Baudouin (Baldwin) VI Flanders of Constantinople (Haina), Count of Flanders & Hainault (1172 - 1205) MP

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Nicknames: "Empereur de Constantinople", "Baudouin VI de Hainaut", "Baudouin IX de Flandre", "Baldwin VI of Hainaut", "Baldwin IX of Flanders", "Latin Emperor of Constantinople", "of Constantinople", "Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut"
Birthplace: Hainaut, Belgium
Death: Died in Adrianople, Turkey
Occupation: Comte de Flandre, Imperador de Constantinopla, Conde de Flanders e de Hainaut, Premier Empereur de Constantinople, EMPEROR OF CONSTANTINE EMPIRE, COUNT FLANDERS IX AND HAINAUT VI, LEADER OF 4TH CRUSADE, Emperor of Constantinople
Managed by: Jason Scott Wills
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About Baudouin (Baldwin) VI Flanders of Constantinople (Haina), Count of Flanders & Hainault

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_VI,_Count_of_Hainaut#Family

Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romania (not to be confused with modern Romania).

Early life Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut, and Margaret I, sister of Philip of Alsace and Countess of Flanders. When Philip died childless in 1191, he was succeeded in Flanders by Baldwin V, who ruled as Baldwin VIII of Flanders by right of marriage.

In 1186, the younger Baldwin married Marie of Champagne, daughter of count Henry I of Champagne. The chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed. Gislebert claims Baldwin was "tied only to one woman", his wife. Through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land: Her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s (leaving a widow and two daughters who needed help to keep and regain their territories in Palestine). Marie's uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade.

Baldwin's own family had also been involved in the defence of Jerusalem: his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwin's mother's mother was great-aunt of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and the Counts of Flanders had tried to help Jerusalem relatives in their struggle. Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders. His father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut.

Count of Flanders and Hainaut Baldwin took possession of a much-reduced Flanders, for his uncle had given a large chunk, including Artois, as dowry to Baldwin's sister Isabelle of Hainaut on her marriage to King Philip II of France, and another significant piece to his own wife. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabella's son, the future Louis VIII of France. The eight years of Baldwin's rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land, culminating in January 1200 in the Treaty of Péronne, in which Philip returned most of Artois.

In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV. A month after the treaty, on February 23, 1200, Baldwin took the cross -- that is, he committed to embark on a crusade. He spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on April 14, 1202.

As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, Baldwin issued two notable charters for Hainaut. One detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down specific rules for inheritance. These are an important part of the legal tradition in Belgium.

Baldwin left behind his two-year-old daughter and his pregnant wife, Countess Marie. By early 1204, she had left both her children behind to join him in the East. They expected to return in a couple of years, but in the end neither would see their children or their homeland again. Marie was regent for Baldwin for the two years she remained in Flanders and Hainaut. Afterward, Baldwin's younger brother Philip of Namur was regent and also had custody of the daughters. Baldwin's uncle William of Thy (an illegitimate son of Baldwin IV of Hainaut) was regent for Hainaut.

Meanwhile, the crusade had been diverted to Constantinople, where the crusaders had captured and sacked the city, and decided to set up a Latin empire in place of the fallen Greek one.

Latin Emperor The imperial crown was at first offered to, and refused by, Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice. The choice then lay between Baldwin and the nominal leader of the crusade, Boniface of Montferrat. While Boniface was considered the most probable choice, due to his connections with the Byzantine court, Baldwin was young, gallant, pious, and virtuous, one of the few who interpreted and observed his crusading vows strictly; the most popular leader in the host. With Venetian support he was elected on May 9, 1204, and crowned on May 16 in the Hagia Sophia at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices. During his coronation, Baldwin wore a very rich jewel that had been bought by Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos for 62,000 silver marks. Baldwin's wife Marie, unaware of these events, had sailed to Acre. There she learned of her husband's election as emperor, but died of the plague in August 1204 before she could join him.

The Latin Empire was organized on feudal principles; the emperor was feudal superior of the princes who received portions of the conquered territory. His own special portion consisted of the city of Constantinople, the adjacent regions both on the European and the Asiatic side, along with some outlying districts, and several islands including Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios and Tenos. The territories still had to be conquered; and first of all it was necessary to break the resistance of the Greeks in Thrace and secure Thessalonica. In this enterprise in the summer of 1204, Baldwin came into collision with Boniface of Montferrat, the rival candidate for the empire, who was to receive a large territory in Macedonia with the title of King of Salonica.

Boniface hoped to make himself quite independent of the empire, to do no homage for his kingdom, and he opposed Baldwin's proposal to march to Thessalonica. The antagonism between Flemings and Lombards aggravated the quarrel. Baldwin insisted on going to Thessalonica; Boniface laid siege to Adrianople, where Baldwin had established a governor; civil war seemed inevitable. An agreement was effected by the efforts of Dandolo and the count of Blois. Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.

During the following winter (1204–1205) the Franks prosecuted conquests in Bithynia, in which Henry, Baldwin's brother, took part. But in February the Greeks revolted in Thrace, relying on the assistance of John (Kaloyan), tsar of Bulgaria, whose overtures of alliance had been rejected by the emperor. The garrison of Adrianople was expelled. Baldwin along with Dandolo, the count of Blois, and Marshal Villehardouin, the historian, marched to besiege that city. The Frankish knights were defeated (April 14, 1205); the count of Blois was slain, and the emperor captured by the Bulgarians (see Battle of Adrianople).

For some time his fate was uncertain, and in the meanwhile Henry, his brother, assumed the regency. Not till the middle of July was it definitely ascertained that he was dead. The circumstances of Baldwin's death are not exactly known. It seems that he was at first treated well as a valuable hostage, but was sacrificed by the Bulgarian monarch in a sudden outburst of rage, perhaps in consequence of the revolt of Philippopolis, which passed into the hands of the Franks. According to a Bulgarian legend, Baldwin had caused his own downfall by trying to seduce Kaloyan's wife. The historian George Acropolites reports that the Tsar had Baldwin's skull made into a drinking cup, just as had happened to Nicephorus I almost four hundred years before. At any rate, Tsar Kaloyan wrote to Pope Innocent III, reporting that Baldwin had died in prison. A tower of the Tsarevets fortress of the medieval Bulgarian capital, Veliko Tarnovo, is still called "Baldwin's Tower".

Family It was not until July 1206 that the Latins in Constantinople had reliable information that Baldwin was dead. His brother Henry was crowned emperor in August.

Back in Flanders, however, there seemed to be doubt whether Baldwin was truly dead. In any case, Baldwin's other brother Philip of Namur remained as regent, and eventually both of Baldwin's daughters Jeanne and Margaret were to rule as countesses of Flanders.

The false Baldwin Twenty years later, in 1225, a man appeared in Flanders claiming to be the presumed dead Baldwin. His claim soon became entangled in a series of rebellions and revolts in Flanders against the rule of Baldwin's daughter Jeanne. A number of people who had known Baldwin before the crusade met the supposed count and emperor and rejected his claim. In the end he was executed in 1226.

References

John C. Moore, 'Baldwin IX of Flanders, Philip Augustus and the Papal Power', Speculum, volume 37, issue 1 (January 1962), 79-89 Robert Lee Wolff, 'Baldwin of Flanders and Hainault, First Latin Emperor of Constantinople: His Life, Death, and Resurrection, 1172-1255', Speculum, volume 27, issue 3 (July, 1952), 281-322

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Baudouin VI de Hainaut, also called Baudouin de Constantinople.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baudouin_VI_de_Hainaut

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FLANDERS,%20HAINAUT.htm#BaudouinIXdied1205B

BAUDOUIN de Hainaut, son of BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut [BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders] & his wife Marguerite I Ctss of Flanders (Jul 1171-in prison in Bulgaria 11 Jun 1205). The Chronicon Hanoniense records the birth "1171 mense Iulio…Valencenis" of "filium…Balduinum" to "Balduinus [et] Margharetam…Mathie comitis Boloniensis sororem"[512]. The Flandria Generosa names (in order) "Balduinum, Philippum et Henricum" as the three sons of Count Baudouin and his wife Marguerite, specifying that Baudouin was later emperor of Constantinople[513]. He succeeded his mother in 1194 as BAUDOUIN IX Count of Flanders, and his father in 1195 as BAUDOUIN VI Comte de Hainaut. Under the Treaty of Dinant 26 Jul 1199, he acquired Namur. He did homage to Philippe II King of France for Flanders and Hainaut, but then allied himself with Richard I King of England in Sep 1197. War broke out with France, and by end 1198 Count Baudouin had overrun northern Artois[514]. He was obliged to agree the Treaty of Péronne with France in Jan 1200 in order to secure the release of his brother Philippe de Namur from French custody, agreeing to give up his alliance with England and receiving Saint-Omer, Aire and Guines in return[515]. He was among the first leaders to take the cross following the call of Pope Innocent III. A Flemish fleet arrived at Acre end 1202 under the command of Jean de Nesle, châtelain de Bruges[516]. After the army of the Fourth Crusade took control of Constantinople 13 Apr 1204, a council of six Venetians and six Franks met to elect a new Latin emperor, as agreed in the Acti Partitio Imperii Romanae the previous March between the crusaders and Venice. The votes of the Venetian block of electors ensured the success of Count Baudouin over the rival candidate, Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice considering Baudouin as the less powerful candidate[517]. At the same time, in accordance with the terms of the March treaty, Tomaso Morosini (from Venice) was installed as first Latin patriarch of Constantinople, his first task being to crown Baudouin as BAUDOUIN I Emperor of Constantinople[518] at St Sophia 16 May 1204. The constitution which was adopted gave little power to the emperor whose decisions were subject to review by a council of tenants-in-chief which also directed military operations[519]. The new patriarch declared the union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches, but the Greek aristocracy in Thrace rebelled. Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria intervened, defeated Baudouin near Adrianople 14 Apr 1205, and captured and transported him as a prisoner to Bulgaria where he died in prison soon after[520]. When news of Count Baudouin's death reached Flanders in Feb 1206, Philippe II King of France assumed his right as feudal overlord to the wardship of his two daughters[521].

m (Betrothed 1179, 6 Jan 1186) MARIE de Champagne, daughter of HENRI I “le Libéral” Comte de Champagne & his wife Marie de France ([1174]-Jerusalem 9 Aug 1204). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names the two daughters of "comitissa Maria Campaniensis" as "Colatiam uxorem comitis Guilelmi Matisconensis et Mariam uxorem comitis Balduini Flandrensis"[522]. The Chronicon Hanoniense records the betrothal in 1179 of "filia comitis Henrici Maria" and "filium [comitis Flandrie] Theobaldum", the latter presumably being an error for "Balduinum"[523]. William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the sister of Henri II Comte de Champagne was married to comte Baudouin, later Emperor[524]. The Flandria Generosa names "Maria sorore Theobaldi Campaniæ comitis" wife of Count Baudouin[525]. She visited Palestine in 1204 en route to join her husband in Constantinople, received homage from Bohémond IV Prince of Antioch at Acre[526], but died soon after at Jerusalem. The Flandria Generosa specifies that she died at "Acharon"[527].

Count Baudouin IX of Flanders & his wife had two children:

1. JEANNE de Flandre (Valenciennes 1200-Marquette near Lille 5 Dec 1244, bur Marquette). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Iohannam et Margaretam" as the two daughters of "Balduinus"[528]. She succeeded her father as JEANNE Ctss of Flanders and Ctss de Hainaut in Feb 1206 when news of his death reached Flanders, under the regency of her uncle Philippe Marquis de Namur. The latter agreed to the demand of Philippe II King of France to send the countess and her sister to Paris to be educated[529]. King Philippe arranged her first marriage. The De Rebus Hispaniæ of Rodericus Ximene s records the marriage of "Ferdinandum", other son of "Rex…Sancius", and "Flandriæ Comitissam"[530]. While returning to Flanders after her marriage, she and her husband were captured by Louis, son of King Philippe II, who occupied Aire and Saint-Omer, the occupation being ratified by the Treaty of Pont-à-Vedin 25 Feb 1212 as the price for their release[531]. After her husband's capture in 1214, Philippe II King of France forced on her the Treaty of Paris 24 Oct 1214, under which major fortresses in southern Flanders were destroyed, property restored to French partisans, and Flanders in effect ruled from Paris[532]. King Philippe refused to negotiate her husband's release unless she agreed to the annulment of her marriage and remarriage to Pierre "Mauclerc" Duke of Brittany. Civil war followed the appearance in 1224 of a hermit who claimed to be Jeanne's father returned from captivity and subsided only after his execution following a confrontation with Louis VIII King of France 30 May 1225[533]. She negotiated the Treaty of Melun in 1226 under which her husband was returned on payment of 50,000 livres ransom[534]. The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Thome fratri comitis Sabaudie" as husband of "Iohanna", whom she married after the death of "Ferrandus"[535]. The Annales Blandinienses record the marriage in 1237 of "Iohannam comitissam Flandrie" with "Thomas avunculus reginarum Francie et Anglie"[536]. The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1244 of "Iohanna comitissa" and her burial at "Market"[537]. The Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis records the death "Non Dec" of "Iohanne comitisse Flandrie et Hanoie"[538]. m firstly ([Paris] 1 Jan 1212) Infante dom FERNANDO de Portugal, son of dom SANCHO I "o Poblador" King of Portugal & his wife Infanta doña Dulcia de Aragón (24 Mar 1188-Noyon 4 Mar or 26 Jul 1233, bur Marquette near Lille). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "fratrem regis de Portigal, nomine Fernandum" husband of "Iohanna"[539]. He succeeded as FERRAND Count of Flanders and Hainaut in 1212, by right of his wife. Although the protégé of Philippe II King of France, he exiled several prominent Francophiles after arriving in Flanders and opened negotiations with England. He refused to participate in King Philippe's projected invasion of England in 1213. The French army devastated Flanders in revenge, forcing Count Ferrand briefly to seek refuge in Zeeland. He was captured at the battle of Bouvines 27 Jul 1214, and taken to Paris where he remained a prisoner[540]. He returned to Flanders in 1227 after payment of the ransom under the Treaty of Melun[541]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that on the death in 1229 of "comite Namucensi Henrici puero" his sister "Sibilia comitissa Vienne" occupied "castrum Namuci" against the competing claim of Fernando Count of Flanders[542]. He founded the convent of Marquette near Lille. The Continuatio Clarimariscensis records the death "1233 VI Kal Aug" of "Fernandus Flandriæ comes"[543]. The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1233 of "Ferrandus comes Flandrie et Haynonie" and his burial at "Merketo"[544]. The Chronica Andrensis records the death in 1233 "apud Noviomum" of "comes Flandrie Fernandus" and his burial "iuxta Insulam"[545]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1233 of "Fernandus comes Flandrie" and his burial "in abbatia delle Marckete"[546]. m secondly (2 Apr 1237, without Papal dispensation despite consanguinity within the prohibited degrees[547]) as his first wife, THOMAS de Savoie, son of THOMAS I Comte de Savoie & his wife Béatrix [Marguerite] de Faucigny (Château de Montmélian 1199-Chambéry 7 Feb 1259, bur Aosta Cathedral). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "Thome fratri comitis Sabaudie" as husband of "Iohanna", whom she married after the death of "Ferrandus"[548]. The Annales Blandinienses record the marriage in 1237 of "Iohannam comitissam Flandrie" with "Thomas avunculus reginarum Francie et Anglie"[549]. He succeeded as THOMAS Count of Flanders and Hainaut in 1237, by right of his wife. He returned to Savoy after his wife's death[550]. He was given the title Conte di Piemonte in 1247, and succeeded his brother in 1253 as THOMAS II Comte de Savoie, ruling jointly with his nephew. Jeanne & her first husband had one child:

a) Infanta dona MARIA de Portugal ([1231]-[Jun 1235/1236]). The Chronica Andrensis refers to "comes Flandrie Fernandus" leaving "filia parvula" when he died in 1233 but does not name her[551]. After her father's death, Louis IX King of France demanded that she be sent to Paris for her education[552]. The marriage contract between “J. comitissa Flandrie et Haonie…Mariam filiam nostram” and “Ludovicum regem Francie…Robertus frater ipsius domini regis” is dated Jun 1235[553]. “Alfonsus, filius…regis Portugaliæ, comes Bolonie” recorded his agreements with “Thomam comitem et Johannam eius uxorem comitissam Flandrensem” by charter dated Nov 1241 which names “quondam comes Ferrandus patruus noster et Johanna, quondam eius uxor…et Marie filie ipsius…”[554]. Betrothed (Jun 1235) to ROBERT de France, son of LOUIS VIII King of France & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Castilla (Sep 1216-killed in battle Mansurah, Egypt 9 Feb 1250). He was invested as Comte d'Artois in 1237 by his brother Louis IX King of France.

2. MARGUERITE de Flandre (2 Jun 1202-10 Feb 1280). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Iohannam et Margaretam" as the two daughters of "Balduinus"[555]. The Chronica Monasterii Sancti Bertini records that "secunda filia Margareta" was born after her parents left on their travels[556]. On the other hand, according to Villehardouin Comtesse Marie stayed behind when her husband left on Crusade, gave birth, and afterwards left for Acre where she died[557]. After her father's death, she was sent to Paris with her sister on the orders of Philippe II King of France[558]. Matthew of Paris names Bouchard as first husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[559]. Her first marriage was arranged by King Philippe II, her husband being a noble from Hainaut whose family had long supported French interests. Her first husband demanded a share of his late father-in-law's inheritance and, after complaining to Pope Innocent III, the marriage was annulled by the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 as Bouchard d'Avesnes had previously taken holy orders. The couple remained together until Bouchard was captured by his sister-in-law Ctss Jeanne in 1219. He was released two years later on condition he separate from his wife[560]. The Iohannis de Thilrode Chronicon records the marriage of "Marghareta" and "Willelmo de Dampetra"[561]. Matthew of Paris names Guillaume as second husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[562]. The Annales Blandinienses record the succession in 1244 of "Margareta soror eius [=Iohanna comitissa}"[563]. She succeeded her sister in 1244 as MARGUERITE II Ctss of Flanders and Ctss de Hainaut, both her husbands having died. Her children by her first marriage claimed their inheritance, but Louis IX King of France ruled in 1246 that Hainaut should be given to the Avesnes children and Flanders to the Dampierre children[564]. She abdicated 29 Dec 1278 in favour of her son Guy de Dampierre. The Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Margarete Flandrie et Hanonie…comitisse"[565]. m firstly (before 23 Jul 1212, annulled 1215, separated [1221]) BOUCHARD d'Avesnes, son of JACQUES Seigneur d'Avesnes, de Leuze et de Condé & his wife Adeline de Guise ([1180]-1244, bur Clairefontaine). Matthew of Paris names Bouchard as first husband of Marguerite in his description of the background to the war in Flanders in 1254[566]. m secondly ([18 Aug/15 Nov] 1223) GUILLAUME [II] Seigneur de Dampierre, son of GUY [II] Seigneur de Dampierre, Sire de Bourbon & his wife Mathilde de Bourbon, dame de Bourbon (after 1196-3 Sep 1231).

children of first marriage: - SEIGNEUR d'AVESNES, COMTES de HAINAUT.

children of second marriage: - see below, Chapter 3. COUNTS of FLANDERS 1244-1283 (DAMPIERRE). ----------------------------- Baudouin de Flandre et de Hainaut aussi nommé Baudouin de Constantinople (° 1171 - † 1205 ou 1206) est un comte de Flandre (Baudouin IX) de 1194 à 1205, un comte de Hainaut (Baudouin VI) de 1195 à 1205 et un empereur de Constantinople (Baudouin Ier) de 1204 à 1205. Il est fils de Baudouin V, comte de Hainaut, et de Marguerite d'Alsace, comtesse de Flandre.

Le comte de Flandre et de Hainaut

Il hérite de la Flandre (amputée de l’Artois depuis 1191) à la mort de sa mère le 15 novembre 1195 et du Hainaut à celle de son père le 18 décembre 1195, réunissant en sa personne les deux branches de la Maison de Flandre qui s’étaient séparées après la mort de Baudouin VI.

S’il prête rapidement hommage à Compiègne à Philippe Auguste, il reste dans une prudente attente dans le conflit franco-anglais, mais est obligé par le roi de France à donner des garanties supplémentaires à sa foi : le roi reçoit le serment des barons flamands de lui rester fidèle ; la menace d’un anathème plane sur le comte en cas de parjure ; enfin, les fiefs de Boulogne, Guînes et Oisy sont cédés à la Couronne. Taxé de faiblesse à son retour par les Flamands, Baudouin s’allie alors à Richard Cœur de Lion et demande au roi de France le retour à la Flandre de Lens, Arras, Hesdin, Bapaume, Saint-Omer et Aire. Devant le refus du roi, Baudouin entre en Artois, tandis que le duc Richard occupe les forces françaises en Normandie et met le siège devant Arras. Philippe Auguste réagit, repousse Baudouin jusqu’à l’Yser, mais le comte fait alors ouvrir les écluses sur le camp français. Le roi de France, enserré par les eaux et les armées flamandes n’a d’autre choix que de céder aux exigences de Baudouin, promesses qu’il fait rétracter par son conseil sitôt revenu à Paris. Baudouin prend à nouveau les armes et occupe Aire et St-Omer.

La comtesse Marie intervient alors et s’entremet entre le comte, son mari et le roi de France, son oncle. Son intervention débouche sur la conférence de Péronne en janvier 1199, où les deux parties arrivent à un accord : le roi conserve les terres au-delà du Fossé Neuf, tandis que Baudouin IX garde ou recouvre Douai, Ardres, Lillers, La Gorgue, Richebourg, Aire, Saint-Omer, l’avouerie de Béthune et l’hommage du comté de Guînes. Ce succès renforce la popularité du comte auprès de ses barons et de ses villes.

Le croisé

Le comte entend alors la prédication à la croisade d’Erluin et de Pierre de Roussy, envoyés en Flandre par le pape. Baudouin IX et son épouse Marie de Champagne prennent alors solennellement la Croix le 23 février 1200 en l’église St-Donat de Bruges, suivis par une foule de chevaliers flamands. Baudouin IX prend, avec Thibaud de Champagne, Louis de Blois et Hugues IV de Saint-Pol la tête de l’expédition. Avant le départ, il confie à son frère Philippe, comte de Namur, la régence de Flandre, assisté d’un conseil composé du chancelier Gérard, prévôt de St-Donat, son oncle, de Baudouin de Comines, des châtelains de Bruges, de Gand et de Lille.

Les armées gagnent Venise où un accord a été trouvé avec la république maritime pour transporter les Croisés en Orient : la moitié des conquêtes devra aller à la ville de saint Marc. Les Croisés prennent d’abord Zara comme paiement aux Vénitiens, puis à la demande de Philippe de Souabe, la croisade est détournée pour secourir son beau-frère Alexis Ange dont le père Isaac II a été renversé à Constantinople par son frère, devenu Alexis III. Le détournement est appuyé par le doge de Venise Enrico Dandolo. Chalcédoine en Bithynie est rapidement investie, puis Galata, et les Croisés arrivent donc sous les murs de Constantinople. Alexis III s’enfuit, Isaac II est libéré par les Grecs et doit céder aux conditions exigées par les Croisés pour l’aide accordée à son fils devenu Alexis IV.

Dès avril 1204, la situation se dégrade: les indemnités promises ne sont pas payées. La position d’Alexis IV est devenue intenable et il a été renversé en janvier par Alexis Murzuphle. L'énergique Alexis V renforce les défenses de la ville et refuse toute négociation. Le lundi de Pâques 1204, les Croisés prennent et saccagent alors l’antique Byzance, dont Baudouin est rapidement élu empereur avec l'appui des Vénitiens.

L'empereur de Constantinople

Couronné Baudouin Ier premier empereur latin de Constantinople le 16 mai 1204, le nouveau souverain respecte les accords passés pendant le siège de la ville avec Dandolo : les Vénitiens reçoivent les trois huitièmes de la ville et de l'Empire.

Baudouin se heurte rapidement aux réticences des Grecs et à l’intervention des Bulgares, appelés à l’aide. Il assiège Andrinople qui s’est soulevée, mais qui espère l’arrivée du tsar des Bulgares Jean Kalojan. Le comte de Blois, désobéissant à l’empereur, se porte au devant d’eux, ce qui contraint Baudouin à lui prêter secours. Le 15 avril 1205, les Francs sont battus devant Andrinople, le comte de Blois est tué. Baudouin est fait prisonnier selon Geoffroi de Villehardouin[1], même si les chroniqueurs Meyer et Raynaldi reconnaissent ignorer s’il est mort au champ d’honneur ou en prison. Si l’on en croit un autre chroniqueur, Nicétas Khoniatès, Baudouin aurait été détenu à Ternobe, puis aurait été abandonné dans une vallée pieds et mains coupées, et serait mort après une agonie de trois jours. Cette version est contestée, et il est plus probable que l’empereur flamand soit mort en prison.

Sa disparition, suivie six semaines plus tard de celle de Dandolo, nonagénaire, entraîna un partage des terres conquises et des querelles que son successeur, son frère Henri, ne sut éviter.

Mariage et descendance

Il avait épousé le 6 janvier 1186 Marie de Champagne (1174 † 1204), fille d'Henri Ier le Libéral, comte de Champagne et de Marie de France. Il laissait deux fillettes, à la merci de leur ambitieux suzerain :

   * Jeanne (1199-1200 † 1244), comtesse de Flandre et de Hainaut, mariée à :
        1. en 1212 Ferrand de Portugal (1188 † 1233)
        2. en 1237 Thomas II de Savoie (1199 † 1259), prince de Piémont
   * Marguerite II (1202 † 1280), comtesse de Flandre et de Hainaut, mariée à :
        1. en 1212 (séparés en 1221) Bouchard d'Avesnes (1182 † 1244)
        2. en 1223 Guillaume II de Dampierre (1196 † 1231)

L'aventure du faux-Baudouin

Sa mort incertaine permit en 1225 à un imposteur, Bertrand Cordel, de se faire passer en Flandre pour l'empereur, censé avoir échappé à la mort en Bulgarie. Le difficile contexte flamand de l'après Bouvines et la captivité du comte Ferrand permit l'aventure.

Fils d’un vassal de Clarembaut de Capes, natif de Rains, près de Vitry-sur-Marne, Bertrand Cordel était saltimbanque et jongleur. Après Bouvines, vers 1220, les Franciscains ont commencé à arriver en Flandre, accompagnés d'un grand prestige. La rumeur plaçait parmi eux d'anciens croisés flamands revenus au pays. C’est dans ce contexte qu’en 1225, un baron crut reconnaître Baudouin IX en Bertrand, qui vivait de mendicité publique et passait pour ermite dans le bois de Glançon, près de Valenciennes. Bertrand, installé dans un hôtel de cette ville, finit par jouer le jeu (27 mars 1225). Des personnalités dirent le reconnaître et lui apprirent vraisemblablement des rudiments de la vie de l’empereur et de la manière de bien se comporter. La crédulité du peuple fut correctement exploitée et une immense émotion parcourut les comtés de Flandre et de Hainaut. Il fut acclamé à Valenciennes, à Tournai, à Lille, ses entrées à Bruges et à Gand furent magnifiques. Il y était revêtu de tous les attributs impériaux.

La comtesse Jeanne, fille de Baudouin, dut alors se réfugier au Quesnoy avec quelques fidèles. On tenta même de l’enlever. Elle put néanmoins gagner Mons, alors que l’imposteur régnait à sa place (avril-mai 1225), entouré des barons dont il servait les intérêts. Jeanne de Constantinople tenta pour le confondre de le faire venir au Quesnoy, mais Bertrand déclina l’invitation. Cependant, grâce au témoignage de Josse de Materen, un des franciscains, ancien croisé, qui avait accompagné le grand comte jusqu’à sa mort en Bulgarie, elle fut convaincue de son bon droit. Elle en appela au jugement du roi Louis VIII, qui ne pouvait que s’alarmer car le roi Henri III d'Angleterre avait déjà pris contact avec le faux-Baudouin : le roi le convoqua à Péronne, tandis que Jeanne rassemblait toutes les personnes ayant connu son père, dont tous les franciscains qui durent reprendre contact avec le monde pour témoigner, contrairement à leurs vœux. L’enquête fut présidée par l’évêque Guérin de Senlis. Bertrand ne put se soustraire à la convocation du suzerain capétien : il fut accueilli comme s’il était le comte, mais l’imprécision de ses réponses au roi et à Guérin furent décisives : devant les barons flamands ébahis, il ne sut pas dire quand, où et par qui il aurait été fait chevalier, ni quand et dans quelle chambre il aurait épousé Marie de Champagne ! Comme preuve définitive, la nuit suivante il s’enfuit de la cour comme un voleur, ne doutant plus de la pensée du roi (30-31 mai 1225).

Retrouvé en Bourgogne ou réfugié à Valenciennes, il fut ramené en Flandre, où il fut condamné à mort et étranglé à Lille (fin septembre 1225). Son cadavre fut exhibé au gibet de Loos.

Notes et références

  1. ↑ « La Conquête de Constantinople »: Chapitre LXXXI Baudoins fu pris vif, et li cuens Loeys fu ocis

Sources et bibliographie

   * Le Glay Edward: Histoire des comtes de Flandre jusqu'à l'avènement de la Maison de Bourgogne, Comptoir des Imprimeurs-unis, Paris, MDCCCXLIII
   * Platelle Henri et Clauzel Denis: Histoire des provinces françaises du Nord, 2. Des principautés à l'empire de Charles Quint (900-1519), Westhoek-Editions Éditions des Beffrois, 1989; ISBN 2-87789-004-X
   * Douxchamps Cécile et José: Nos dynastes médiévaux, Wepion-Namur 1996, José Douxchamps, éditeur; ISBN 2-9600078-1-6
   * De Cant Geneviève: Jeanne et Marguerite de Constantinople, Éditions Racine, Bruxelles, 1995; ISBN 2-87386-044-8
   * John Julius Norwich (trad. Dominique Peters), Histoire de Byzance (330-1453), 1998 

-------------------- Baldwin I of Constantinople

Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romania (not to be confused with the modern state Romania).


Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut, and Margaret I, sister of Philip of Alsace and Countess of Flanders. When Philip died childless in 1191, he was succeeded in Flanders by Baldwin V, who ruled as Baldwin VIII of Flanders by right of marriage.

In 1186, the younger Baldwin married Marie of Champagne, daughter of count Henry I of Champagne. The chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed. Gislebert claims Baldwin was "tied only to one woman", his wife. Through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land: Her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s (leaving a widow and two daughters who needed help to keep and regain their territories in Palestine). Marie's uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade.

Baldwin's own family had also been involved in the defence of Jerusalem: his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwin's mother's mother was great-aunt of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and the Counts of Flanders had tried to help Jerusalem relatives in their struggle. Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders. His father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut.

Baldwin took possession of a much-reduced Flanders, for his uncle had given a large chunk, including Artois, as dowry to Baldwin's sister Isabelle of Hainaut on her marriage to King Philip II of France, and another significant piece to his own wife. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabella's son, the future Louis VIII of France. The eight years of Baldwin's rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land, culminating in January 1200 in the Treaty of Péronne, in which Philip returned most of Artois.

In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV. A month after the treaty, on February 23, 1200, Baldwin took the cross -- that is, he committed to embark on a crusade. He spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on April 14, 1202.

As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, Baldwin issued two notable charters for Hainaut. One detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down specific rules for inheritance. These are an important part of the legal tradition in Belgium.

Baldwin left behind his two-year-old daughter and his pregnant wife, Countess Marie. By early 1204, she had left both her children behind to join him in the East. They expected to return in a couple of years, but in the end neither would see their children or their homeland again. Marie was regent for Baldwin for the two years she remained in Flanders and Hainaut. Afterward, Baldwin's younger brother Philip of Namur was regent and also had custody of the daughters. Baldwin's uncle William of Thy (an illegitimate son of Baldwin IV of Hainaut) was regent for Hainaut.

Meanwhile, the crusade had been diverted to Constantinople, where the crusaders had captured and sacked the city, and decided to set up a Latin empire in place of the fallen Greek one.


Baldwin's Tower in the Tsarevets castle, Veliko Tarnovo, BulgariaThe imperial crown was at first offered to, and refused by, Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice. The choice then lay between Baldwin and the nominal leader of the crusade, Boniface of Montferrat. While Boniface was considered the most probable choice, due to his connections with the Byzantine court, Baldwin was young, gallant, pious, and virtuous, one of the few who interpreted and observed his crusading vows strictly; the most popular leader in the host. With Venetian support he was elected on May 9, 1204, and crowned on May 16 in the Hagia Sophia at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices. During his coronation, Baldwin wore a very rich jewel that had been bought by Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos for 62,000 silver marks. Baldwin's wife Marie, unaware of these events, had sailed to Acre. There she learned of her husband's election as emperor, but died of the plague in August 1204 before she could join him.

The Latin Empire was organized on feudal principles; the emperor was feudal superior of the princes who received portions of the conquered territory. His own special portion consisted of the city of Constantinople, the adjacent regions both on the European and the Asiatic side, along with some outlying districts, and several islands including Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios and Tenos. The territories still had to be conquered; and first of all it was necessary to break the resistance of the Greeks in Thrace and secure Thessalonica. In this enterprise in the summer of 1204, Baldwin came into collision with Boniface of Montferrat, the rival candidate for the empire, who was to receive a large territory in Macedonia with the title of King of Thessalonica.

Boniface hoped to make himself quite independent of the empire, to do no homage for his kingdom, and he opposed Baldwin's proposal to march to Thessalonica. The antagonism between Flemings and Lombards aggravated the quarrel. Baldwin insisted on going to Thessalonica; Boniface laid siege to Adrianople, where Baldwin had established a governor; civil war seemed inevitable. An agreement was effected by the efforts of Dandolo and the count of Blois. Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.

During the following winter (1204–1205) the Franks prosecuted conquests in Bithynia, in which Henry, Baldwin's brother, took part. But in February the Greeks revolted in Thrace, relying on the assistance of John (Kaloyan), tsar of Bulgaria, whose overtures of alliance had been rejected by the emperor. The garrison of Adrianople was expelled. Baldwin along with Dandolo, the count of Blois, and Marshal Villehardouin, the historian, marched to besiege that city. The Frankish knights were defeated (April 14, 1205); the count of Blois was slain, and the emperor captured by the Bulgarians (see Battle of Adrianople).

For some time his fate was uncertain, and in the meanwhile Henry, his brother, assumed the regency. Not till the middle of July was it definitely ascertained that he was dead. The circumstances of Baldwin's death are not exactly known. It seems that he was at first treated well as a valuable hostage, but was sacrificed by the Bulgarian monarch in a sudden outburst of rage, perhaps in consequence of the revolt of Philippopolis, which passed into the hands of the Franks. According to a Bulgarian legend, Baldwin had caused his own downfall by trying to seduce Kaloyan's wife. The historian George Acropolites reports that the Tsar had Baldwin's skull made into a drinking cup, just as had happened to Nicephorus I almost four hundred years before. At any rate, Tsar Kaloyan wrote to Pope Innocent III, reporting that Baldwin had died in prison. A tower of the Tsarevets fortress of the medieval Bulgarian capital, Veliko Tarnovo, is still called "Baldwin's Tower"; supposedly, it was the tower where he was interned.

It was not until July 1206 that the Latins in Constantinople had reliable information that Baldwin was dead. His brother Henry was crowned emperor in August.

Back in Flanders, however, there seemed to be doubt whether Baldwin was truly dead. In any case, Baldwin's other brother Philip of Namur remained as regent, and eventually both of Baldwin's daughters Jeanne and Margaret were to rule as countesses of Flanders.

-------------------- Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romania (not to be confused with the modern state Romania).

Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut, and Margaret I, sister of Philip of Alsace and Countess of Flanders. When Philip died childless in 1191, he was succeeded in Flanders by Baldwin V, who ruled as Baldwin VIII of Flanders by right of marriage.

In 1186, the younger Baldwin married Marie of Champagne, daughter of count Henry I of Champagne. The chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed. Gislebert claims Baldwin was "tied only to one woman", his wife. Through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land: Her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s (leaving a widow and two daughters who needed help to keep and regain their territories in Palestine). Marie's uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade.

Baldwin's own family had also been involved in the defence of Jerusalem: his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwin's mother's mother was great-aunt of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and the Counts of Flanders had tried to help Jerusalem relatives in their struggle. Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders. His father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut.

-------------------- Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romania (not to be confused with modern Romania). Contents [hide]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Count of Flanders and Hainaut
   * 3 Latin Emperor
   * 4 Children and Successors
   * 5 The False Baldwin
   * 6 References

[edit] Early life

Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut, and Margaret I, sister of Philip of Alsace and Countess of Flanders. When Philip died childless in 1191, he was succeeded in Flanders by Baldwin V, who ruled as Baldwin VIII of Flanders by right of marriage.

In 1186, the younger Baldwin married Marie of Champagne, daughter of count Henry I of Champagne. The chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed. Gislebert claims Baldwin was "tied only to one woman", his wife.

Through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land: Her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s (leaving a widow and two daughters who needed help to keep and regain their territories in Palestine). Marie's uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade.

Baldwin's own family had also been involved in defence of Jerusalem: his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwin's mother's mother was great-aunt of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and the Counts of Flanders had tried to help Jerusalem relatives in their struggle. Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition.

Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders. His father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut.

[edit] Count of Flanders and Hainaut

Baldwin took possession of a much-reduced Flanders, for his uncle had given a large chunk, including Artois, as dowry to Baldwin's sister Isabelle of Hainaut on her marriage to King Philip II of France, and another significant piece to his own wife. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabella's son, the future Louis VIII of France. The eight years of Baldwin's rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land, culminating in January 1200 in the Treaty of Péronne, in which Philip returned most of Artois.

In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV.

A month after the treaty, on February 23, 1200, Baldwin took the cross -- that is, he committed to embark on a crusade. He spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on April 14, 1202.

As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, Baldwin issued two notable charters for Hainaut. One detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down specific rules for inheritance. These are an important part of the legal tradition in Belgium.

Baldwin left behind his two-year-old daughter and his pregnant wife, Countess Marie. By early 1204, she had left both her children behind to join him in the East. They expected to return in a couple of years, but in the end neither would see their children or their homeland again.

Marie was regent for Baldwin for the two years she remained in Flanders and Hainaut. Afterward, Baldwin's younger brother Philip of Namur was regent and also had custody of the daughters. Baldwin's uncle William of Thy (an illegitimate son of Baldwin IV of Hainaut) was regent for Hainaut.

Meanwhile, the crusade had been diverted to Constantinople, where the crusaders had captured and sacked the city, and decided to set up a Latin empire in place of the fallen Greek one.

[edit] Latin Emperor

The imperial crown was offered to, and refused by, Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice. The choice then lay between Baldwin and Boniface of Montferrat. Baldwin was young, gallant, pious, and virtuous, one of the few who interpreted and observed his crusading vows strictly; the most popular leader in the host. He was elected on May 9, 1204, and crowned on May 16 in the Hagia Sophia at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices.

Baldwin's wife Marie, unaware of these events, had sailed to Acre. There she learned of her husband's election as emperor, but died of the plague in August 1204 before she could join him.

The Latin Empire was organized on feudal principles; the emperor was feudal superior of the princes who received portions of the conquered territory. His own special portion consisted of the city of Constantinople, the adjacent regions both on the European and the Asiatic side, along with some outlying districts, and several islands including Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios and Tenos. The territories still had to be conquered; and first of all it was necessary to break the resistance of the Greeks in Thrace and secure Thessalonica. In this enterprise in the summer of 1204, Baldwin came into collision with Boniface of Montferrat, the rival candidate for the empire, who was to receive a large territory in Macedonia with the title of King of Salonica. He hoped to make himself quite independent of the empire, to do no homage for his kingdom, and he opposed Baldwin's proposal to march to Thessalonica. The antagonism between Flemings and Lombards aggravated the quarrel. Baldwin insisted on going to Thessalonica; Boniface laid siege to Adrianople, where Baldwin had established a governor; civil war seemed inevitable. An agreement was effected by the efforts of Dandolo and the count of Blois. Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.

During the following winter (1204–1205) the Franks prosecuted conquests in Bithynia, in which Henry, Baldwin's brother, took part. But in February the Greeks revolted in Thrace, relying on the assistance of John (Kaloyan), tsar of Bulgaria, whose overtures of alliance had been rejected by the emperor. The garrison of Adrianople was expelled. Baldwin along with Dandolo, the count of Blois, and Marshal Villehardouin, the historian, marched to besiege that city. The Frankish knights were defeated (April 14, 1205); the count of Blois was slain, and the emperor captured by the Bulgarians (see Battle of Adrianople).

For some time his fate was uncertain, and in the meanwhile Henry, his brother, assumed the regency. Not till the middle of July was it definitely ascertained that he was dead. The circumstances of Baldwin's death are not exactly known. It seems that he was at first treated well as a valuable hostage, but was sacrificed by the Bulgarian monarch in a sudden outburst of rage, perhaps in consequence of the revolt of Philippopolis, which passed into the hands of the Franks. According to a Bulgarian legend, Baldwin had caused his own downfall by trying to seduce Kaloyan's wife. The historian George Acropolites reports that the Tsar had Baldwin's skull made into a drinking cup, just as had happened to Nicephorus I almost four hundred years before. At any rate, Tsar Kaloyan wrote to Pope Innocent III, reporting that Baldwin had died in prison. A tower of the Tsarevets fortress of the medieval Bulgarian capital, Veliko Tarnovo, is still called "Baldwin's Tower".

[edit] Children and Successors

It was not until July 1206 that the Latins in Constantinople had reliable information that Baldwin was dead. His brother Henry was crowned emperor in August.

Back in Flanders, however, there seemed to be doubt whether Baldwin was truly dead. In any case, Baldwin's other brother Philip of Namur remained as regent, and eventually both of Baldwin's daughters Jeanne and Margaret were to rule as countesses of Flanders.

[edit] The False Baldwin

Twenty years later, in 1225, a man appeared in Flanders claiming to be the presumed dead Baldwin. His claim soon became entangled in a series of rebellions and revolts in Flanders against the rule of Baldwin's daughter Jeanne. A number of people who had known Baldwin before the crusade met the supposed count and emperor and rejected his claim. In the end he was executed in 1226. -------------------- Baldwin I (July 1172 – 1205, Bulgaria), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romania (not to be confused with the modern state Romania).

Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut, and Margaret I, sister of Philip of Alsace and Countess of Flanders. When Philip died childless in 1191, he was succeeded in Flanders by Baldwin V, who ruled as Baldwin VIII of Flanders by right of marriage.

In 1186, the younger Baldwin married Marie of Champagne, daughter of count Henry I of Champagne. The chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed. Gislebert claims Baldwin was "tied only to one woman", his wife. Through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land: Her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s (leaving a widow and two daughters who needed help to keep and regain their territories in Palestine). Marie's uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade.

Baldwin's own family had also been involved in the defence of Jerusalem: his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwin's mother's mother was great-aunt of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and the Counts of Flanders had tried to help Jerusalem relatives in their struggle. Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders. His father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_I_of_Constantinople

Baldwin I of Constantinople

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The monument to Baldwin I, 1868, in Mons

Baldwin I (July 1172 – c. 1205), the first emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, as Baldwin IX Count of Flanders and as Baldwin VI Count of Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Fourth Crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of the greater part of the Byzantine Empire, and the foundation of the Latin Empire, also known as Romania (not to be confused with the modern state Romania).

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Biography
         o 1.1 Early life and family history
         o 1.2 Count of Flanders and Hainaut
         o 1.3 Latin Emperor
   * 2 Family
   * 3 The false Baldwin
   * 4 Notes
   * 5 References

[edit] Biography

[edit] Early life and family history

Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders and sister of Count Philip of Alsace.[1] When the childless Philip of Alsace left on his first crusade in 1177, he designated his brother-in-law Baldwin V his heir. When Philip returned in 1179 after an unsuccessful siege of Harim during his campaign for the Principality of Antioch, he was designated as the chief adviser of prince Philip II Augustus by his sickly father Louis VII of France.[1] One year later, Philip of Alsace had his protégé married to his niece, Isabelle of Hainaut, offering the County of Artois and other Flemish territories as dowry, much to the dismay of Baldwin V.[2] In 1180, war broke out between Philip II and his mentor, resulting in the devastation of Picardy and Île-de-France; King Philip refused to give open battle and gained the upper hand, and Baldwin V, at first allied with his brother-in-law, intervened on behalf of his son-in-law in 1184, in support of his daughter's interests.[3]

Count Philip's wife Elisabeth died in 1183, and Philip Augustus seized the province of Vermandois on behalf of Elisabeth's sister, Eleonore. Philip then remarried, to Princess Matilda of Portugal, daughter of Afonso I, the first King of Portugal, and Maud of Savoy. Philip gave Matilda of Portugal a dowry of a number of major Flemish towns, in an apparent slight to Baldwin V. Fearing that he would be surrounded by the royal domain of France and the County of Hainaut, Count Philip signed a peace treaty with Philip Augustus and Count Baldwin V on 10 March 1186, recognizing the cession of Vermandois to the king, although he was allowed to retain the title Count of Vermandois for the remainder of his life. When Philip died of disease in 1191, unsuccessful in producing an heir with Countess Matilda, he was succeeded in Flanders by Baldwin V, although the two had been on seemingly uncordial terms since the 1186 treaty.[3] Baldwin V thereupon ruled as Baldwin VIII of Flanders by right of marriage.[3] When Countess Margaret I died in 1194, Flanders descended to her eldest son Baldwin, who ruled as Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders.[3]

In 1186, the younger Baldwin had married Marie of Champagne, daughter of Count Henry I of Champagne and Countess Marie of France.[4] The chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed.

   Immediately after this arrangement, the count of Hainaut's son Baldwin, thirteen years old,[5] received as wife Marie, the count of Champagne's sister, twelve years old, at Château-Thierry. This Marie began sufficiently young to devote herself to divine obedience in prayers, vigils, fasts and alms. Her husband Baldwin, a young knight, by chaste living, scorning all other women, began to love her alone with a fervent love, which is rarely found in any man, so that he devoted himself to his sole wife only and was content with her alone. The solemn rejoicing of the wedding was celebrated at Valenciennes with an abundance of knights and ladies and men of whatever status.[6]

Through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land: her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s (leaving a widow and two daughters who needed help to keep and regain their territories in Palestine). Marie's uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade.

Baldwin's own family had also been involved in the defence of Jerusalem: his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwin's mother's mother was great-aunt of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and the Counts of Flanders had tried to help Jerusalem relatives in their struggle. Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders. His father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut.

[edit] Count of Flanders and Hainaut

Baldwin took possession of a much-reduced Flanders, lessened by the large chunk, including Artois, given by Philip of Alsace as dowry to Baldwin's sister Isabelle of Hainaut, and another significant piece to his own wife. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabelle's son, the future Louis VIII of France. The eight years of Baldwin's rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land, culminating in January 1200 in the Treaty of Péronne, in which Philip returned most of Artois.

In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV. A month after the treaty, on 23 February 1200, Baldwin took the cross—that is, he committed to embark on a crusade. He spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on 14 April 1202.

As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, Baldwin issued two notable charters for Hainaut. One detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down specific rules for inheritance. These are an important part of the legal tradition in Belgium.

Baldwin left behind his two-year-old daughter and his pregnant wife, Countess Marie. Marie was regent for Baldwin for the two years she remained in Flanders and Hainaut, but by early 1204, she had left both her children behind to join him in the East. They expected to return in a couple of years, but in the end neither would see their children or their homeland again. In their absence Baldwin's younger brother Philip of Namur was regent in Flanders, with custody of the daughters. Baldwin's uncle William of Thy (an illegitimate son of Baldwin IV of Hainaut) was regent for Hainaut.

Meanwhile, the crusade had been diverted to Constantinople, where the crusaders captured and sacked the city, and decided to set up a Latin empire in place of the fallen Greek one.

[edit] Latin Emperor

Baldwin's Tower in the Tsarevets castle, Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria

The imperial crown was at first offered to Enrico Dandolo, Doge of Venice, who refused it. The choice then lay between Baldwin and the nominal leader of the crusade, Boniface of Montferrat. While Boniface was considered the most probable choice, due to his connections with the Byzantine court, Baldwin was young, gallant, pious, and virtuous, one of the few who interpreted and observed his crusading vows strictly, and the most popular leader in the host. With Venetian support he was elected on 9 May 1204, and crowned on 16 May in the Hagia Sophia at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices. During his coronation, Baldwin wore a very rich jewel that had been bought by Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos for 62,000 silver marks. Baldwin's wife Marie, unaware of these events, had sailed to Acre. There she learned of her husband's election as emperor, but died in August 1204 before she could join him.

The Latin Empire was organized on feudal principles; the emperor was feudal superior of the princes who received portions of the conquered territory. His own special portion consisted of the city of Constantinople, the adjacent regions both on the European and the Asiatic side, along with some outlying districts, and several islands including Lemnos, Lesbos, Chios and Tenos. The territories still had to be conquered; first of all it was necessary to break the resistance of the Greeks in Thrace and secure Thessalonica. In this enterprise in the summer of 1204, Baldwin came into collision with Boniface of Montferrat, the rival candidate for the empire, who was to receive a large territory in Macedonia with the title of King of Thessalonica.

Boniface hoped to make himself quite independent of the empire, to do no homage for his kingdom, and he opposed Baldwin's proposal to march to Thessalonica. The antagonism between Flemings and Lombards aggravated the quarrel. Baldwin insisted on going to Thessalonica; Boniface laid siege to Adrianople, where Baldwin had established a governor; civil war seemed inevitable. An agreement was effected by the efforts of Dandolo and the count of Blois. Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.

Coat of arms of the Latin Empire.

During the following winter (1204–1205) the Franks prosecuted conquests in Bithynia, in which Henry, Baldwin's brother, took part. But in February the Greeks revolted in Thrace, relying on the assistance of John (Kaloyan), tsar of Bulgaria, whose overtures of alliance had been rejected by the emperor. The garrison of Adrianople was expelled. Baldwin along with Dandolo, the count of Blois, and Marshal Villehardouin, the historian, marched to besiege that city. The Frankish knights were defeated (14 April 1205); the count of Blois was slain, and the emperor captured by the Bulgarians (see Battle of Adrianople).

For some time his fate was uncertain, and in the meanwhile Henry, his brother, assumed the regency. Not until the middle of July the following year was it ascertained that he was dead. The circumstances of Baldwin's death are not exactly known. It seems that he was at first treated well as a valuable hostage, but was sacrificed by the Bulgarian monarch in a sudden outburst of rage, perhaps in consequence of the revolt of Philippopolis, which passed into the hands of the Franks. According to a Bulgarian legend, Baldwin had caused his own downfall by trying to seduce Kaloyan's wife. The historian George Acropolites reports that the Tsar had Baldwin's skull made into a drinking cup, just as had happened to Nicephorus I almost four hundred years before.

At any rate, Tsar Kaloyan wrote to Pope Innocent III, reporting that Baldwin had died in prison. A tower of the Tsarevets fortress of the medieval Bulgarian capital, Veliko Tarnovo, is still called "Baldwin's Tower"; supposedly, it was the tower where he was interned.

[edit] Family

It was not until July 1206 that the Latins in Constantinople had reliable information that Baldwin was dead. His brother Henry was crowned emperor in August.

Back in Flanders, however, there seemed to be doubt whether Baldwin was truly dead. In any case, Baldwin's other brother Philip of Namur remained as regent, and eventually both of Baldwin's daughters Jeanne and Margaret were to rule as countesses of Flanders.

[edit] The false Baldwin

Twenty years later, in 1225, a man appeared in Flanders claiming to be the presumed dead Baldwin. His claim soon became entangled in a series of rebellions and revolts in Flanders against the rule of Baldwin's daughter Jeanne. A number of people who had known Baldwin before the crusade rejected his claim, but he nonetheless attracted many followers from the ranks of the peasantry. Eventually unmasked as a Burgundian serf named Bertrand of Ray, the false Baldwin was executed in 1226.[7]

[edit] Notes

Search Wikisource Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Baldwin I. (emperor of Romania).

  1. ^ a b Wolff 1952, p. 281.
  2. ^ Wolff 1952, pp. 281–282.
  3. ^ a b c d Wolff 1952, p. 282.
  4. ^ Evergates 1999, p. 127.
  5. ^ Baldwin was in fact 14 years old when he married Marie of Champagne in 1186.
  6. ^ Gislebert of Mons & Napran 2005, p. 105.
  7. ^ See Cohn (1970), pp. 89-93.

[edit] References

   * Cohn, Norman (1970), The Pursuit of the Millennium, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press .
   * Evergates, Theodore (1999), Aristocratic Women in Medieval France, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0-8122-1700-4 .
   * Gislebert of Mons; Napran, Laura (trans.) (2005), Chronicle of Hainaut, Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, ISBN 1-84383-120-1 .
   * Moore, John C. (January 1962), "Baldwin IX of Flanders, Philip Augustus and the Papal Power", Speculum (Medieval Academy of America) 37 (1): 79–89, doi:10.2307/2850600, http://jstor.org/stable/2850600 .
   * Wolff, Robert Lee (July 1952), "Baldwin of Flanders and Hainaut, First Latin Emperor of Constantinople: His Life, Death, and Resurrection, 1172–1225", Speculum (Medieval Academy of America) 27 (3): 281–322, doi:10.2307/2853088, http://jstor.org/stable/2853088 .

Preceded by

Alexius V Ducas

as Byzantine Emperor Latin Emperor Blason Empire Latin de Constantinople.svg

1204 – 1205 Succeeded by

Henry

Preceded by

Margaret I

with Baldwin VIII Count of Flanders Blason Comte-de-Flandre.svg

1194 – 1205 Succeeded by

Jeanne

Preceded by

Baldwin V Count of Hainaut Blason fr Hainaut ancien.svg

1195 – 1205

[hide]

v • d • e

Monarchs of the Latin Empire of Constantinople

Reigning emperors

(1204–1261)

Baldwin I · Henry · Peter · Yolanda · Robert I · Baldwin II (with John of Brienne as regent)

Blason Empire Latin de Constantinople.svg

Titular emperors

(1261–1383)

Baldwin II · Philip I · Catherine I (with Charles of Valois) · Catherine II (with Philip II) · Robert II · Philip III · James of Baux

This page was last modified on 1 June 2010 at 02:24.

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Baldwin VI, 1st Emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople's Timeline

1172
July 1172
Hainaut, Belgium
1188
1188
Age 15
Valenciennes, Nord, France
1202
June 2, 1202
Age 29
Valenciennes, Nord, France
1205
June 11, 1205
Age 32
Adrianople, Turkey
1991
December 14, 1991
Age 32
December 14, 1991
Age 32
1992
February 27, 1992
Age 32
February 27, 1992
Age 32
March 24, 1992
Age 32
JRIVE
June 11, 1992
Age 32