enter the kingdom through their alliance with Raymond, the count now regretted his actions and reconciled with Guy. Guy marched north and camped at Sephoria, but insisted on marching the army across a dry and barren plain to relieve Tiberias. The army had no water and was constantly harassed by Saladin's troops, and was finally surrounded at the Horns of Hattin outside Tiberias early in July. In the battle that followed on July 4, Balian and Joscelin III of Edessa commanded the rearguard, but the crusader army was completely defeated. The anonymous text, De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum Libellus claims that Balian, Raymond and Reginald of Sidon fled the field in the middle of the battle, trampling "the Christians, the Turks and the Cross" in the process - but this is not corroborated by other accounts, and likely reflects the author's hostility to the Poleins (a European born in the Levant).

The defeat was a disaster for the Kingdom of Jerusalem: King Guy was taken prisoner, and nearly every town and castle soon fell to Saladin. Balian, Raymond, Reginald, and Payen of Haifa were among the few leading nobles who managed to escape to Tyre. Raymond and Reginald soon left to attend to the defence of their own territories, and Tyre came under the leadership of Conrad of Montferrat, Baldwin V's paternal uncle, who had arrived not long after Hattin. Balian was to become one of his closest allies. Leaving Tyre, Balian asked Saladin for permission to return through the lines to Jerusalem to escort his wife and their children to Tripoli. Saladin allowed this, provided that Balian leave the city and take an oath to never raise arms against him.

[edit]Defense of Jerusalem

When Balian arrived in the city, the inhabitants begged him to stay, and he was absolved of his oath to Saladin by Patriarch Eraclius, who argued that the greater need of Christendom was stronger than his oath to a non-Christian. Balian was recruited to lead the defence of the city, but he found that there were under fourteen, possibly as few as two, other knights there, so he created sixty new knights from the ranks of the burgesses. Queen Sibylla seems to have played little part in the defence, and oaths were taken to Balian as lord. With Eraclius, he prepared for the inevitable siege by storing food and money. Saladin indeed arrived to besiege the city in September, after he had conquered almost all of the rest of the kingdom, including Ibelin, Nablus, Ramla, and Ascalon. The sultan felt no ill-will to Balian for breaking his oath, and arranged for an escort to accompany Maria and their children to Tripoli. As the highest ranking lord remaining in Jerusalem, Balian, as Ibn al-Athir wrote, was seen by the Muslims as holding a rank "more or less equal to that of a king."

Saladin was able to knock down portions of the walls, but was unable to gain entrance to the city. Balian then rode out to meet with the sultan, to report to him that the defenders would rather kill each other and destroy the city than see it taken by force. After negotiations, it was decided that the city would be handed over peacefully, and that Saladin would free seven thousand men for 30000 bezants; two women or ten children would be permitted to take the place of one man for the same price. Balian handed over the keys to the Tower of David (the citadel) on October 2. There was a 50-day period for the payment of ransoms. Those who could not pay for their freedom were forced into slavery; Saladin freed some of them, however, and allowed for an orderly march away from Jerusalem, preventing the sort of massacre that had occurred when the crusaders captured the city in 1099. Balian and Patriarch Eraclius had offered themselves as hostages for the ransoming of the remaining Frankish citizens, but Saladin had refused. The ransomed inhabitants marched away in three columns. Balian and the Patriarch led the third, which was the last to leave the city, probably around November 20. Balian joined his wife and children in Tripoli.

Balian as king-maker, and the Third Crusade

The fall of Jerusalem, and the death of Sibylla at the Siege of Acre in 1190, led to a dispute over the throne of the kingdom. Balian's stepdaughter Isabella was now rightful queen, but Guy refused to concede his title, and Isabella's husband Humphrey - who had let her cause down in 1186 - remained loyal to him. If Isabella were to succeed, she needed a politically acceptable and militarily competent husband, the obvious candidate being Conrad of Montferrat, who also had some claim as Baldwin V's paternal uncle. Balian and Maria seized Isabella and talked her into agreeing to a divorce. There were precedents: the annulment of Amalric I's marriage to Agnes of Courtenay, and the unsuccessful attempts to force Sibylla to divorce Guy.

Isabella's marriage was annulled by Ubaldo Lanfranchi, Archbishop of Pisa, who was Papal legate, and Philip of Dreux, Bishop of Beauvais. The Bishop of Beauvais then married her to Conrad (controversially, since his brother had been married to her half-sister and it was uncertain whether he had been divorced by his Byzantine wife). The succession dispute was prolonged by the arrival of Richard I of England and Philip II of France on the Third Crusade: Richard supported Guy, as a Poitevin vassal, while Philip supported Conrad, his late father's cousin.

Balian and Maria's role in Isabella's divorce and their support for Conrad as king earned them the bitter hatred of Richard and his supporters. Ambroise, who wrote a poetic account of the crusade, called Balian "more false than a goblin" and said he "should be hunted with dogs". The anonymous author of the Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi wrote that Balian was a member of a "council of consummate iniquity" around Conrad, accused him of taking Conrad's bribes, and said of Maria and Balian as a couple:

Steeped in Greek filth from the cradle, she had a husband whose morals matched her own: he was cruel, she was godless; he was fickle, she was pliable; he was faithless, she was fraudulent.

On 28 April 1192, only days after his kingship was confirmed by election, Conrad was assassinated in Tyre. It is said that one of the two Hashshashin responsible had entered Balian's household in Tyre some months previously, pretending to be a servant, in order to stalk his victim; the other may have similarly infiltrated Reginald of Sidon's or Conrad's own household. Richard was widely suspected of involvement in the murder. Isabella, who was expecting her first child (Maria of Montferrat), married Henry II of Champagne only a week later.

Balian became one of Henry's advisors, and later that year, (along with William of Tiberias) he commanded the rearguard of Richard's army at the Battle of Jaffa. Later, he helped negotiate the Treaty of Ramla between Richard and Saladin, ending the crusade. Under this treaty, Ibelin remained under Saladin's control, but many sites along the coast which had been reconquered during the crusade were allowed to remain in Christian hands. After Richard departed, Saladin compensated Balian with the castle of Caymont and five other nearby sites, all outside Acre.

[edit]Legacy

Balian died in 1193, in his early fifties. With Maria he had four children:

Helvis of Ibelin, who married (1) Reginald of Sidon; (2) Guy of Montfort.

John of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut and constable of Jerusalem, and regent for his niece Maria of Montferrat, Queen of Jerusalem. He married (1) Helvis of Nephin; (2) Melisende of Arsur.

Margaret, who married (1) Hugh of Saint-Omer (stepson of Raymond III of Tripoli); (2) Walter of Cæsarea.

Philip of Ibelin, Regent of Cyprus, who married Alice of Montbéliard.

Balian's squire Ernoul, who was with him on the embassy to Tripoli in 1187, wrote parts of the Old French continuation of the Latin chronicle of William of Tyre (William had died in 1186, before the fall of Jerusalem). Although this family of manuscripts now often bears his name, his account only survives in fragments within it, mainly for the period 1186-88, with a heavy bias in favour of the Ibelin family.

Balian became a common name in the Ibelin family in the 13th century. Balian, lord of Beirut, son of John and grandson of the above Balian, succeeded his father as lord of Beirut in 1236. Balian of Beirut's brother, also named John, had a son named Balian; this Balian was lord of Arsuf and married Plaisance of Antioch.

The name also passed into the family of the Greniers of Sidon, since Balian's daughter Helvis and Reginald of Sidon named their son Balian.

Balian in fiction

Balian appears in Ronald Welch's children's novel Knight Crusader (1954) as a fat, middle-aged baron. He is a sympathetic major character in British author Graham Shelby's two novels of Outremer, The Knights of Dark Renown (1969) and its sequel The Kings of Vain Intent (1970). However, the first is based on now-outdated research. In the sequel, Balian and Maria are depicted as manipulated by Conrad, whom Shelby (without any historical evidence) portrays as an evil sadist, and they become his enemies. Shelby even depicts Balian telling Conrad he wishes he could kill him, although all the historical evidence indicates they were close friends and allies. Balian is also portrayed in Alan Gordon's fourth work in the Fool's Guild Mysteries, The Widow of Jerusalem (2003), as the wise adviser of Conrad and Isabella.

A highly fictionalised version of Balian is the main character of the 2005 film Kingdom of Heaven, played by Orlando Bloom as a young man with a questioning sensibility regarding religion and social attitudes. In the film, Balian's father, named Godfrey (played by Liam Neeson), returns to Europe to find his long-lost illegitimate son, a blacksmith in France, and encourages him to come to the Holy Land as his heir. The movie does not include any of Balian's brothers (although the Director's Cut version identifies the priest he murders as his half-brother), and the character may be a composite of Balian and Baldwin of Ibelin: he is portrayed as having a love affair with Sibylla, possibly derived from the Old French Continuation of William of Tyre's claims about her and Baldwin. The movie's Godfrey, however, is closer to the real Balian in age and in his friendship with Raymond III of Tripoli, although not in his friendship with the King, Baldwin IV, who in reality was wary of the Ibelins' ambitions. The film depicts Balian as the sole commander of the defence of Jerusalem: instead of working in close alliance with Patriarch Eraclius, Balian is depicted as his enemy. In the film's coda, Balian returns to France (with Sibylla) where he meets Richard I of England, who asks him to come with him on the Third Crusade, to which Balian replies that he is now merely a blacksmith. In reality, the two had a long, and acrimonious, involvement in the ongoing struggle in the Holy Land. Balian and Sibylla are seen to be riding in the opposite direction at the crossroads to that of Richard and his followers.

Balian also appears in Jan Guillou's book The Knight Templar, the 2nd book in the Arn Trilogy.

Balian also appears as a general of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in the Crusades Campaign of Medieval II: Total War: Kingdoms.

[edit]Sources

De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum, translated by James A. Brundage, in The Crusades: A Documentary Survey. Marquette University Press, 1962.

William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey, trans. Columbia University Press, 1943.

Chronique d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier, edited by M. L. de Mas Latrie. La Société de l'Histoire de France, 1871.

La Continuation de Guillaume de Tyr (1184-1192), edited by Margaret Ruth Morgan. L'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1982.

Ambroise, The History of the Holy War, translated by Marianne Ailes. Boydell Press, 2003.

Chronicle of the Third Crusade, a Translation of Itinerarium Peregrinorum et Gesta Regis Ricardi, translated by Helen J. Nicholson. Ashgate, 1997.

Peter W. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Ashgate, 1996.

Peter W. Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Boydell Press, 1997.

Amin Maalouf, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. London, 1984.

H. E. Mayer, "Carving Up Crusaders: The Early Ibelins and Ramlas", in Outremer: Studies in the history of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.

Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952.

-------------------- Baldwin of Ibelin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baldwin of Ibelin, also known as Baldwin III of Ramla (French: Baudouin d'Ibelin, early 1130s – c. 1187 or 1186/1188), was an important noble of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century. He was the second son of Barisan of Ibelin, and was the younger brother of Hugh of Ibelin and older brother of Balian of Ibelin. He first appears in the historical record as a witness to charters in 1148.

After the death of his eldest brother Hugh (third husband of Agnes of Courtenay) in 1169, the castle of Ibelin passed to Baldwin, who remained Lord of Mirabel and Ramla and passed Ibelin to his younger brother Balian. He introduced the Lusignan family to court in 1174, in the person of Amalric of Lusignan, who had married his daughter Eschiva. Baldwin and Balian supported Raymond III of Tripoli over Miles of Plancy as regent for King Baldwin IV in 1174, and in 1177 the brothers were present at the Battle of Montgisard.

It is suspected that, after the death of his second wife Isabella, in 1177, he became Raymond of Tripoli's favoured candidate to marry the widowed Princess Sibylla of Jerusalem. His brother Balian had recently married her stepmother, Dowager Queen Maria Comnena. The Chronicle of Ernoul, or Old French Continuation of William of Tyre, partly written by a former squire of Balian, but thirteenth-century in its current form, claims that Baldwin and Sibylla had been in love and exchanged letters during Baldwin's captivity, but this is highly questionable.

Baldwin was captured in battle at Marj Uyun in 1179, along with Odo de St Amand, Grand Master of the Templars, and Raymond of Tripoli's stepson, Hugh de St Omer of Tiberias. Baldwin was ransomed by Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus, and later in 1180 he visited Constantinople. Supposedly, the emperor sat him in a chair and covered him up to his head in the gold coins that were to be used as his ransom money. During his stay in Constantinople, the emperor died. Baldwin was in Jerusalem at the time of Sibylla's wedding in 1180. Raymond of Tripoli seems to have been planning a coup to marry Sibylla to Baldwin, but the king needed to marry her to a non-native, in order gain support for another crusade from the west. She was married to Guy of Lusignan, younger brother of Baldwin of Ibelin's son-in-law Amalric. That same year, the king betrothed his younger half-sister Isabella of Jerusalem, Balian's stepdaughter, to Humphrey IV of Toron, to further reduce the Ibelins' influence.

In 1183 he supported Raymond against Guy, who was by now regent for the ailing Baldwin IV. Lord Baldwin was among the barons who advised the king to crown Sibylla's son Baldwin V in 1183, while Baldwin IV was still alive; this was an attempt to prevent Guy from succeeding as king. Baldwin V became sole king while still a child in 1185, and when the young king died in 1186, Sibylla was crowned queen with Guy as her consort. The Ibelins and Raymond favoured the accession of Isabella, but Humphrey refused to be crowned and cause a civil war, and instead swore allegiance to Sibylla and Guy. All the other barons of the kingdom paid homage to Guy as well, except for Raymond and Baldwin. Baldwin placed his young son Thomas under the care of his brother Balian, and exiled himself to the Principality of Antioch, where he was welcomed with great fanfare.

Baldwin considered Guy "a madman and a fool", and refused to pay homage because his father had not paid homage to Guy's father (i.e., regarding Guy as an upstart incomer, where Baldwin was a native baron). He refused to return to Jerusalem to assist Guy against Saladin, and probably died in his self-imposed exile in 1187.

Family

Baldwin of Ibelin married three times. His wives were:

1. Richilde de Bethsan, before or in 1157, divorced and annulled 1174. They had three children:

Thomas d'Ibelin (before 1175 – in or c. 1188), Lord of Ramla, unmarried and without issue

Eschive d'Ibelin (c. 1160 – Cyprus in Winter, 1196/1197), married Amalric of Lusignan before October 29, 1175; Queen-consort of Cyprus (1194-1196), mother of Hugh I of Cyprus. (After her death, Amalric married Isabella of Jerusalem and became King of Jerusalem.)

Stephanie d'Ibelin, married before November, 1175 Amalric or Amaury, Viscount of Nablus

2. Isabelle or Elizabeth Gothman, married 1175, d. 1177 or 1178, no surviving issue.

3. Marie, daughter of Renier, Constable of Tripoli, m. after April, 1180, d. after 1228, no surviving issue.

Another Baldwin of Ibelin was the son of this Baldwin's nephew John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut.

Sources

William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey, trans. Columbia University Press, 1943.

Peter W. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Ashgate, 1996.

Peter W. Edbury, John of Ibelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Boydell Press, 1997.

Bernard Hamilton, The Leper King and his Heirs. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

H. E. Mayer, "Carving Up Crusaders: The Early Ibelins and Ramlas", in Outremer: Studies in the history of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.

Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952.

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Balian II, Lord of Ibelin's Timeline

1143
1143
Of,Ibelin,,Palestine
1157
1157
Age 14
Of,Bethsan,Galilee,Palestine
1177
1177
Age 34
France
1179
1179
Age 36
Of,Beirut,Tripoli,Syria
1180
1180
Age 37
Of,Ibelin,,Palestine
1185
1185
Age 42
Cyprus
1193
February, 1193
Age 50
Principality of Antioch, Syria
????
Of,Ibelin,,Palestine
????
????