III. Béla of Hungary & Croatia ÁRPÁD(házi), King (c.1148 - 1196) MP

public profile

Is your surname ÁRPÁD(házi)?

Research the ÁRPÁD(házi) family

ÁRPÁD(házi) III. Béla király, King of Hungary & Croatia's Geni Profile

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Nicknames: "King Bela III 'Harmadik' King of Hungary"
Birthplace: Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Magyarország - Hungary
Death: Died in Székesfehérvár, Fejér , Magyarország - Hungary
Occupation: Rey de Hungría y Croacia, Roi de Hongrie, KING OF HUNGARY, King of Hungary, Kung i Ungern, 1173 tot 1196: Koning van Hongarije
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About III. Béla of Hungary & Croatia ÁRPÁD(házi), King

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#BelaIIIA

BÉLA III 1172-1196, IMRE 1196-1204, LÁSZLÓ III 1204-1205


BÉLA, son of GÉZA II King of Hungary & his wife Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (1149-23 Apr 1196, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest). The Chronicon Zagrabiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…rex Wela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geyza" as the four sons of "Gexcha rex"[735]. The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Stephanum et Belam, Arpad et Geysam" as the four sons of "Geysa"[736]. The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…rex Bela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geysa" as the four sons of "Geysa rex" (omitting reference to the second son)[737]. Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Belam" as the two sons of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas"[738]. The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Bela frater eius" returned from Greece and succeeded King István[739]. Designated Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia by his father in 1162. Under the peace treaty signed in 1164 between his brother István III and Emperor Manuel I, Béla was confirmed as Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia, and sent to Constantinople (where he converted to the Greek Orthodox religion and adopted the name ALEXIOS) as István's acknowledged successor. He was installed as Duke of Szerem by his brother in 1165. The emperor granted him the title despot, betrothed him to his daughter and acknowledged him as his heir in Byzantium, until 1169 when his own son Alexios Komnenos was born. Béla was demoted from despot to cæsar. The betrothal was terminated, although Béla remained in Constantinople as a member of the imperial family until 1172, when he succeeded his brother as BÉLA III King of Hungary and reconverted to Roman Catholicism. He was crowned 13 Jan 1174. "Bela III secundi Geyzæ regis filius…Ungariæ, Dalmatiæ, Croatiæ, Ramæque rex" confirmed the possessions of the church of Zagreb by charter dated 1175, witnessed by "Farcasio palatino comite, Subano Bano…"[740]. He remained a loyal ally of Byzantium until the death of Emperor Manuel I in 1181, even sending troops to help the Emperor fight the Seljuks of Konya in Anatolia in 1176[741]. He recovered Dalmatia, part of Croatia and the region of Sirmium in 1181. Following the murder in 1182 of Maria of Antioch, who was Emperor Manuel's widow and the older half-sister of King Béla's first wife, Béla invaded Byzantine territory in 1183, occupying Beograd and Braničevo. He formed an alliance with Stefan Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, sacked Niš and Sardika [Sofija], and moved into Thrace[742]. His relative status as a monarch is shown by his statement of revenues, sent to France during the negotiations for his third marriage, which showed they were equal to those of his French and English counterparts and only inferior to those of the two emperors[743]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Bela Græcus" "rid the country of robbers and brigands" and introduced the practice of submitting petitions in written form, as at the Roman Curia[744]. Béla III King of Hungary granted "totam terram pertinentem ad comitatum Modrus" to "comitis Bartholomæi de Veglia" by charter dated 1193, witnessed by "Dominico curiali comite et eodem de Budrugensi, Andres comite de Suprum, Both comite de Bohar, Egidio comite de Sala, Fulcone comite de Vosvar, --- comite Sanegg [Macario comite de Zaunuch]"[745]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1196…in cena Domini" of "rex Hungarie Bela"[746]. The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "IX Kal May" in 1190 of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysæ" and his burial "Albæ"[747]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "IX Kal May" in 1190 of "Bela" and his burial "in Albensi ecclesia"[748]. The necrology of Admunt records the death "VIII Kal Mai" of "Bel rex Ungarorum"[749]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Bela Græcus" was buried at Székesfehérvár[750].

Betrothed (1163, contract broken 1169) MARIA Komnene, daughter of Emperor MANUEL I & his first wife Bertha von Sulzbach (Mar 1152-poisoned Jul 1182). Niketas Choniates records the betrothal of "Iazæ filio Belæ" and "imperator…Mariam filiam"[751]. Ioannes Kinnamos records the betrothal between "Belam qui post Stephanum Geizæ filius" and "Mariæ filiæ suæ" (Emperor Manuel I)[752]. She later married Ranieri di Monferrato. William of Tyre names her and gives her parentage, when recording her marriage[753]. Regent of Byzantium, she was put to death with her husband by Emperor Andronikos I.

m firstly (1172) AGNES de Châtillon-sur-Loing, daughter of RENAUD de Châtillon-sur-Loing & his first wife Constance Pss of Antioch (1154-1184, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agnetam" as second of the three daughters of "Raynaldus de Castellione uxor…relictam principis Raymundi" and her husband "rex Bela de Hungaria"[754]. The Lignages d'Outremer name "Maria e Joanna" as the two daughters of "Rinaldo de Castellion" and his wife "Costanza…la Nova Princessa", stating that Marie married "el re d'Ungaria", "Maria" presumably being an error for "Agnes"[755]. She lived at the court of Emperor Manuel I[756]. She adopted the name ANNA in Hungary. The Memoria Vivorum in the necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert names "Bela rex Ungarie et consors eiusdem regina Anna et liberi amborum Heimricus, Andreas, Margareta"[757].

Betrothed (after Sep 1185) to THEODORA Komnene, widow of ANDRONIKOS Lapardas sébastos, daughter of --- & his wife [Eirene Komnene Anema]. Stiernon suggests that Theodora was the granddaughter of Theodora, daughter of Emperor Ioannes II[758], but this seems to be based on no more than guesswork. According to Kerbl, her betrothal to King Béla must have taken place after the murder of Emperor Andronikos I, with whom King Béla III did not enjoy close relations[759]. It was presumably arranged by Andronikos's successor Emperor Isaakios II Angelos. Theodora became a nun in 1186.

m secondly ([1185/86]) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de France Ctss de Vexin, widow of HENRY associate-King of England, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his second wife Infanta doña Constanza de Castilla y León (1158-Acre shortly after 10 Sep 1197). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Margareta soror regis Philippi" as widow of "iunior Henricus rex Anglorum" and records her second marriage to "Hungarorum regi Bela"[760]. Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which records that “Belæ Regis Hungariæ” married “sororem Philippi Regis Francorum”[761]. Her first husband's father arranged her second marriage so he could retain her dowry. She left for Palestine after being widowed for the second time. The Chronicle of Ernoul records the arrival of "une reine en Hongrie…veve sans hoir" at Tyre [in 1197] and her death eight days later, specifying that she was the sister of the mother of Henri Comte de Champagne King of Jerusalem and had been "feme…le jouene roi d'Englietere…et suer…le roi Phelippe de France"[762].

King Béla III & his first wife had six children:

1. IMRE (1174-30 Nov 1204, Eger Cathedral). The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysæ"[763]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[764]. He succeeded his father in 1196 as IMRE King of Hungary and Croatia. The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Emiricus filius eius" succeeded his father[765]. "Henricus…Hungariæ, Dalmatiæ, Croatiæ, Ramæ, Serviæque rex", after recording that his father King Béla III had granted land "a latere ducatus Sclauoniæ, iuxta Podgoriam et Goritiam" to "quemdam nobili de Teutonia…Albertum de Michouo" who abused his power, appointed "Stephanus, Nicolai filius…ortum de genealogia Vrsinorum comitum, ac senatorum urbis Romanæ" who had married "dominum Hermannum de Goritia in partibus Karinthiæ…filiam" to control the oppression of the people of "antedicti ducatus Sclaoniæ" by charter dated 1197[766]. He was recognised as overlord of Serbia by Grand Župan Vukan in 1202 after the latter deposed his brother Stefan, and added "King of Serbia" to his titles[767], although the charter dated 1197 quoted above shows that King Imre had already added the title by then. In order to recapture Zara in Dalmatia, which had recently fallen into Hungarian hands, Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice arranged with Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, leader of the Fourth Crusade, for the crusaders to recapture the city for Venice on their way east, which they did 15 Nov 1202[768]. Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria annexed Beograd, Braničevo and Vidin from Hungary in [1204]. Pope Innocent III intervened by ordering King Imre not to counter-attack, Kalojan having promised to recognise papal suzerainty over Bulgaria in return for a crown[769]. The Chronicon Zagrabiense records the death "II Kal Dec" in 1204 of "Emericus filius regis Bele" and his burial "in Agria"[770]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "Kal Dec" in 1200 of "Emericus" and his burial "in ecclesia Agriensi"[771]. m (1198) as her first husband, Infanta doña CONSTANZA de Aragón, daughter of don ALFONSO II “el Casto” King of Aragon & his wife Infanta doña Sancha de Castilla ([1179]-Catania 23 Jun 1222, bur Palermo Cathedral). The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Emericus" married "Constancia filia regis Aragonie Cesari Friderico"[772]. The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium names "Constantia" as oldest of the three daughters of "Ildefonsi", specifying that she married "Regi Ungariæ" but returned childless to Aragon after his death[773]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Constantia regina" as wife of "Hemericus filius [regis Hungarie Bela]", specifying that she later married "Frederico imperatori"[774]. The Continuatio Admuntensis records that she took her son to Vienna and, after his death, Leopold Duke of Austria arranged her repatriation to "fratri suo Hyspaniarum regi"[775]. She married secondly (Feb 1210) as his first wife, Friedrich King of Sicily, who was elected Friedrich II King of Germany 5 Dec 1212 at Frankfurt-am-Main, and crowned Emperor in Rome 22 Nov 1220. The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Annales record the marriage in 1209 of "Fredericus rex Sicilie" and "Constantiam sororem regis Arragonum"[776]. The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the marriage of "Fridericus rex Apulie" and "filiam regis Arragonis, relictam regis Ungarie"[777]. Named Regent of Sicily by her husband in 1212, during his absence in Germany until 1220. She was crowned Empress at Rome with her husband 22 Nov 1220[778]. The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the death "apud Cataniam" in 1222 of "domina Constantia imperatrix…prima uxor Frederici imperatoris"[779]. King Imre & his wife had one child:

a) LÁSZLÓ (1199-7 May 1205, bur Székesfehérvár). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Ladizlaum" as the son of "Emericus" and his wife "Constancia filia regis Aragonie Cesari Friderico"[780]. The Continuatio Admuntensis for 1203 names "Heinricus Ungarorum rex filium suum Labezlaum", specifying that he was crowned by his father when aged 3[781]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that Imre King of Hungary crowned his infant son as king during his own lifetime[782]. He succeeded his father in 1204 as LÁSZLÓ III "the Child" King of Hungary, but was ousted by his uncle András. The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "Non May" in 1201 of "Ladizlaus" after reigning for 6 months and 2 days, and his burial "Albe"[783]. The Continuatio Admuntensis records that his mother took him to Vienna but that he died within a few days, his body being returned to Hungary for burial in the royal sepulchre[784].

2. MARGIT (1175-after 1223). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[785]. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of Emperor Isaakios and "Belæ Hungariæ regis filiam", commenting that she was only ten years old at the time[786]. She brought Beograd, Braničevo and probably Niš as part of her dowry for her first marriage[787]. The special wedding tax levied by Emperor Isaakios II to finance their elaborate nuptial ceremonies may have contributed to attracting support for the rebellion in Bulgaria by the brothers Ivan Asen and Tedor[788]. She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium. The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records the marriage of "Bonifacius marchio" and "Margaritam imperatricem condam Ysachii, sororem Aimerici regis Ungari"[789]. Villehardouin records that the wife of Emperor Isaakios, and stepmother of his son, was "the king of Hungary's sister", in a later passage naming her "the Empress Marie"[790]. Georgius Akropolites records that "rex Thessalonicæ" married "Mariam Ungaram", widow of "imperatori Isaacio"[791]. Villehardouin records the marriage of "the Marquis Boniface de Montferrat" and "the lady who had been the Emperor Isaac's wife…the king of Hungary's sister"[792]. Her second marriage was arranged by Bonifazio to advance his claim to be installed as emperor of the new Latin Empire of Constantinople[793], but he was outmanoeuvred by Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice who secured the appointment of Baudouin Count of Flanders who was considered a less powerful candidate. Her second husband installed her as regent of Thessaloniki while he was on campaign to conquer Thessaly[794]. She was also regent for her infant son after the death of her husband, but in the face of opposition from local nobles was replaced by Uberto di Biandrate. The primary source which confirms her third marriage has not so far been identified. She was restored as regent by Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople to whom Uberto refused to swear allegiance, after the latter was captured in Euboea by the emperor in 1209[795]. m firstly (1185) as his second wife, Emperor ISAAKIOS II, son of ANDRONIKOS Dukas Angelos & his wife Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa ([1155]-Constantinople in prison [28 Jan/12 Apr] 1204). m secondly (1204) as his third wife, BONIFAZIO I Marchese di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] (1150-killed in battle 4 Sep 1207). King of Thessaloniki 1204. m thirdly (after Sep 1207) NICOLAS de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes, son of GUILLAUME IV Châtelain de Saint-Omer, Seigneur de Fauquembergues & his first wife Ida d'Avesnes (-[1217/19]).

3. ANDRÁS (1176-21 Sep 1235, bur Egrecz, Cistercian Abbey). The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysæ"[796]. He succeeded in 1205 as ANDRÁS II King of Hungary.

- see below.

4. SALAMON (-young). The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysæ"[797].

5. ISTVÁN (-young). The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysæ"[798].

6. CONSTANZA ([1180]-Kloster Tichnowitz 6 Dec 1240). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[799]. The Urspergensium Chronicon records the betrothal of "filio suo [=Friderici I] Friderico duce" and "filiam regis Ungarie", specifying that his earlier death prevented the marriage from proceeding[800]. The Annales Aquenses record the betrothal in 1189 of "Fridericum ducem Suavorum" and "filiam regis Ungarie"[801]. The name of the daughter of the king of Hungary is not given but Constanza was the only unmarried daughter of King Béla III at the time. The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ records the marriage of "Constantiam sororem regis Ungariæ" and "rex Prziemysl" in 1199 after he had repudiated his first wife[802]. She founded Kloster Tichnowitz in 1232. The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ records the death "Id Dec 1240" of "Constantia regina"[803]. Betrothed ([1189]) to FRIEDRICH VI Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany & his second wife Beatrix Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne (Modigliana Feb 1167-Acre 20 Jan 1191, bur Acre). m (1198) as his second wife, PŘEMYSL OTAKAR I King of Bohemia, son of VLADISLAV II King of Bohemia & his second wife Jutta of Thuringia ([1155]-15 Dec 1230). -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Béla III of Hungary From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_III_of_Hungary

Béla III (Hungarian: III. Béla, Croatian: Bela III, Slovak: Belo III), (c. 1148 – 23 April 1196), King of Hungary (1172–1196). He was educated in the court of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I who was planning to ensure his succession in the Byzantine Empire till the birth of his own son. Following the death of his elder brother, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of the Emperor Manuel I and Pope Alexander III, because a significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the most wealthy monarchs of Europe of his age. It was probably he who began to organise the Royal Chancellery in Hungary.

Béla was the second son of King Géza II by his wife Euphrosyne of Kiev. In 1161, his father granted him the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage, which was later confirmed by his brother, King Stephen III who ascended the throne after their father's death on 31 May 1162.

In 1164, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos concluded a treaty with King Stephen III, and according to the treaty, Béla was sent to Constantinople to be educated at the imperial court. The emperor, who had no legitimate sons, intended that Béla should marry his daughter, Maria Comnena, and eventually succeed him as Emperor. Béla received a Greek name, Alexius, and the newly created courtly title of despotes which enjoyed the highest position of honor below the emperor.

In 1164 and 1165, Béla followed the Emperor Manuel I on his campaigns against Hungary which aimed at the occupation of Béla's "paternal inheritance", i.e., Croatia, Dalmatia and the Szerémség. However, when King Stephen III transferred the three provinces to Manuel I, they were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. In the autumn of 1165, Mánuel officially assigned his daughter and Béla as his heirs. In the beginning of 1166, Manuel I and Béla co-chaired the synod of the Byzantine Church in Constantinople.

When Alexius was born as a son of Manuel and his second wife Maria of Antioch in 1166, Béla's engagement to Maria was cancelled. Béla was deprived also of his title, and he was granted the lower title of kaisar. But Manuel helped negotiate another marriage for him, this time to Agnes of Antioch, who was the half-sister of Maria of Antioch; therefore by this marriage Manuel I and Béla became brothers-in-law.

After their marriage, Béla (Kaisar Alexius) and his wife went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where he made a donation for the Knights Hospitaller.

When his brother, King Stephen III died childless on 4 March 1172, Béla became his rightful heir. However, some barons preferred his younger brother, Géza, as did their mother Euphrosyne. Béla concluded an agreement with the Emperor Manuel, who provided him with a large amount of money, while he promised that he would never attack the Byzantine Empire during the reign of the emperor or his son.

When Béla arrived in Hungary, Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom refused to crown him because he had given a present to the archbishop's envoy, and the archbishop considered the gift as an attempt at simony. Thus, Béla was obliged to seek assistance from Pope Alexander III, who authorised the Archbishop of Kalocsa to crown Béla on 13 January 1173.

Following his coronation, Béla had his brother arrested, but Géza managed to escape and fled to Austria. Henry II did not extradite Géza to Hungary; therefore Béla made an alliance with Duke Sobeslav II of Bohemia and they attacked Austria. Géza tried to flee to the court of Emperor Frederick I but he was arrested by the Czechs who gave him to Béla. In 1178, Béla provided assistance to the Duke of Bohemia to force back the attacks of the Duke of Austria.

Béla wanted to amend the administration of his kingdom and ordered that all the issues discussed by the king had to be put down in writing. This order led to the establishment of the Royal Chancellery in Hungary.

In 1179, after Archbishop Andrew of Kalocsa had insulted him, Béla persuaded Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom to excommunicate him and he occupied the estates of the archdiocese. Shortly afterwards, through the intercession of Pope Alexander III, Béla was reconciled with Archbishop Andrew.

After the death of Emperor Manuel I on 24 September 1180, Bela retook Croatia, Dalmatia and the Srem from the Byzantine Empire. In the same year, Zára refused allegiance to Venice and accepted his rule. In 1184, Béla occupied Beograd, Braničevo and the valley of the Morava River which had been held by the Byzantine Empire. In 1185, Béla made peace with the new emperor, Isaac II Angelos, who married Béla's daughter Margaret and received the territories on the Morava River as her dowry.

After his first wife's death, Béla planned to marry Theodora Comnene, one of Emperor Manuel I's nieces, but the Byzantine Church prohibited their marriage. Thus, Béla married Marguerite of France, the sister of King Philip II of France and widow of Henry, the eldest son of King Henry II of England in 1186.

In 1188, Prince Vladimir II of Halych, who had been dethroned by his boyars, sought refuge in his court. Béla led his armies against Halych and occupied it, but afterwards he granted the principality to his second son, Andrew and he had prince Vladimir arrested.

On 31 May 1189, Béla welcomed Frederick I who was making his Crusade to the Holy Land, and on the emperor's request he set his brother, Géza free, who then left for the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, when Emperor Frederick I entered into a controversy with Emperor Isaac II, Béla mediated between them. However, in the meantime Prince Vladimir II escaped from Hungary and he reoccupied his principality.

In the autumn of 1191, Béla had a meeting with his son-in-law, the Emperor Isaac II, whom he helped against Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Serbs.

Before his death, he took an oath to lead a Crusade to the Holy Land.

Marriages and children:

  1. 1. c. 1170: Agnes of Antioch (1154 – c. 1184), daughter of Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch and his wife, Constance of Antioch

A. King Emeric of Hungary (1174 – 30 September/November 1204) B. Margaret (1175 – after 1223), wife firstly of Emperor Isaac II Angelos, secondly of King Boniface I of Thessalonica and thirdly of Nicolas of Saint-Omer C. King Andrew II of Hungary (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) D. Constance (c. 1180 – 6 December 1240), wife of King Ottokar I of Bohemia

  1. 2. 1185/1186: Marguerite of France (born 1158) (1158 – after 10 September 1197), daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile

He was a powerful ruler, and his court was counted among the most brilliant in Europe.

His remains were confidently identified by archeologists during late 19th century excavations at the ruined cathedral of Székesfehérvár where the Árpád monarchs had been crowned and buried. Béla's exceptional height, as documented by contemporary sources, rendered the identification certain. Based on the examination of his skeleton, he must have been over two metres tall, a really outstanding height at that time. His remains were afterwards reinterred at the Mathias Church in Budapest, with those of his first wife Agnes.

Through his mother, Béla descended from Harold II of England (whose descendants had been dispossessed as a result of the Norman Conquest). Through his son, Andrew II, Béla was an ancestor of King Edward III of England. As a result, all subsequent English and British monarchs could claim descent from Harold II.

-------------------- Béla III Arpád, King of Hungary (1) M, #104645, b. 1148, d. circa 1196 Last Edited=27 May 2003 Consanguinity Index=0.1%

    Béla III Arpád, King of Hungary was born in 1148. (1) He was the son of Geisa II Arpád, King of Hungary and Euphrosine of Novgorod.2 He married, firstly, Mary Comnena in 1164. (2) He and Mary Comnena were divorced in 1168. (2) He married, secondly, Agnes de Châtillon, daughter of Reynold de Châtillon, in 1168. (2) He married, thirdly, Marguerite de France, Princesse de France, daughter of Louis VII, Roi de France and Constanza de Castilla, between 1185 and 1186. (1) 

He died circa 1196. (1)

    Béla III Arpád, King of Hungary gained the title of King Béla III of Hungary in 1173. (2)

Children of Béla III Arpád, King of Hungary and Agnes de Châtillon -1. Constance Arpád+3 d. 1240 -2. Margaret Arpád+3 d. 1175 -3. Emeric Arpád, King of Hungary+3 b. 1174, d. 1204 -4. Andreas II Arpád, King of Hungary+3 b. 1176, d. 7 Mar 1235

Forrás / Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p10465.htm#i104645 --------------- Bela_III King of Hungary (1148-1196) [Pedigree] Son of Geza_II King of Hungary (1130-1162) and Euphrosyne Mstislawna of_Kiev (1130-1175)

   b. 1148, Esztergom, Hungary
   d. 18 Apr 1196
   d. 23 Apr 1196

Married first Ciromaria Comnene

Married second Agnes de_Chatillon (1153-1184) Children: -1. Andrew_II King of Hungary (1176-1235) m(1) Gertrude of_Meran (-1213) -2. Constantia of Hungary (1180-1240) -3. Margareta of Hungary (-1223) m. Nicolas I Herr von Bootien (-1217)

Married third Theodora Komnene

Married fourth Marguerite of France (1158-1197)

Forrás / Source: http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pmcbride/rfc/gw91.htm#I5233 -------------------- Béla III of Hungary From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Béla III (Hungarian: III. Béla, Croatian: Bela II, Slovak: Belo III), (c. 1148 – 23 April 1196), King of Hungary and Croatia (1172-1196), Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia (1161-1163). He was educated in the Court of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I who was planning to ensure his succession in the Byzantine Empire till the birth of his own son. Following his elder brother's death, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of the Emperor Manuel I and Pope Alexander III, because a significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy lead by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the most wealthy monarchs of Europe of his age. It was probably he who began to organise the Royal Chancellery in Hungary.

Early years

Béla was the second son of King Géza II by his wife Euphrosyne of Kiev. In 1161, his father granted him the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage, which was later confirmed by his brother, King Stephen III who ascended the throne after their father's death on 31 May 1162. [edit]Despotes Alexius

In 1164, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos concluded a treaty with King Stephen III, and according to the treaty, Béla was sent to Constantinople to be educated at the Imperial court. The Emperor Manuel I, who had no legitimate sons, intended that Béla should marry his daughter, Maria Comnena, and eventually succeed him as Emperor. Béla received a Greek name, Alexius, and the newly created courtly title of despotes which enjoyed the highest position of honor below the Emperor. In 1164 and 1165, Béla followed the Emperor Manuel I on his campaigns against Hungary which aimed at the occupation of Béla's "paternal inheritance", i.e., Croatia, Dalmatia and the Szerémség. However, when King Stephen III transferred the three provinces to Manuel I, they were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. In the autumn of 1165, Mánuel assigned officially his daughter and Béla as his heirs. In the beginning of 1166, Manuel I and Béla co-chaired the synod of the Byzantine Church in Constantinople. When Alexius was born as a son of Manuel and his second wife Maria of Antioch in 1166, Béla's engagement to Maria was cancelled. Béla was deprived also of his title, and he was granted the lower title of kaisar. But Manuel helped negotiate another marriage for him, this time to Agnes of Antioch, who was the half-sister of Maria of Antioch; therefore by this marriage Manuel I and Béla became brothers-in-law. After their marriage, Béla (Kaisar Alexius) and his wife went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where he made a donation for the Knights Hospitaller. [edit]Return to Hungary

When his brother, King Stephen III died childless on 4 March 1172, Béla became his rightfull heir. However, some barons preferred his younger brother, Géza, who was followed also by their mother Euphrosyne. Béla concluded an agreement with the Emperor Manuel, who provided him a larger amount of money, while he promised that he would never attack the Byzantine Empire during the Emperor's and his son's lifetime. When Béla arrived to Hungary, Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom denied to crown him, because he had presented the Archbishop's envoy, and the Archbishop qualified the gift as attempt in simony. Thus, Béla was obliged to seek assistance from Pope Alexander III, who authorised the Archbishop of Kalocsa to crown Béla on 13 January 1173. Following his coronation, Béla had his brother arrested, but Géza managed to escape and fleed to Austria. Henry II, Duke of Austria did not extradite Géza to Hungary; therefore Béla made an alliance with Duke Sobeslav II of Bohemia and they attacked Austria. Géza tried to fleed to the court of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor but he was arrested by the Czechs who gave him to Béla. In 1178, Béla provided assistance to the Duke of Bohemia to force back the attacks of the Duke of Austria. [edit]Internal policy

Béla wanted to amend the administration of his kingdom and ordened that all the issues discussed by the king had to be put down in writing. This order led to the establishment of the Royal Chancellery in Hungary. In 1179, after Archbishop Andrew of Kalocsa had insulted him, Béla persuaded Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom to excommunicate him and he occupied the estates of the Archdiocese. Shortly afterwards, on the intercession of Pope Alexander III, Béla was reconciled with Archbishop Andrew. [edit]Expansion

After the death of Emperor Manuel I on 24 September 1180, Bela reoccupied Croatia, Dalmatia and the Szerémség from the Byzantine Empire. In the same year, Zára also accepted his supremacy against the Republic of Venice. In 1184, Béla occupied Beograd, Barancs and the valley of the Morava River from the Byzantine Empire. In 1185, Béla made peace with the new Emperor, Isaac II Angelos, who married Béla's daughter, Margaret and received the territories on the Morava River as her dowry. After his first wife's death, Béla planned to marry Theodora Comnene, one of Emperor Manuel I's nieces, but the Byzantine Church prohibited their marriage. Thus, Béla married Marguerite of France, the sister of King Philip II of France and widow of Henry, the eldest son of King Henry II of England in 1186. In 1188, Prince Vladimir II of Halych, who had been dethroned by his boyars, sought refuge in his court. Béla lead his armies against Halych and occupied it, but afterwards he granted the principality to his second son, Andrew and he had prince Vladimir arrested. On 31 May 1189, Béla welcomed Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor who was making his Crusade to the Holy Land, and on the Emperor's request he set his brother, Géza free, who left for the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, when the Emperor Frederick I entered into a controversy with Emperor Isaac II, Béla was mediating between them. However, in the meantime Prince Vladimir II escaped from Hungary and he could reoccupy his principality. In the autumn of 1191, Béla had a meeting with his son-in-law, the Emperor Isaac II, whom he helped against Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Serbs. Before his death, he took an oath to lead a Crusade to the Holy Land. [edit]Marriages and children

  1. 1. c. 1170: Agnes of Antioch (1154 – c. 1184), daughter of Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch and his wife, Constance of Antioch

King Emeric of Hungary (1174 – 30 September/November 1204) Margaret (1175 – after 1223), wife firstly of Emperor Isaac II Angelos, secondly of King Boniface I of Thessalonica and thirdly of Nicolas of Saint-Omer King Andrew II of Hungary (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) Constance (c. 1180 – 6 December 1240), wife of King Ottokar I of Bohemia

  1. 2. 1185/1186: Marguerite of France (born 1158) (1158 – after 10 September 1197), daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile

[edit]Legacy

He was a powerful ruler, and his court was counted among the most brilliant in Europe. His remains were confidently identified by archeologists during late 19th century excavations at the ruined cathedral of Székesfehérvár where the Árpád monarchs had been crowned and buried. Béla's exceptional height, as documented by contemporary sources, rendered the identification certain. Based on the examination of his skeleton, he must have been over two metres tall, a really outstanding height at that time. His remains were afterwards reinterred at the Mathias Church in Budapest, with those of his first wife Agnes. Through his mother, Béla descended from Harold II of England (whose descendants had been dispossessed as a result of the Norman Conquest). Through his son, Andrew II, Béla was an ancestor of King Edward III of England. As a result, all subsequent English and British monarchs could claim descent from Harold II. [edit]Sources

Kristó Gyula - Makk Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói (IPC Könyvek, 1996) Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század), főszerkesztő: Kristó Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel Pál és Makk Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994) Ostrogorski, Georgjie. History of the Byzantine State, 1986 Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig, főszerkesztő: Benda Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981) This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

-------------------- Béla III (Hungarian: III. Béla, Croatian: Bela III, Slovak: Belo III), (c. 1148 – 23 April 1196), King of Hungary[1] (1172–1196). He was educated in the court of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I who was planning to ensure his succession in the Byzantine Empire till the birth of his own son. Following the death of his elder brother, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of the Emperor Manuel I and Pope Alexander III, because a significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the most wealthy monarchs of Europe of his age. It was probably he who began to organise the Royal Chancellery in Hungary.

Contents [hide] 1 Early years 2 Despotes Alexius 3 Return to Hungary 4 Internal policy 5 Expansion 6 Marriages and children 7 Legacy 8 Titles 9 References 10 Sources


[edit] Early years Béla was the second son of King Géza II by his wife Euphrosyne of Kiev. In 1161, his father granted him the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage, which was later confirmed by his brother, King Stephen III who ascended the throne after their father's death on 31 May 1162.

[edit] Despotes Alexius In 1164, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos concluded a treaty with King Stephen III, and according to the treaty, Béla was sent to Constantinople to be educated at the imperial court. The emperor, who had no legitimate sons, intended that Béla should marry his daughter, Maria Comnena, and eventually succeed him as Emperor. Béla received a Greek name, Alexius, and the newly created courtly title of despotes which enjoyed the highest position of honor below the emperor.

In 1164 and 1165, Béla followed the Emperor Manuel I on his campaigns against Hungary which aimed at the occupation of Béla's "paternal inheritance", i.e., Croatia, Dalmatia and the Szerémség. However, when King Stephen III transferred the three provinces to Manuel I, they were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. In the autumn of 1165, Mánuel officially assigned his daughter and Béla as his heirs. In the beginning of 1166, Manuel I and Béla co-chaired the synod of the Byzantine Church in Constantinople.

When Alexius was born as a son of Manuel and his second wife Maria of Antioch in 1166, Béla's engagement to Maria was cancelled. Béla was deprived also of his title, and he was granted the lower title of kaisar. But Manuel helped negotiate another marriage for him, this time to Agnes of Antioch, who was the half-sister of Maria of Antioch; therefore by this marriage Manuel I and Béla became brothers-in-law.

After their marriage, Béla (Kaisar Alexius) and his wife went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where he made a donation for the Knights Hospitaller.

[edit] Return to Hungary When his brother, King Stephen III died childless on 4 March 1172, Béla became his rightful heir. However, some barons preferred his younger brother, Géza, as did their mother Euphrosyne. Béla concluded an agreement with the Emperor Manuel, who provided him with a large amount of money, while he promised that he would never attack the Byzantine Empire during the reign of the emperor or his son.

When Béla arrived in Hungary, Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom refused to crown him because he had given a present to the archbishop's envoy, and the archbishop considered the gift as an attempt at simony. Thus, Béla was obliged to seek assistance from Pope Alexander III, who authorised the Archbishop of Kalocsa to crown Béla on 13 January 1173.

Following his coronation, Béla had his brother arrested, but Géza managed to escape and fled to Austria. Henry II did not extradite Géza to Hungary; therefore Béla made an alliance with Duke Sobeslav II of Bohemia and they attacked Austria. Géza tried to flee to the court of Emperor Frederick I but he was arrested by the Czechs who gave him to Béla. In 1178, Béla provided assistance to the Duke of Bohemia to force back the attacks of the Duke of Austria.

[edit] Internal policy Béla wanted to amend the administration of his kingdom and ordered that all the issues discussed by the king had to be put down in writing. This order led to the establishment of the Royal Chancellery in Hungary. In 1179, after Archbishop Andrew of Kalocsa had insulted him, Béla persuaded Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom to excommunicate him and he occupied the estates of the archdiocese. Shortly afterwards, through the intercession of Pope Alexander III, Béla was reconciled with Archbishop Andrew.

[edit] Expansion After the death of Emperor Manuel I on 24 September 1180, Bela retook Croatia, Dalmatia and the Srem from the Byzantine Empire. In the same year, Zára refused allegiance to Venice and accepted his rule. In 1184, Béla occupied Beograd, Braničevo and the valley of the Morava River which had been held by the Byzantine Empire. In 1185, Béla made peace with the new emperor, Isaac II Angelos, who married Béla's daughter Margaret and received the territories on the Morava River as her dowry.

After his first wife's death, Béla planned to marry Theodora Comnene, one of Emperor Manuel I's nieces, but the Byzantine Church prohibited their marriage. Thus, Béla married Marguerite of France, the sister of King Philip II of France and widow of Henry, the eldest son of King Henry II of England in 1186.

In 1188, Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych, who had been dethroned by his boyars, sought refuge in his court. Béla led his armies against Halych and occupied it, but afterwards he granted the principality to his second son, Andrew and he had prince Vladimir arrested.

On 31 May 1189, Béla welcomed Frederick I who was making his Crusade to the Holy Land, and on the emperor's request he set his brother, Géza free, who then left for the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, when Emperor Frederick I entered into a controversy with Emperor Isaac II, Béla mediated between them. However, in the meantime Prince Vladimir II escaped from Hungary and he reoccupied his principality.

In the autumn of 1191, Béla had a meeting with his son-in-law, the Emperor Isaac II, whom he helped against Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Serbs.

Before his death, he took an oath to lead a Crusade to the Holy Land.

[edit] Marriages and children

  1. 1. c. 1170: Agnes of Antioch (1154 – c. 1184), daughter of Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch and his wife, Constance of Antioch

King Emeric of Hungary (1174 – 30 September/November 1204) Margaret (1175 – after 1223), wife firstly of Emperor Isaac II Angelos, secondly of King Boniface I of Thessalonica and thirdly of Nicolas of Saint-Omer King Andrew II of Hungary (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) Constance (c. 1180 – 6 December 1240), wife of King Ottokar I of Bohemia

  1. 2. 1185/1186: Marguerite of France (born 1158) (1158 – after 10 September 1197), daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile

[edit] Legacy He was a powerful ruler, and his court was counted among the most brilliant in Europe.

His remains were confidently identified by archeologists during late 19th century excavations at the ruined cathedral of Székesfehérvár where the Árpád monarchs had been crowned and buried. Béla's exceptional height, as documented by contemporary sources, rendered the identification certain. Based on the examination of his skeleton, he must have been over two metres tall, a really outstanding height at that time. His remains were afterwards reinterred at the Mathias Church in Budapest, with those of his first wife Agnes.

Through his mother, Béla descended from Harold II of England (whose descendants had been dispossessed as a result of the Norman Conquest). Through his son, Andrew II, Béla was an ancestor of King Edward III of England. As a result, all subsequent English and British monarchs could claim descent from Harold II.

[edit] Titles HAM King of Hungary,HRH Prince of Hungary,HRH Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia ,Despotes Alexius; Heir to the Byzantine throne,Caesar Alexius

[edit] References 1.^ Béla III. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 April 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/59035/Bela-III [edit] Sources Kristó Gyula - Makk Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói (IPC Könyvek, 1996) Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9–14. század), főszerkesztő: Kristó Gyula, szerkesztők: Engel Pál és Makk Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994) Ostrogorski, Georgjie. History of the Byzantine State, 1986 Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig, főszerkesztő: Benda Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981) This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Béla III of Hungary House of Árpád Born: c. 1148 Died: 23 April 1196 Regnal titles Preceded by Stephen III King of Hungary 1172–1196 Succeeded by Emeric Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_III_of_Hungary" Categories: Roman Catholic monarchs | 1140s births | 1196 deaths | House of Árpád | Hungarian monarchs | Hungarian princes -------------------- Béla III (Hungarian: III. Béla, Croatian: Bela II, Slovak: Belo III), (c. 1148 – 23 April 1196), King of Hungary and Croatia (1172–1196), Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia (1161–1163). He was educated in the Court of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I who was planning to ensure his succession in the Byzantine Empire till the birth of his own son. Following his elder brother's death, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of the Emperor Manuel I and Pope Alexander III, because a significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the most wealthy monarchs of Europe of his age. It was probably he who began to organise the Royal Chancellery in Hungary. Marriages and children

  1. 1. c. 1170: Agnes of Antioch (1154 – c. 1184), daughter of Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch and his wife, Constance of Antioch

King Emeric of Hungary (1174 – 30 September/November 1204) Margaret (1175 – after 1223), wife firstly of Emperor Isaac II Angelos, secondly of King Boniface I of Thessalonica and thirdly of Nicolas of Saint-Omer King Andrew II of Hungary (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) Constance (c. 1180 – 6 December 1240), wife of King Ottokar I of Bohemia

  1. 2. 1185/1186: Marguerite of France (born 1158) (1158 – after 10 September 1197), daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile

-------------------- BIOGRAPHY: d. 1196 king of Hungary (1173-96) under whom Hungary became the leading power of south-central Europe. Béla was educated at the Byzantine court and placed on the throne by force of arms by the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus in 1173. He made the Hungarian monarchy hereditary by naming his infant son, Imre, his successor. He also made his court among the most brilliant in Europe. Béla adopted Roman Catholicism, sought the assistance of Rome, and established close ties with France. Upon the death of his first wife, Anne of Châtillon, he married Margaret, sister of Philip II Augustus of France. Many leading Hungarian diplomats were educated in Paris during his reign, and the Cistercian and Premonstratensian monks he invited to Hungary introduced advanced agricultural methods there. Internationally, Béla was only partly successful in his attempts to recover Dalmatia in two bloody wars with Venice (1181-88 and 1190-91), but he did help the Raskan Serbs gain independence from the Greeks and establish a native monarchy. He tried to make Galicia an appanage of his younger son Andrew, and he aided the Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus against the Bulgars. Béla III was one of the stronger rulers from the house of Árpád. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: d. 1196 king of Hungary (1173-96) under whom Hungary became the leading power of south-central Europe. Béla was educated at the Byzantine court and placed on the throne by force of arms by the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus in 1173. He made the Hungarian monarchy hereditary by naming his infant son, Imre, his successor. He also made his court among the most brilliant in Europe. Béla adopted Roman Catholicism, sought the assistance of Rome, and established close ties with France. Upon the death of his first wife, Anne of Châtillon, he married Margaret, sister of Philip II Augustus of France. Many leading Hungarian diplomats were educated in Paris during his reign, and the Cistercian and Premonstratensian monks he invited to Hungary introduced advanced agricultural methods there. Internationally, Béla was only partly successful in his attempts to recover Dalmatia in two bloody wars with Venice (1181-88 and 1190-91), but he did help the Raskan Serbs gain independence from the Greeks and establish a native monarchy. He tried to make Galicia an appanage of his younger son Andrew, and he aided the Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus against the Bulgars. Béla III was one of the stronger rulers from the house of Árpád. Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- Béla III (Hungarian: III. Béla, Croatian: Bela III, Slovak: Belo III), (c. 1148 – 23 April 1196), King of Hungary (1172–1196). He was educated in the court of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I who was planning to ensure his succession in the Byzantine Empire till the birth of his own son. Following the death of his elder brother, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of the Emperor Manuel I and Pope Alexander III, because a significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the most wealthy monarchs of Europe of his age. It was probably he who began to organise the Royal Chancellery in Hungary.

Early years Béla was the second son of King Géza II by his wife Euphrosyne of Kiev. In 1161, his father granted him the Duchies of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage, which was later confirmed by his brother, King Stephen III who ascended the throne after their father's death on 31 May 1162.

Despotes Alexius In 1164, the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos concluded a treaty with King Stephen III, and according to the treaty, Béla was sent to Constantinople to be educated at the imperial court. The emperor, who had no legitimate sons, intended that Béla should marry his daughter, Maria Comnena, and eventually succeed him as Emperor. Béla received a Greek name, Alexius, and the newly created courtly title of despotes which enjoyed the highest position of honor below the emperor.

In 1164 and 1165, Béla followed the Emperor Manuel I on his campaigns against Hungary which aimed at the occupation of Béla's "paternal inheritance", i.e., Croatia, Dalmatia and the Szerémség. However, when King Stephen III transferred the three provinces to Manuel I, they were incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. In the autumn of 1165, Mánuel officially assigned his daughter and Béla as his heirs. In the beginning of 1166, Manuel I and Béla co-chaired the synod of the Byzantine Church in Constantinople.

When Alexius was born as a son of Manuel and his second wife Maria of Antioch in 1166, Béla's engagement to Maria was cancelled. Béla was deprived also of his title, and he was granted the lower title of kaisar. But Manuel helped negotiate another marriage for him, this time to Agnes of Antioch, who was the half-sister of Maria of Antioch; therefore by this marriage Manuel I and Béla became brothers-in-law.

After their marriage, Béla (Kaisar Alexius) and his wife went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem where he made a donation for the Knights Hospitaller.

Return to Hungary When his brother, King Stephen III died childless on 4 March 1172, Béla became his rightful heir. However, some barons preferred his younger brother, Géza, as did their mother Euphrosyne. Béla concluded an agreement with the Emperor Manuel, who provided him with a large amount of money, while he promised that he would never attack the Byzantine Empire during the reign of the emperor or his son.

When Béla arrived in Hungary, Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom refused to crown him because he had given a present to the archbishop's envoy, and the archbishop considered the gift as an attempt at simony. Thus, Béla was obliged to seek assistance from Pope Alexander III, who authorised the Archbishop of Kalocsa to crown Béla on 13 January 1173.

Following his coronation, Béla had his brother arrested, but Géza managed to escape and fled to Austria. Henry II did not extradite Géza to Hungary; therefore Béla made an alliance with Duke Sobeslav II of Bohemia and they attacked Austria. Géza tried to flee to the court of Emperor Frederick I but he was arrested by the Czechs who gave him to Béla. In 1178, Béla provided assistance to the Duke of Bohemia to force back the attacks of the Duke of Austria.

Internal policy

Béla wanted to amend the administration of his kingdom and ordered that all the issues discussed by the king had to be put down in writing. This order led to the establishment of the Royal Chancellery in Hungary. In 1179, after Archbishop Andrew of Kalocsa had insulted him, Béla persuaded Lukas, Archbishop of Esztergom to excommunicate him and he occupied the estates of the archdiocese. Shortly afterwards, through the intercession of Pope Alexander III, Béla was reconciled with Archbishop Andrew.

Expansion After the death of Emperor Manuel I on 24 September 1180, Bela retook Croatia, Dalmatia and the Srem from the Byzantine Empire. In the same year, Zára refused allegiance to Venice and accepted his rule. In 1184, Béla occupied Beograd, Braničevo and the valley of the Morava River which had been held by the Byzantine Empire. In 1185, Béla made peace with the new emperor, Isaac II Angelos, who married Béla's daughter Margaret and received the territories on the Morava River as her dowry.

After his first wife's death, Béla planned to marry Theodora Comnene, one of Emperor Manuel I's nieces, but the Byzantine Church prohibited their marriage. Thus, Béla married Marguerite of France, the sister of King Philip II of France and widow of Henry, the eldest son of King Henry II of England in 1186.

In 1188, Prince Vladimir II Yaroslavich of Halych, who had been dethroned by his boyars, sought refuge in his court. Béla led his armies against Halych and occupied it, but afterwards he granted the principality to his second son, Andrew and he had prince Vladimir arrested.

On 31 May 1189, Béla welcomed Frederick I who was making his Crusade to the Holy Land, and on the emperor's request he set his brother, Géza free, who then left for the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, when Emperor Frederick I entered into a controversy with Emperor Isaac II, Béla mediated between them. However, in the meantime Prince Vladimir II escaped from Hungary and he reoccupied his principality.

In the autumn of 1191, Béla had a meeting with his son-in-law, the Emperor Isaac II, whom he helped against Stefan Nemanja, the ruler of the Serbs.

Before his death, he took an oath to lead a Crusade to the Holy Land.

Marriages and children 1. c. 1170: Agnes of Antioch (1154 – c. 1184), daughter of Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch and his wife, Constance of Antioch

King Emeric of Hungary (1174 – 30 September/November 1204) Margaret (1175 – after 1223), wife firstly of Emperor Isaac II Angelos, secondly of King Boniface I of Thessalonica and thirdly of Nicolas of Saint-Omer King Andrew II of Hungary (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) Constance (c. 1180 – 6 December 1240), wife of King Ottokar I of Bohemia 2. 1185/1186: Marguerite of France (born 1158) (1158 – after 10 September 1197), daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile

Legacy He was a powerful ruler, and his court was counted among the most brilliant in Europe.

His remains were confidently identified by archeologists during late 19th century excavations at the ruined cathedral of Székesfehérvár where the Árpád monarchs had been crowned and buried. Béla's exceptional height, as documented by contemporary sources, rendered the identification certain. Based on the examination of his skeleton, he must have been over two metres tall, a really outstanding height at that time. His remains were afterwards reinterred at the Mathias Church in Budapest, with those of his first wife Agnes.

Through his mother, Béla descended from Harold II of England (whose descendants had been dispossessed as a result of the Norman Conquest). Through his son, Andrew II, Béla was an ancestor of King Edward III of England. As a result, all subsequent English and British monarchs could claim descent from Harold II

-------------------- http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/III._B%C3%A9la_magyar_kir%C3%A1ly

1172-96 magyar király 4 neje volt, a Bátoryak a 2.nejétől Chatillon Anna antiochiai hercegnőtől jönnek le 1898-ban lett exumálva 2 nejével Chatillon Annával,temetve ma a Mátyás templomban Budán -------------------- Wikipedia: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_II._%28Ungarn%29 Béla II. (Ungarn) aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche

Béla II. der Blinde, Béla I. in Kroatien, (* um 1110; † 13. Februar 1141) aus dem Geschlecht der Árpáden war ab 28. April 1131 bis zu seinem Tod König von Ungarn. Er war der Sohn des Prinzen Álmos und von Predslava, Tochter des Kiewer Großfürsten Swjatopolk II. Inhaltsverzeichnis [Anzeigen]

   * 1 Kindheit
   * 2 Regierung
         o 2.1 Außenpolitik
         o 2.2 Innenpolitik
   * 3 Familie
   * 4 Quellenangaben

Kindheit [Bearbeiten] Béla II. in der Bilderchronik

1113 ließ König Koloman seinen Bruder Álmos und dessen Sohn, den späteren Béla II., blenden. Grund war die fortgesetzte Opposition Álmos gegen den König. Die Geblendeten flohen darauf nach Konstantinopel. Von dort holte Kolomans Sohn und Nachfolger Stephan II. seinen Vetter Béla zurück und setzte ihn zum Nachfolger ein, weil er selbst ohne Erben geblieben war. Regierung [Bearbeiten]

Bélas Herrschaft begann 1131 mit der Versammlung bei Arad, bei der er alle Adligen umbringen ließ, die vermutlich bei seiner Blendung mitgewirkt hatten. Nach den Quellen sind dabei 68 Adelige ums Leben gekommen. Bei dem Racheakt spielte vermutlich Königin Ilona eine wichtige Rolle. Außenpolitik [Bearbeiten]

In Bélas Regierungszeit fiel eine außenpolitische Offensive, in deren Rahmen Béla seine Schwester Hedwig mit einem Sohn Leopolds III. von Österreich und seine Schwester Adelheid mit Soběslav I. von Böhmen verheiratete. Ungarn wurde so in ein festes Bündnissystem mit dem zuvor verfeindeten Österreich und mit Böhmen eingebunden.

Bélas gesamte Regierungszeit war vom Konflikt mit Boris, einem Sohn Kolomans von zweifelhafter Legitimität, überschattet. Boris wurde von Polen und Russland unterstützt. Bolesław III. Schiefmund führte 1132 sogar einen Feldzug mit russischen und polnischen Truppen zu Boris' Unterstützung nach Ungarn. Innenpolitik [Bearbeiten]

Während seiner Regierungszeit begann sich die königliche Kanzlei zu forcieren, die sich zentral mit den schriftlichen Angelegenheiten des Hofes beschäftigt.

Béla pflegte gute Kontakte zur Kirche. 1137 wurde die Klosterkirche in Pannonhalma mit seiner Unterstützung neu gebaut.

Béla regierte in enger Zusammenarbeit mit dem königlichen Rat, zum Teil auch wegen seiner Blindheit, da er völlig auf seine Umgebung angewiesen war. Auch Königin Ilona spielte eine wichtige Rolle, um Béla die Herrschaftsausübung zu ermöglichen. Familie [Bearbeiten]

Bela war seit 1127 verheiratet mit Ilona, Tochter des Fürsten Uroš Nemanjić von Serbien; ihre Kinder waren:

   * Elisabeth (* 1128, † 1155), ∞ König Mieszko III. von Polen
   * Géza II. (* 1130, † 1162), König von Ungarn
   * Ladislaus II. (* 1132, † 1163), König von Ungarn
   * Stefan IV. († 1165), König von Ungarn
   * Álmos (* 1134, † 1138)
   * Zsófia, oder Sofie, die Verlobte von Konrad III.. Die Eheschließung fand aber nicht statt, Sofie starb im Kloster Admont als Nonne.

Quellenangaben [Bearbeiten]

   * Makk Ferenc: II. Béla (In.: Kristó Gyula – Makk Ferenc: Az Árpádok – fejedelmek és királyok, ISBN 963-9278-48-3 )
   * Kristó Gyula: Az Álmos-ág (Rubicon 2000/3)
   * Királyok könyve (szerkesztette: Horváth Jenő), ISBN 963-548-580-8
   * Kristó Gyula: Háborúk és hadviselés az Árpádok korában, ISBN 963-9441-87-2

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger Stephan II. König von Ungarn 1131-1141 Géza II. König von Kroatien, Dalmatien und Rama 1131-1141 -------------------- Béla III (Hungarian: III. Béla, Croatian: Bela II, Slovak: Belo III), (c. 1148 – 23 April 1196), King of Hungary and Croatia (1172–1196), Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia (1161–1163). He was educated in the Court of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I who was planning to ensure his succession in the Byzantine Empire till the birth of his own son. Following his elder brother's death, who had been fighting against the Byzantine Empire, Béla could only ascend to the throne with the assistance of the Emperor Manuel I and Pope Alexander III, because a significant part of the Hungarian aristocracy led by his own mother and the Archbishop of Esztergom preferred his younger brother's succession. Béla was one of the most powerful rulers of Hungary and he was also one of the most wealthy monarchs of Europe of his age. It was probably he who began to organise the Royal Chancellery in Hungary. Marriages and children

  1. 1. c. 1170: Agnes of Antioch (1154 – c. 1184), daughter of Raynald of Châtillon, Prince of Antioch and his wife, Constance of Antioch

King Emeric of Hungary (1174 – 30 September/November 1204) Margaret (1175 – after 1223), wife firstly of Emperor Isaac II Angelos, secondly of King Boniface I of Thessalonica and thirdly of Nicolas of Saint-Omer King Andrew II of Hungary (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) Constance (c. 1180 – 6 December 1240), wife of King Ottokar I of Bohemia

  1. 2. 1185/1186: Marguerite of France (born 1158) (1158 – after 10 September 1197), daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile
view all 30

ÁRPÁD(házi) III. Béla király, King of Hungary & Croatia's Timeline

1148
1148
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Magyarország - Hungary
1168
1168
Age 20
Constantinople, Constantinople, Turkey
1169
1169
Age 21
1174
1174
Age 26
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1175
1175
Age 27
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1176
1176
Age 28
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom 1176/77, Hungary
1177
1177
Age 29
Esztergom, Komarom-Esztergom, Hungary
1178
1178
Age 30
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1180
1180
Age 32
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1182
1182
Age 34
Esztergom, Komarom-Esztergom, Hungary