Baudouin II, King of Jerusalem

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Baudouin de Bourcq

Also Known As: "formerly Baldwin II of Edessa", "also called Baldwin of Bourcq", "born Baldwin of Rethel", "King Baudouin II of /Jerusalem/", "Baldwin /De Rethel/", "King Of Jerusalem"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Bourg, Rethel,Ardennes,,France
Death: Died in Jerusalem, Israel
Place of Burial: Church of the Holy Spulchre, Jerusalem, Palestina
Immediate Family:

Son of Hugues I, count of Rethel and Melisende de Montlhery
Husband of Malfia of Meliteme, queen of Jerusalem
Father of Mélisende d'Édesse, Reine de Jerusalem; Hodierne de Jérusalem, comtesse de Tripoli; Alix de Rethel, Regent of Antioch and Ioveta de Rethel
Brother of Gervais, count of Rethel; Mathilde de Rethel; Béatrix de Rethel; Manassès de Rethel and Hodierne de Rethel
Half brother of Garnier de Trainel, seigneur de Trainel & de Pont-sur-Seine

Occupation: Prince d'Edesse, Roi de Jérusalem (1118-1131), Comte d'Edessa
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Baudouin II, King of Jerusalem

Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem

Baldwin II of Jerusalem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baldwin II of Jerusalem (in French; Baudouin), formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died 21 August 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.

Ancestry

Baldwin was the son of Hugh, count of Rethel, and his wife Melisende, daughter of Guy I of Montlhéry. He had two younger brothers, Gervase and Manasses, and two sisters Matilda and Hodierna. Baldwin was called a cousin of the brothers Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they are related has never been discovered. He left his own family behind to follow his cousins on the First Crusade in 1096. Some books (in particular Steven Runciman's History of the Crusades) have claimed a fictitious Ida of Boulogne as grandmother to Baldwin II in order to force the relationship. While Ida of Boulogne did exist, neither of Baldwin's parents were her descendants.

Count of Edessa

In the aftermath of the crusade, Baldwin of Boulogne became the first count of Edessa, while Baldwin of Bourcq entered the service of Bohemund of Taranto, Prince of Antioch, acting as an ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. Baldwin of Bourcq also became regent of the Principality, when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends in 1100. That year, Baldwin of Boulogne was elected king of Jerusalem upon the death of Godfrey, and Baldwin of Bourcq was appointed count of Edessa in his stead. As count, in 1101 Baldwin married Morphia of Melitene, the daughter of the Armenian prince Gabriel of Melitene. He also helped ransom Bohemund from the Danishmends, preferring Bohemund to his nephew Tancred, who was now regent.

In 1102 Baldwin and Tancred assisted King Baldwin against the Egyptians at Ascalon. In 1104 the Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa. With help from Antioch, Count Baldwin met them at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous and Count Baldwin was captured; Tancred became regent of Edessa in his absence. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own Seljuk prisoners for money rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to him, but with the support of the Kurds, Arabs, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli.

King of Jerusalem

Upon the death of Baldwin I in 1118, the crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III, but Joscelin of Courtenay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq, despite Count Baldwin having exiled Joscelin from Edessa in 1113. Baldwin of Edessa accepted and was crowned king of Jerusalem as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1118. Almost immediately, the kingdom was simultaneously invaded by the Seljuks from Syria and the Fatimids from Egypt, although by showing himself ready and willing to defend his territory, Baldwin forced the Muslim army to back down without a battle. In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem. Roger of Salerno, prince of Antioch, would not wait for Baldwin's reinforcements, and the Antiochene army was destroyed in a battle the crusaders came to call Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood). Although it was a crushing blow, Baldwin helped Antioch recover and drove out the Seljuks later that year.

Around this time, the second of three military orders were created. In 1118, Hugues de Payens founded the Knights Templar in Jerusalem, while the Knights Hospitaller, which had been founded in 1113, evolved into a military order from the charitable order that they had originally been. Baldwin also called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom, and extended rights and privileges to the growing bourgeois communities. King Baldwin allowed Hugues de Payens to set up quarters in a wing of the royal palace, the captured Al Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount. Because of where it was built, on the ruins of the older Temple, the Crusaders referred to this structure as the Temple of Solomon, and it was from this structure that they took their name of "Knights of the Temple", or Templars.

In 1122 Joscelin, who had been appointed count of Edessa when Baldwin became king, was captured in battle. Baldwin returned to the north to take over the regency of the county, but he too was taken captive by the Ortoqids while patrolling the borders of Edessa in 1123, and was held captive with Joscelin. Eustace Grenier acted as regent in Jerusalem, and at the Battle of Yibneh defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. Baldwin and Joscelin escaped from captivity with help from the Armenians in 1124. Meanwhile, the crusaders besieged and captured Tyre, with help from a Venetian fleet. This would lead to the establishment of Venetian and other Italian trading colonies in the coastal cities of the kingdom, which were autonomous and free from taxes and military duties, under the terms of the Pactum Warmundi.

In 1125 Baldwin assembled the knights from all the crusader territories and met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz. Although the Seljuk army was much larger, the crusaders were victorious, and they restored much of the influence they had lost after the Ager Sanguinis. Had Antioch and Edessa not been fighting amongst themselves after the battle, Baldwin may have been able to attack Aleppo; however, Aleppo and Mosul were soon united under Zengi in 1128. Baldwin attempted to take Damascus in 1126 with the help of the Templars, but the attempt was pushed back by emir Toghtekin.

Succession

Also assisting Baldwin during the attack on Damascus was his new son-in-law, Fulk V of Anjou. Baldwin had no sons with Morphia, but four daughters: Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. In 1129 Baldwin named Melisende his heir, and arranged for her to marry Fulk. His daughters Alice and Hodierna also married important princes, Bohemund II of Antioch and Raymond II of Tripoli respectively (his fourth daughter Ioveta became abbess of the convent in Bethany). In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on 21 August, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

William of Tyre described Baldwin as "a devout and God-fearing man, notable for his loyalty and for his great experience in military matters," and said that he was nicknamed "the Thorny" (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, who calls him "Baldwin the Little" (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) to distinguish him from Baldwin I, remarked that "after him there was none left amongst them possessed of sound judgment and capacity to govern." Galbert of Bruges was not so favourable; he called Baldwin "grasping and penurious", and believed he had been captured because he "had not governed the people of God well." Galbert even claims the kingdom was offered to Charles I, Count of Flanders during Baldwin's captivity; it is possible that Eustace Grenier, a native of Flanders, made such an offer.

Melisende, by law the heir to the kingdom, succeeded her father with Fulk as her co-ruler. The new queen and king were crowned on 14 September.

Sources

William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey. Columbia University Press, 1943.

Hans Mayer, The Crusades. Oxford University Press, 1965.

Alan V. Murray, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125. Prosopographia & Genealogia, 2000.

Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952.

--------------------

Era filho do conde Hugo de Rethel e de Melisende de Montlhéry, tendo dois irmãos, Gervásio e Manasses, e duas irmãs, Matilda e Hodierna. Balduíno é considerado primo dos irmãos Eustácio III de Bolonha, Godofredo de Bulhão e Balduíno I de Jerusalém, mas não há a certeza do exacto grau de parentesco, talvez por parte de uma eventual avó materna, Ida de Bolonha.[1] Era também primo direito do seu sucessor em Edessa, Joscelino de Courtenay, por parte das suas mães, Melisende e Isabel de Montlhéry.

O cronista das cruzadas Guilherme de Tiro descreveu Balduíno como "um homem devoto e temente a Deus, notável pela sua lealdade e grande experiência em assuntos militares", e conta que fôra cognominado de o Espinhoso (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, cronista do século XII em Damasco que o chamava de Balduíno o Pequeno (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) para o distinguir de Balduíno I, notou que "depois dele não havia ninguém entre eles que possuísse bom julgamento e capacidade de governar".

Balduíno deixou o seu senhorio de Bourcq, nas Ardenas, para seguir os primos na Primeira Cruzada em 1096. Enquanto Balduíno de Bolonha se tornou no primeiro conde de Edessa, Balduíno de Bourcq esteve ao serviço de Boemundo de Taranto, príncipe de Antioquia, como embaixador entre estes dois estados cruzados.

Em 1100 morreu Godofredo de Bulhão. Balduíno de Bolonha foi eleito rei de Jerusalém e Balduíno de Bourcq foi nomeado conde de Edessa. Casou-se em 1101 com Morfia, filha do príncipe arménio Gabriel de Melitene, seguindo o exemplo de uma aliança arménia do seu antecessor.

Boemundo I de Antioquia fôra aprisionado pelos turcos danismendidas, deixando o seu sobrinho Tancredo da Galileia, rival de Balduíno de Bolonha, na regência do seu principado. Para retirá-lo desta posição de poder, Balduíno de Bourcq ajudou a resgatar Boemundo, mas no ano seguinte juntou-se ao príncipe da Galileia para ambos auxiliarem o rei Balduíno I contra os egípcios em Ascalon.

Em 1104 os seljúcidas invadiram Edessa e, com a ajuda de Boemundo I de Antioquia, Tancredo da Galileia e Joscelino de Courtenay, Balduíno II de Edessa enfrentou-os na batalha de Harã. O resultado foi desastroso: aprisionado pelo inimigo, tal como Joscelino, o seu condado passou para a regência de Tancredo. Este e o seu tio Boemundo preferiram trocar os prisioneiros turcos por dinheiro em vez de fazer o resgate do conde cristão. Assim permaneceu em cativeiro em Mossul até 1108, data em que o seu primo Joscelino o resgatou por 60.000 dinares.

Tancredo recusou-se a devolver-lhe Edessa, mas com o apoio dos arménios, bizantinos, e até dos seljúcidas, foi obrigado a ceder. Em 1109, depois de se reconciliar com o príncipe da Galileia, participaram ambos na tomada de Trípoli. Entretanto muitos territórios na margem oriental do rio Eufrates estavam perdidos. Este rio fazia uma importante divisória no condado: em 1112, Joscelino criara um estado cruzado semi-autónomo, vassalo do condado de Edessa, ao redor de Turbessel, a oeste do Eufrates, onde as terras eram prósperas; Balduíno II controlava o território a leste, ao redor da cidade de Edessa, que era pouco populado e continuamente alvo de investidas dos seljúcidas. Assim, nesse ano Balduíno retirou Turbessel a Joscelino, que partiu para Jerusalém onde, com a morte de Tancredo, foi-lhe oferecido o seu principado da Galileia.

Com a morte de Balduíno I em 1118, a coroa foi oferecida ao irmão mais velho deste, Eustácio III de Bolonha. Joscelino de Courtenay insistiu que o reino passasse para Balduíno de Bourcq, apesar de este ter exilado o primo de Edessa em 1113. Balduíno aceitou e foi coroado no domingo de Páscoa de 14 de Abril desse ano. Quase imediatamente, o Reino Latino de Jerusalém foi invadido simultaneamente pelos seljúcidas da Síria e pelos fatímidas do Egipto. Mas o novo rei deu mostras de força e decisão e os exércitos muçulmanos abandonaram o território sem se travar qualquer batalha.

Em 1119, foi a vez do Principado de Antioquia ser invadido, e Balduíno acorreu prontamente com o seu exército. Mas o regente Rogério de Salerno não aguardou a chegada dos aliados e as suas forças acabaram por ser aniquiladas na chamada batalha de Ager Sanguinis (Campo de Sangue). Apesar de esta ter sido uma catástrofe para o principado cruzado, Balduíno assumiu a regência, ajudou Antioquia a recuperar-se e a expulsar os turcos ainda no mesmo ano.

Nesta época foi fundada uma segunda ordem militar: em 1118, Hugo de Payens criou a Ordem do Templo em Jerusalém, enquanto que a Ordem do Hospital, fundada em 1113, se desenvolveu em ordem militar a partir da ordem de caridade original. Balduíno também convocou um concílio em Nablus, em 1120, onde provavelmente terão sido estabelecidas as primeiras leis escritas do reino, e alargou os direitos e privilégios às crescentes comunidades burguesas.

Em 1122 Joscelino de Courtenay, nomeado conde de Edessa quando Balduíno subiu ao trono, foi aprisionado em batalha. O rei assumiu a regência de mais este estado cruzado mas também acabou por ser aprisionado pelos turcos enquanto patrulhava as fronteiras de Edessa em 1123, e acompanhou Joscelino no seu cativeiro. Eustácio Grenier assumiu a regência de Jerusalém e derrotou uma invasão egípcia. Depois da morte deste ainda no mesmo ano, Guilherme Bures foi nomeado regente.

Balduíno e Joscelino escaparam da prisão com a ajuda dos arménios em 1124. Entretanto os cruzados cercaram e tomaram Tiro com a ajuda de uma frota veneziana. Isto levaria ao estabelecimento de colónias mercantis italianas nas cidades costeiras do reino, que eram autónomas e isentas de impostos e deveres miliares, sob os termos do Pactum Warmundi (tratado de aliança entre o Reino Latino de Jerusalém e a República de Veneza).

Em 1125 Balduíno reuniu cavaleiros de todos os estados cruzados e enfrentou os seljúcidas na batalha de Azaz. Apesar de os números do inimigo serem bastante maiores, os cruzados venceram e reafirmaram muita da influência que tinham perdido desde Ager Sanguinis. Se Antioquia e Edessa não tivessem entrado em conflito um contra o outro depois desta batalha, talvez Balduíno tivesse conseguido atacar Alepo; mas pouco tempo depois esta cidade e Mossul uniram-se sob o comando de Zengi, em 1128. Incapacitado de atacar qualquer destas cidades, Balduíno tentou tomar Damasco em 1129 com a ajuda dos Templários, mas falhou.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem

Baldwin II of Jerusalem (in French; Baudouin), formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died 21 August 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.

Ancestry

Baldwin was the son of Hugh, count of Rethel, and his wife Melisende, daughter of Guy I of Montlhéry. He had two younger brothers, Gervase and Manasses, and two sisters Matilda and Hodierna. Baldwin was called a cousin of the brothers Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they are related has never been discovered. He left his own family behind to follow his cousins on the First Crusade in 1096. Some books (in particular Steven Runciman's History of the Crusades) have claimed a fictitious Ida of Boulogne as grandmother to Baldwin II in order to force the relationship. While Ida of Boulogne did exist, neither of Baldwin's parents were her descendants.

Count of Edessa

In the aftermath of the crusade, Baldwin of Boulogne became the first count of Edessa, while Baldwin of Bourcq entered the service of Bohemund of Taranto, Prince of Antioch, acting as an ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. Baldwin of Bourcq also became regent of the Principality, when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends in 1100. That year, Baldwin of Boulogne was elected king of Jerusalem upon the death of Godfrey, and Baldwin of Bourcq was appointed count of Edessa in his stead. As count, in 1101 Baldwin married Morphia of Melitene, the daughter of the Armenian prince Gabriel of Melitene. He also helped ransom Bohemund from the Danishmends, preferring Bohemund to his nephew Tancred, who was now regent.

In 1102 Baldwin and Tancred assisted King Baldwin against the Egyptians at Ascalon. In 1104 the Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa. With help from Antioch, Count Baldwin met them at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous and Count Baldwin was captured; Tancred became regent of Edessa in his absence. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own Seljuk prisoners for money rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to him, but with the support of the Kurds, Arabs, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli.

King of Jerusalem

Upon the death of Baldwin I in 1118, the crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III, but Joscelin of Courtenay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq, despite Count Baldwin having exiled Joscelin from Edessa in 1113. Baldwin of Edessa accepted and was crowned king of Jerusalem as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1118. Almost immediately, the kingdom was simultaneously invaded by the Seljuks from Syria and the Fatimids from Egypt, although by showing himself ready and willing to defend his territory, Baldwin forced the Muslim army to back down without a battle. In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem. Roger of Salerno, prince of Antioch, would not wait for Baldwin's reinforcements, and the Antiochene army was destroyed in a battle the crusaders came to call Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood). Although it was a crushing blow, Baldwin helped Antioch recover and drove out the Seljuks later that year.

Around this time, the second of three military orders were created. In 1118, Hugues de Payens founded the Knights Templar in Jerusalem, while the Knights Hospitaller, which had been founded in 1113, evolved into a military order from the charitable order that they had originally been. Baldwin also called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom, and extended rights and privileges to the growing bourgeois communities. King Baldwin allowed Hugues de Payens to set up quarters in a wing of the royal palace, the captured Al Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount. Because of where it was built, on the ruins of the older Temple, the Crusaders referred to this structure as the Temple of Solomon, and it was from this structure that they took their name of "Knights of the Temple", or Templars.

In 1122 Joscelin, who had been appointed count of Edessa when Baldwin became king, was captured in battle. Baldwin returned to the north to take over the regency of the county, but he too was taken captive by the Ortoqids while patrolling the borders of Edessa in 1123, and was held captive with Joscelin. Eustace Grenier acted as regent in Jerusalem, and at the Battle of Yibneh defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. Baldwin and Joscelin escaped from captivity with help from the Armenians in 1124. Meanwhile, the crusaders besieged and captured Tyre, with help from a Venetian fleet. This would lead to the establishment of Venetian and other Italian trading colonies in the coastal cities of the kingdom, which were autonomous and free from taxes and military duties, under the terms of the Pactum Warmundi.

In 1125 Baldwin assembled the knights from all the crusader territories and met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz. Although the Seljuk army was much larger, the crusaders were victorious, and they restored much of the influence they had lost after the Ager Sanguinis. Had Antioch and Edessa not been fighting amongst themselves after the battle, Baldwin may have been able to attack Aleppo; however, Aleppo and Mosul were soon united under Zengi in 1128. Baldwin attempted to take Damascus in 1126 with the help of the Templars, but the attempt was pushed back by emir Toghtekin.

Succession

Also assisting Baldwin during the attack on Damascus was his new son-in-law, Fulk V of Anjou. Baldwin had no sons with Morphia, but four daughters: Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. In 1129 Baldwin named Melisende his heir, and arranged for her to marry Fulk. His daughters Alice and Hodierna also married important princes, Bohemund II of Antioch and Raymond II of Tripoli respectively (his fourth daughter Ioveta became abbess of the convent in Bethany). In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on 21 August, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

William of Tyre described Baldwin as "a devout and God-fearing man, notable for his loyalty and for his great experience in military matters," and said that he was nicknamed "the Thorny" (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, who calls him "Baldwin the Little" (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) to distinguish him from Baldwin I, remarked that "after him there was none left amongst them possessed of sound judgment and capacity to govern." Galbert of Bruges was not so favourable; he called Baldwin "grasping and penurious", and believed he had been captured because he "had not governed the people of God well." Galbert even claims the kingdom was offered to Charles I, Count of Flanders during Baldwin's captivity; it is possible that Eustace Grenier, a native of Flanders, made such an offer.

Melisende, by law the heir to the kingdom, succeeded her father with Fulk as her co-ruler. The new queen and king were crowned on 14 September.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem Baldwin II of Jerusalem (in French; Baudouin), formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died 21 August 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. Baldwin was the son of Hugh I, Count of Rethel, and his wife Melisende, daughter of Guy I of Montlhéry. He had two older brothers, Gervaise and Manasses, and two sisters Matilda and Hodierna. Baldwin was called a cousin of the brothers Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they are related has never been discovered. He left his own family behind to follow his cousins on the First Crusade in 1096. Some books (in particular Steven Runciman's History of the Crusades) have claimed a fictitious Ida of Boulogne as grandmother to Baldwin II in order to force the relationship. While Ida of Boulogne did exist, neither of Baldwin's parents were her descendants. n the aftermath of the crusade, Baldwin of Boulogne became the first count of Edessa, while Baldwin of Bourcq entered the service of Bohemund of Taranto, Prince of Antioch, acting as an ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. Baldwin of Bourcq also became regent of the Principality, when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends in 1100. That year, Baldwin of Boulogne was elected king of Jerusalem upon the death of Godfrey, and Baldwin of Bourcq was appointed count of Edessa in his stead. As count, in 1101 Baldwin married Morphia of Melitene, the daughter of the Armenian prince Gabriel of Melitene. He also helped ransom Bohemund from the Danishmends, preferring Bohemund to his nephew Tancred, who was now regent.

In 1102 Baldwin and Tancred assisted King Baldwin against the Egyptians at Ascalon. In 1104 the Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa. With help from Antioch, Count Baldwin met them at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous and Count Baldwin was captured; Tancred became regent of Edessa in his absence. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own Seljuk prisoners for money rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to him, but with the support of the Kurds, Arabs, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli.

Upon the death of Baldwin I in 1118, the crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III, but Joscelin of Courtenay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq, despite Count Baldwin having exiled Joscelin from Edessa in 1113. Baldwin of Edessa accepted and was crowned king of Jerusalem as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1118. Almost immediately, the kingdom was simultaneously invaded by the Seljuks from Syria and the Fatimids from Egypt, although by showing himself ready and willing to defend his territory, Baldwin forced the Muslim army to back down without a battle. In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem. Roger of Salerno, prince of Antioch, would not wait for Baldwin's reinforcements, and the Antiochene army was destroyed in a battle the crusaders came to call Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood). Although it was a crushing blow, Baldwin helped Antioch recover and drove out the Seljuks later that year.

Around this time, the second of three military orders were created. In 1118, Hugues de Payens founded the Knights Templar in Jerusalem, while the Knights Hospitaller, which had been founded in 1113, evolved into a military order from the charitable order that they had originally been. Baldwin also called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom, and extended rights and privileges to the growing bourgeois communities. King Baldwin allowed Hugues de Payens to set up quarters in a wing of the royal palace, the captured Al Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount. Because of where it was built, on the ruins of the older Temple, the Crusaders referred to this structure as the Temple of Solomon, and it was from this structure that they took their name of "Knights of the Temple", or Templars.

In 1122 Joscelin, who had been appointed count of Edessa when Baldwin became king, was captured in battle against Belek.[1] Baldwin returned to the north to take over the regency of the county, but he too was taken captive by Belek in a battle near the castle Gargar in 1123, and was held captive with Joscelin.[2] Eustace Grenier acted as regent in Jerusalem, and at the Battle of Yibneh defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. In 1124, Joscelin escaped from captivity with help from the Armenians,[3] but Baldwin was recaptured and later ransomed for Joscelin's son, the future Joscelin II and Baldwin's daughter, Yvette.[4] Meanwhile, the crusaders besieged and captured Tyre, with help from a Venetian fleet. This would lead to the establishment of Venetian and other Italian trading colonies in the coastal cities of the kingdom, which were autonomous and free from taxes and military duties, under the terms of the Pactum Warmundi.

In 1125 Baldwin assembled the knights from all the crusader territories and met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz. Although the Seljuk army was much larger, the crusaders were victorious, and they restored much of the influence they had lost after the Ager Sanguinis. Had Antioch and Edessa not been fighting amongst themselves after the battle, Baldwin may have been able to attack Aleppo; however, Aleppo and Mosul were soon united under Zengi in 1128. Baldwin attempted to take Damascus in 1126 with the help of the Templars, but the attempt was pushed back by emir Toghtekin. Also assisting Baldwin during the attack on Damascus was his new son-in-law, Fulk V of Anjou. Baldwin had no sons with Morphia, but four daughters: Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. In 1129 Baldwin named Melisende his heir, and arranged for her to marry Fulk. His daughters Alice and Hodierna also married important princes, Bohemund II of Antioch and Raymond II of Tripoli respectively (his fourth daughter Ioveta became abbess of the convent in Bethany). In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on 21 August, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

William of Tyre described Baldwin as "a devout and God-fearing man, notable for his loyalty and for his great experience in military matters," and said that he was nicknamed "the Thorny" (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, who calls him "Baldwin the Little" (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) to distinguish him from Baldwin I, remarked that "after him there was none left amongst them possessed of sound judgment and capacity to govern." Galbert of Bruges was not so favourable; he called Baldwin "grasping and penurious", and believed he had been captured because he "had not governed the people of God well." Galbert even claims the kingdom was offered to Charles I, Count of Flanders during Baldwin's captivity; it is possible that Eustace Grenier, a native of Flanders, made such an offer.[5]

Melisende, by law the heir to the kingdom, succeeded her father with Fulk as her co-ruler. The new queen and king were crowned on 14 September.

-------------------- Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem

Baldwin II of Jerusalem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baldwin II of Jerusalem (in French; Baudouin), formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died 21 August 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.

Ancestry

Baldwin was the son of Hugh, count of Rethel, and his wife Melisende, daughter of Guy I of Montlhéry. He had two younger brothers, Gervase and Manasses, and two sisters Matilda and Hodierna. Baldwin was called a cousin of the brothers Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they are related has never been discovered. He left his own family behind to follow his cousins on the First Crusade in 1096. Some books (in particular Steven Runciman's History of the Crusades) have claimed a fictitious Ida of Boulogne as grandmother to Baldwin II in order to force the relationship. While Ida of Boulogne did exist, neither of Baldwin's parents were her descendants.

Count of Edessa

In the aftermath of the crusade, Baldwin of Boulogne became the first count of Edessa, while Baldwin of Bourcq entered the service of Bohemund of Taranto, Prince of Antioch, acting as an ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. Baldwin of Bourcq also became regent of the Principality, when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends in 1100. That year, Baldwin of Boulogne was elected king of Jerusalem upon the death of Godfrey, and Baldwin of Bourcq was appointed count of Edessa in his stead. As count, in 1101 Baldwin married Morphia of Melitene, the daughter of the Armenian prince Gabriel of Melitene. He also helped ransom Bohemund from the Danishmends, preferring Bohemund to his nephew Tancred, who was now regent.

In 1102 Baldwin and Tancred assisted King Baldwin against the Egyptians at Ascalon. In 1104 the Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa. With help from Antioch, Count Baldwin met them at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous and Count Baldwin was captured; Tancred became regent of Edessa in his absence. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own Seljuk prisoners for money rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to him, but with the support of the Kurds, Arabs, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli.

King of Jerusalem

Upon the death of Baldwin I in 1118, the crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III, but Joscelin of Courtenay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq, despite Count Baldwin having exiled Joscelin from Edessa in 1113. Baldwin of Edessa accepted and was crowned king of Jerusalem as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1118. Almost immediately, the kingdom was simultaneously invaded by the Seljuks from Syria and the Fatimids from Egypt, although by showing himself ready and willing to defend his territory, Baldwin forced the Muslim army to back down without a battle. In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem. Roger of Salerno, prince of Antioch, would not wait for Baldwin's reinforcements, and the Antiochene army was destroyed in a battle the crusaders came to call Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood). Although it was a crushing blow, Baldwin helped Antioch recover and drove out the Seljuks later that year.

Around this time, the second of three military orders were created. In 1118, Hugues de Payens founded the Knights Templar in Jerusalem, while the Knights Hospitaller, which had been founded in 1113, evolved into a military order from the charitable order that they had originally been. Baldwin also called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom, and extended rights and privileges to the growing bourgeois communities. King Baldwin allowed Hugues de Payens to set up quarters in a wing of the royal palace, the captured Al Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount. Because of where it was built, on the ruins of the older Temple, the Crusaders referred to this structure as the Temple of Solomon, and it was from this structure that they took their name of "Knights of the Temple", or Templars.

In 1122 Joscelin, who had been appointed count of Edessa when Baldwin became king, was captured in battle. Baldwin returned to the north to take over the regency of the county, but he too was taken captive by the Ortoqids while patrolling the borders of Edessa in 1123, and was held captive with Joscelin. Eustace Grenier acted as regent in Jerusalem, and at the Battle of Yibneh defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. Baldwin and Joscelin escaped from captivity with help from the Armenians in 1124. Meanwhile, the crusaders besieged and captured Tyre, with help from a Venetian fleet. This would lead to the establishment of Venetian and other Italian trading colonies in the coastal cities of the kingdom, which were autonomous and free from taxes and military duties, under the terms of the Pactum Warmundi.

In 1125 Baldwin assembled the knights from all the crusader territories and met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz. Although the Seljuk army was much larger, the crusaders were victorious, and they restored much of the influence they had lost after the Ager Sanguinis. Had Antioch and Edessa not been fighting amongst themselves after the battle, Baldwin may have been able to attack Aleppo; however, Aleppo and Mosul were soon united under Zengi in 1128. Baldwin attempted to take Damascus in 1126 with the help of the Templars, but the attempt was pushed back by emir Toghtekin.

Succession

Also assisting Baldwin during the attack on Damascus was his new son-in-law, Fulk V of Anjou. Baldwin had no sons with Morphia, but four daughters: Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. In 1129 Baldwin named Melisende his heir, and arranged for her to marry Fulk. His daughters Alice and Hodierna also married important princes, Bohemund II of Antioch and Raymond II of Tripoli respectively (his fourth daughter Ioveta became abbess of the convent in Bethany). In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on 21 August, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

William of Tyre described Baldwin as "a devout and God-fearing man, notable for his loyalty and for his great experience in military matters," and said that he was nicknamed "the Thorny" (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, who calls him "Baldwin the Little" (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) to distinguish him from Baldwin I, remarked that "after him there was none left amongst them possessed of sound judgment and capacity to govern." Galbert of Bruges was not so favourable; he called Baldwin "grasping and penurious", and believed he had been captured because he "had not governed the people of God well." Galbert even claims the kingdom was offered to Charles I, Count of Flanders during Baldwin's captivity; it is possible that Eustace Grenier, a native of Flanders, made such an offer.

Melisende, by law the heir to the kingdom, succeeded her father with Fulk as her co-ruler. The new queen and king were crowned on 14 September.

Sources

William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey. Columbia University Press, 1943.

Hans Mayer, The Crusades. Oxford University Press, 1965.

Alan V. Murray, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125. Prosopographia & Genealogia, 2000.

Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952.

--------------------

Era filho do conde Hugo de Rethel e de Melisende de Montlhéry, tendo dois irmãos, Gervásio e Manasses, e duas irmãs, Matilda e Hodierna. Balduíno é considerado primo dos irmãos Eustácio III de Bolonha, Godofredo de Bulhão e Balduíno I de Jerusalém, mas não há a certeza do exacto grau de parentesco, talvez por parte de uma eventual avó materna, Ida de Bolonha.[1] Era também primo direito do seu sucessor em Edessa, Joscelino de Courtenay, por parte das suas mães, Melisende e Isabel de Montlhéry.

O cronista das cruzadas Guilherme de Tiro descreveu Balduíno como "um homem devoto e temente a Deus, notável pela sua lealdade e grande experiência em assuntos militares", e conta que fôra cognominado de o Espinhoso (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, cronista do século XII em Damasco que o chamava de Balduíno o Pequeno (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) para o distinguir de Balduíno I, notou que "depois dele não havia ninguém entre eles que possuísse bom julgamento e capacidade de governar".

Balduíno deixou o seu senhorio de Bourcq, nas Ardenas, para seguir os primos na Primeira Cruzada em 1096. Enquanto Balduíno de Bolonha se tornou no primeiro conde de Edessa, Balduíno de Bourcq esteve ao serviço de Boemundo de Taranto, príncipe de Antioquia, como embaixador entre estes dois estados cruzados.

Em 1100 morreu Godofredo de Bulhão. Balduíno de Bolonha foi eleito rei de Jerusalém e Balduíno de Bourcq foi nomeado conde de Edessa. Casou-se em 1101 com Morfia, filha do príncipe arménio Gabriel de Melitene, seguindo o exemplo de uma aliança arménia do seu antecessor.

Boemundo I de Antioquia fôra aprisionado pelos turcos danismendidas, deixando o seu sobrinho Tancredo da Galileia, rival de Balduíno de Bolonha, na regência do seu principado. Para retirá-lo desta posição de poder, Balduíno de Bourcq ajudou a resgatar Boemundo, mas no ano seguinte juntou-se ao príncipe da Galileia para ambos auxiliarem o rei Balduíno I contra os egípcios em Ascalon.

Em 1104 os seljúcidas invadiram Edessa e, com a ajuda de Boemundo I de Antioquia, Tancredo da Galileia e Joscelino de Courtenay, Balduíno II de Edessa enfrentou-os na batalha de Harã. O resultado foi desastroso: aprisionado pelo inimigo, tal como Joscelino, o seu condado passou para a regência de Tancredo. Este e o seu tio Boemundo preferiram trocar os prisioneiros turcos por dinheiro em vez de fazer o resgate do conde cristão. Assim permaneceu em cativeiro em Mossul até 1108, data em que o seu primo Joscelino o resgatou por 60.000 dinares.

Tancredo recusou-se a devolver-lhe Edessa, mas com o apoio dos arménios, bizantinos, e até dos seljúcidas, foi obrigado a ceder. Em 1109, depois de se reconciliar com o príncipe da Galileia, participaram ambos na tomada de Trípoli. Entretanto muitos territórios na margem oriental do rio Eufrates estavam perdidos. Este rio fazia uma importante divisória no condado: em 1112, Joscelino criara um estado cruzado semi-autónomo, vassalo do condado de Edessa, ao redor de Turbessel, a oeste do Eufrates, onde as terras eram prósperas; Balduíno II controlava o território a leste, ao redor da cidade de Edessa, que era pouco populado e continuamente alvo de investidas dos seljúcidas. Assim, nesse ano Balduíno retirou Turbessel a Joscelino, que partiu para Jerusalém onde, com a morte de Tancredo, foi-lhe oferecido o seu principado da Galileia.

Com a morte de Balduíno I em 1118, a coroa foi oferecida ao irmão mais velho deste, Eustácio III de Bolonha. Joscelino de Courtenay insistiu que o reino passasse para Balduíno de Bourcq, apesar de este ter exilado o primo de Edessa em 1113. Balduíno aceitou e foi coroado no domingo de Páscoa de 14 de Abril desse ano. Quase imediatamente, o Reino Latino de Jerusalém foi invadido simultaneamente pelos seljúcidas da Síria e pelos fatímidas do Egipto. Mas o novo rei deu mostras de força e decisão e os exércitos muçulmanos abandonaram o território sem se travar qualquer batalha.

Em 1119, foi a vez do Principado de Antioquia ser invadido, e Balduíno acorreu prontamente com o seu exército. Mas o regente Rogério de Salerno não aguardou a chegada dos aliados e as suas forças acabaram por ser aniquiladas na chamada batalha de Ager Sanguinis (Campo de Sangue). Apesar de esta ter sido uma catástrofe para o principado cruzado, Balduíno assumiu a regência, ajudou Antioquia a recuperar-se e a expulsar os turcos ainda no mesmo ano.

Nesta época foi fundada uma segunda ordem militar: em 1118, Hugo de Payens criou a Ordem do Templo em Jerusalém, enquanto que a Ordem do Hospital, fundada em 1113, se desenvolveu em ordem militar a partir da ordem de caridade original. Balduíno também convocou um concílio em Nablus, em 1120, onde provavelmente terão sido estabelecidas as primeiras leis escritas do reino, e alargou os direitos e privilégios às crescentes comunidades burguesas.

Em 1122 Joscelino de Courtenay, nomeado conde de Edessa quando Balduíno subiu ao trono, foi aprisionado em batalha. O rei assumiu a regência de mais este estado cruzado mas também acabou por ser aprisionado pelos turcos enquanto patrulhava as fronteiras de Edessa em 1123, e acompanhou Joscelino no seu cativeiro. Eustácio Grenier assumiu a regência de Jerusalém e derrotou uma invasão egípcia. Depois da morte deste ainda no mesmo ano, Guilherme Bures foi nomeado regente.

Balduíno e Joscelino escaparam da prisão com a ajuda dos arménios em 1124. Entretanto os cruzados cercaram e tomaram Tiro com a ajuda de uma frota veneziana. Isto levaria ao estabelecimento de colónias mercantis italianas nas cidades costeiras do reino, que eram autónomas e isentas de impostos e deveres miliares, sob os termos do Pactum Warmundi (tratado de aliança entre o Reino Latino de Jerusalém e a República de Veneza).

Em 1125 Balduíno reuniu cavaleiros de todos os estados cruzados e enfrentou os seljúcidas na batalha de Azaz. Apesar de os números do inimigo serem bastante maiores, os cruzados venceram e reafirmaram muita da influência que tinham perdido desde Ager Sanguinis. Se Antioquia e Edessa não tivessem entrado em conflito um contra o outro depois desta batalha, talvez Balduíno tivesse conseguido atacar Alepo; mas pouco tempo depois esta cidade e Mossul uniram-se sob o comando de Zengi, em 1128. Incapacitado de atacar qualquer destas cidades, Balduíno tentou tomar Damasco em 1129 com a ajuda dos Templários, mas falhou.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem

Baldwin II of Jerusalem (in French; Baudouin), formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died 21 August 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.

Ancestry

Baldwin was the son of Hugh, count of Rethel, and his wife Melisende, daughter of Guy I of Montlhéry. He had two younger brothers, Gervase and Manasses, and two sisters Matilda and Hodierna. Baldwin was called a cousin of the brothers Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they are related has never been discovered. He left his own family behind to follow his cousins on the First Crusade in 1096. Some books (in particular Steven Runciman's History of the Crusades) have claimed a fictitious Ida of Boulogne as grandmother to Baldwin II in order to force the relationship. While Ida of Boulogne did exist, neither of Baldwin's parents were her descendants.

Count of Edessa

In the aftermath of the crusade, Baldwin of Boulogne became the first count of Edessa, while Baldwin of Bourcq entered the service of Bohemund of Taranto, Prince of Antioch, acting as an ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. Baldwin of Bourcq also became regent of the Principality, when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends in 1100. That year, Baldwin of Boulogne was elected king of Jerusalem upon the death of Godfrey, and Baldwin of Bourcq was appointed count of Edessa in his stead. As count, in 1101 Baldwin married Morphia of Melitene, the daughter of the Armenian prince Gabriel of Melitene. He also helped ransom Bohemund from the Danishmends, preferring Bohemund to his nephew Tancred, who was now regent.

In 1102 Baldwin and Tancred assisted King Baldwin against the Egyptians at Ascalon. In 1104 the Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa. With help from Antioch, Count Baldwin met them at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous and Count Baldwin was captured; Tancred became regent of Edessa in his absence. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own Seljuk prisoners for money rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to him, but with the support of the Kurds, Arabs, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli.

King of Jerusalem

Upon the death of Baldwin I in 1118, the crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III, but Joscelin of Courtenay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq, despite Count Baldwin having exiled Joscelin from Edessa in 1113. Baldwin of Edessa accepted and was crowned king of Jerusalem as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1118. Almost immediately, the kingdom was simultaneously invaded by the Seljuks from Syria and the Fatimids from Egypt, although by showing himself ready and willing to defend his territory, Baldwin forced the Muslim army to back down without a battle. In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem. Roger of Salerno, prince of Antioch, would not wait for Baldwin's reinforcements, and the Antiochene army was destroyed in a battle the crusaders came to call Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood). Although it was a crushing blow, Baldwin helped Antioch recover and drove out the Seljuks later that year.

Around this time, the second of three military orders were created. In 1118, Hugues de Payens founded the Knights Templar in Jerusalem, while the Knights Hospitaller, which had been founded in 1113, evolved into a military order from the charitable order that they had originally been. Baldwin also called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom, and extended rights and privileges to the growing bourgeois communities. King Baldwin allowed Hugues de Payens to set up quarters in a wing of the royal palace, the captured Al Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount. Because of where it was built, on the ruins of the older Temple, the Crusaders referred to this structure as the Temple of Solomon, and it was from this structure that they took their name of "Knights of the Temple", or Templars.

In 1122 Joscelin, who had been appointed count of Edessa when Baldwin became king, was captured in battle. Baldwin returned to the north to take over the regency of the county, but he too was taken captive by the Ortoqids while patrolling the borders of Edessa in 1123, and was held captive with Joscelin. Eustace Grenier acted as regent in Jerusalem, and at the Battle of Yibneh defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. Baldwin and Joscelin escaped from captivity with help from the Armenians in 1124. Meanwhile, the crusaders besieged and captured Tyre, with help from a Venetian fleet. This would lead to the establishment of Venetian and other Italian trading colonies in the coastal cities of the kingdom, which were autonomous and free from taxes and military duties, under the terms of the Pactum Warmundi.

In 1125 Baldwin assembled the knights from all the crusader territories and met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz. Although the Seljuk army was much larger, the crusaders were victorious, and they restored much of the influence they had lost after the Ager Sanguinis. Had Antioch and Edessa not been fighting amongst themselves after the battle, Baldwin may have been able to attack Aleppo; however, Aleppo and Mosul were soon united under Zengi in 1128. Baldwin attempted to take Damascus in 1126 with the help of the Templars, but the attempt was pushed back by emir Toghtekin.

Succession

Also assisting Baldwin during the attack on Damascus was his new son-in-law, Fulk V of Anjou. Baldwin had no sons with Morphia, but four daughters: Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. In 1129 Baldwin named Melisende his heir, and arranged for her to marry Fulk. His daughters Alice and Hodierna also married important princes, Bohemund II of Antioch and Raymond II of Tripoli respectively (his fourth daughter Ioveta became abbess of the convent in Bethany). In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on 21 August, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

William of Tyre described Baldwin as "a devout and God-fearing man, notable for his loyalty and for his great experience in military matters," and said that he was nicknamed "the Thorny" (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, who calls him "Baldwin the Little" (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) to distinguish him from Baldwin I, remarked that "after him there was none left amongst them possessed of sound judgment and capacity to govern." Galbert of Bruges was not so favourable; he called Baldwin "grasping and penurious", and believed he had been captured because he "had not governed the people of God well." Galbert even claims the kingdom was offered to Charles I, Count of Flanders during Baldwin's captivity; it is possible that Eustace Grenier, a native of Flanders, made such an offer.

Melisende, by law the heir to the kingdom, succeeded her father with Fulk as her co-ruler. The new queen and king were crowned on 14 September.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem Baldwin II of Jerusalem (in French; Baudouin), formerly Baldwin II of Edessa, also called Baldwin of Bourcq, born Baldwin of Rethel (died 21 August 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. Baldwin was the son of Hugh I, Count of Rethel, and his wife Melisende, daughter of Guy I of Montlhéry. He had two older brothers, Gervaise and Manasses, and two sisters Matilda and Hodierna. Baldwin was called a cousin of the brothers Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they are related has never been discovered. He left his own family behind to follow his cousins on the First Crusade in 1096. Some books (in particular Steven Runciman's History of the Crusades) have claimed a fictitious Ida of Boulogne as grandmother to Baldwin II in order to force the relationship. While Ida of Boulogne did exist, neither of Baldwin's parents were her descendants. n the aftermath of the crusade, Baldwin of Boulogne became the first count of Edessa, while Baldwin of Bourcq entered the service of Bohemund of Taranto, Prince of Antioch, acting as an ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. Baldwin of Bourcq also became regent of the Principality, when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends in 1100. That year, Baldwin of Boulogne was elected king of Jerusalem upon the death of Godfrey, and Baldwin of Bourcq was appointed count of Edessa in his stead. As count, in 1101 Baldwin married Morphia of Melitene, the daughter of the Armenian prince Gabriel of Melitene. He also helped ransom Bohemund from the Danishmends, preferring Bohemund to his nephew Tancred, who was now regent.

In 1102 Baldwin and Tancred assisted King Baldwin against the Egyptians at Ascalon. In 1104 the Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa. With help from Antioch, Count Baldwin met them at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous and Count Baldwin was captured; Tancred became regent of Edessa in his absence. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own Seljuk prisoners for money rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to him, but with the support of the Kurds, Arabs, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli.

Upon the death of Baldwin I in 1118, the crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III, but Joscelin of Courtenay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq, despite Count Baldwin having exiled Joscelin from Edessa in 1113. Baldwin of Edessa accepted and was crowned king of Jerusalem as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1118. Almost immediately, the kingdom was simultaneously invaded by the Seljuks from Syria and the Fatimids from Egypt, although by showing himself ready and willing to defend his territory, Baldwin forced the Muslim army to back down without a battle. In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem. Roger of Salerno, prince of Antioch, would not wait for Baldwin's reinforcements, and the Antiochene army was destroyed in a battle the crusaders came to call Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood). Although it was a crushing blow, Baldwin helped Antioch recover and drove out the Seljuks later that year.

Around this time, the second of three military orders were created. In 1118, Hugues de Payens founded the Knights Templar in Jerusalem, while the Knights Hospitaller, which had been founded in 1113, evolved into a military order from the charitable order that they had originally been. Baldwin also called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom, and extended rights and privileges to the growing bourgeois communities. King Baldwin allowed Hugues de Payens to set up quarters in a wing of the royal palace, the captured Al Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount. Because of where it was built, on the ruins of the older Temple, the Crusaders referred to this structure as the Temple of Solomon, and it was from this structure that they took their name of "Knights of the Temple", or Templars.

In 1122 Joscelin, who had been appointed count of Edessa when Baldwin became king, was captured in battle against Belek.[1] Baldwin returned to the north to take over the regency of the county, but he too was taken captive by Belek in a battle near the castle Gargar in 1123, and was held captive with Joscelin.[2] Eustace Grenier acted as regent in Jerusalem, and at the Battle of Yibneh defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. In 1124, Joscelin escaped from captivity with help from the Armenians,[3] but Baldwin was recaptured and later ransomed for Joscelin's son, the future Joscelin II and Baldwin's daughter, Yvette.[4] Meanwhile, the crusaders besieged and captured Tyre, with help from a Venetian fleet. This would lead to the establishment of Venetian and other Italian trading colonies in the coastal cities of the kingdom, which were autonomous and free from taxes and military duties, under the terms of the Pactum Warmundi.

In 1125 Baldwin assembled the knights from all the crusader territories and met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz. Although the Seljuk army was much larger, the crusaders were victorious, and they restored much of the influence they had lost after the Ager Sanguinis. Had Antioch and Edessa not been fighting amongst themselves after the battle, Baldwin may have been able to attack Aleppo; however, Aleppo and Mosul were soon united under Zengi in 1128. Baldwin attempted to take Damascus in 1126 with the help of the Templars, but the attempt was pushed back by emir Toghtekin. Also assisting Baldwin during the attack on Damascus was his new son-in-law, Fulk V of Anjou. Baldwin had no sons with Morphia, but four daughters: Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. In 1129 Baldwin named Melisende his heir, and arranged for her to marry Fulk. His daughters Alice and Hodierna also married important princes, Bohemund II of Antioch and Raymond II of Tripoli respectively (his fourth daughter Ioveta became abbess of the convent in Bethany). In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on 21 August, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

William of Tyre described Baldwin as "a devout and God-fearing man, notable for his loyalty and for his great experience in military matters," and said that he was nicknamed "the Thorny" (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, who calls him "Baldwin the Little" (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) to distinguish him from Baldwin I, remarked that "after him there was none left amongst them possessed of sound judgment and capacity to govern." Galbert of Bruges was not so favourable; he called Baldwin "grasping and penurious", and believed he had been captured because he "had not governed the people of God well." Galbert even claims the kingdom was offered to Charles I, Count of Flanders during Baldwin's captivity; it is possible that Eustace Grenier, a native of Flanders, made such an offer.[5]

Melisende, by law the heir to the kingdom, succeeded her father with Fulk as her co-ruler. The new queen and king were crowned on 14 September.

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Baudouin II, King of Jerusalem's Timeline

1058
1058
Bourg, Rethel,Ardennes,,France
1101
1101
Age 43
Armenia?
1105
June 2, 1105
Age 47
Bourg, Rethel (France) - dtr of Baldwin II
1110
1110
Age 52
Jerusalem, Palestine
1110
Age 52
Tripoli, Libya
1120
1120
Age 62
Bethany, Israel
1131
August 21, 1131
Age 73
Jerusalem, Israel
1131
Age 73
Jerusalem, Palestina
????
????