IV. Béla Árpádházi, király (1206 - 1270) MP

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Birthplace: Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
Death: Died in Nyulak szigete (Margit-sziget) / now Budapest, Hungary
Occupation: King of Hungary, KING OF HUNGARY, Kung i Ungern och Kroatien 1235-70, "2nd Founder of Hungary"; after devastated by Mongol attacks, he patronized cities and encouraged immigration
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About IV. Béla Árpádházi, király

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_Toc146273223

BÉLA IV 1235-1270, BÉLA V 1304-1308


BÉLA, son of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano (Nov 1206-Margaret Island, near Buda 2/3 May 1270, bur Esztergom). The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[896]. The Gesta Hungarorum names "Bela filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father[897]. Béla was governor of Hungary's eastern provinces as rex iunior, and represented his father at the mass baptism of the Kuman people which took place in 1227 in Moldavia on the orders of Bortz Khan[898]. He succeeded his father in 1235 as BÉLA IV King of Hungary. He did not go to Croatia for a second coronation, breaking the custom which had lasted 130 years[899]. In response to the Pope's call in 1234 for a crusade against 'heretics' in Bosnia, Hungary occupied large parts of Bosnia between 1235 and 1241, but was obliged to withdraw in the face of the threat from the Mongols. Kuthen [Kötöny] Khan of the Kumans and his followers sought refuge in Hungary after the battle of the Volga in 1239, which gave the Mongols the pretext to attack Hungary. The presence caused internal resentment in Hungary which culminated in the Khan's murder[900]. Batu Khan's forces passed the Carpathian mountains into Hungary in Feb 1241 and defeated Béla IV at Mohi on the river Sajó 11 Apr 1241[901]. King Béla fled to the castle of Knin in Dalmatia after this defeat, then to Trorig and finally to the island of Ciovo[902], but the Mongols withdrew in 1242 after learning of the death of Great Khan Ogedei 11 Dec 1241 at Karakoram[903]. Relations with Bulgaria improved in 1240, possibly because of the threat posed to both states by the Mongols[904]. Hungary was also attacked on its western borders by Friedrich Duke of Austria, although for a short time King Béla captured Styria in reprisal[905]. In order to protect his eastern frontier, King Béla contracted with the Knights of the Order of St John of Jerusalem [Knights Hospitalers] 2 Jun 1247, granting them the Szörénység as far as south-eastern Transylvania in return for the promise of military support. They remained there until they relinquished the land in [1258/60][906]. King Béla allowed the Kumans to return to Hungary, settling them on uninhabited land on either side of the River Tisza, the agreement being sealed by the marriage of his son and heir to a Kuman princess in 1253[907]. He was embroiled in a war with Bohemia, and suffered a defeat in 1260 despite reinforcements from Bulgaria supplied by his son-in-law Rostislav Mikhailovich Ban of Mačva, who was one of the claimants to the Bulgarian throne after Tsar Koloman II was deposed in 1258[908]. Having made peace with Bohemia in Mar 1261, Hungary attacked Bulgaria, expelling Konstantin Tih (one of the rival claimants for the Bulgarian throne) from Vidin which he had captured from Rostislav's forces during the latter's temporary absence in Bohemia[909]. Stefan Uroš I King of Serbia declared war on Hungary in 1268, plundered Mačva but was himself captured and held for ransom, the marriage between his son and Béla IV's granddaughter probably being agreed as part of the terms for the Serbian king's release[910]. The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1271 of "Bela rex Hungarie pater ducisse Cracoviensis"[911]. The necrology of Oberaltaich records the death "VI Non Mai" of "Bela rex Ungarie"[912]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "V Non May…in insula Budensi" in 1270 of "rex Bela" and his burial "Strigony in ecclesia fratrum minorum"[913]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that King Béla was buried "apud Fratres Minores Strigonii"[914].

m (1218) MARIA Laskarina, daughter of THEODOROS Laskaris Emperor in Nikaia & his first wife Anna Angelina (-16 or 24 Jul 1270, bur Esztergom). Georgius Akropolites names "Irene, Maria et Eudocia" as the three daughters of "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem…ex Anna uxore", stating that "Mariam secundam" married "Ungariæ regis…filio", his father arranging the marriage on his journey back from Jerusalem[915]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "rex Bela, regis Andree filius primogenitus" married one of the daughters (mentioned third) of "Lascarum Grecum"[916]. Ephræmius records that "Anna regina coniuge Lascario" had three daughters "Irene et Maria et Eudocia", recording that "Mariam…natu secundo" married "regis Paeoniæ filio"[917]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that András II King of Hungary arranged the marriage of "suo filio primogenito Bele" and "Lascaro rege Grecorum…filiam eius" while he was in Greece[918]. The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1270 of "regina Ungarorum Maria, mater domine Kinge"[919]. The necrology of Oberaltaich records the death "IX Kal Aug" of "Maria regina Ungarie"[920]. The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVII Kal Aug" of "Maria regina Ungarie"[921]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "consorte sua Maria…filia imperatoris Grecorum" was buried with her husband "rex Bela" in "Strigony in ecclesia fratrum minorum"[922]. The Altahenses Annales record that "Maria regina Ungarie" died after her husband "non post longum tempus"[923].

King Béla IV & his wife had ten children:

1. KATHARINA (-Klis Castle 1242, bur Split St Domnius). She died during her family's escape to Dalmatia after the Tatar invasion[924]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records the death of "Bela rex…due ipsius puelle virgines", while their parents were staying "in Clisse castro", and their burial "in ecclesia beati Domnii"[925].

2. MARGIT "the Elder" (-Klis Castle 20 Apr 1242, bur Split St Dominius). [Her marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[926]. It is not clear who "Guillaume de Saint Omer Lord of Thebes" refers to. The Lord of Thebes at that time was Bela (son of Margit of Hungary, daughter of Béla III King of Hungary, by her third husband Nicolas de Saint-Omer), who had married Bonne de la Roche-sur-l'Ognon co-heiress of Thebes. Lord Bela had a younger brother Guillaume who was not Lord of Thebes, but who lived first in Naples and later in Flanders[927]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records the death of "Bela rex…due ipsius puelle virgines", while their parents were staying "in Clisse castro", and their burial "in ecclesia beati Domnii"[928]. m ([1240]) GUILLAUME de Saint Omer Lord of Thebes.]

3. KINGA [Kunigunde] (1224-24 Jul 1292). The Annales Cracovienses Compilati records the birth in 1234 of "Kinga filia Bolezlay"[929], the Annales Polonorum clarifying that she was "Kinga fila regis Ungarie Bele et de matre Maria" born "in dominica quinquagesima"[930]. The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the marriage in 1239 of "Blezlaus filius Lezstkonis" and "filiam regis Hungarie"[931]. Her name is confirmed by the Annales Cracovienses Compilati which record that "dux Boleslaus accepit Kingam" in 1238[932]. "Bolezlaus filius Lesconis…Dux Cracoviæ et Sandomiriæ" founded the monastery of Krzyzanowice, at the request of "matris nostræ Grzymislavæ", for the souls of "patris nostri Lesconis et uxoris nostræ Gunebundis", by charter dated 28 Jun 1254[933]. "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", by charter dated 18 May 1255[934]. The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the deaths in 1279 of "Boleslaus dux maioris Polonie, Boleslaus dux Cracowie"[935]. She became a nun in 1270. The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1292 of "domina Kinga ducissa" at Krakow[936]. She was beatified 10 Jun 1690. m (1239) BOLESŁAV of Poland, son of LESZKO I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Gremislava Ingvarevna of Luck and Dorogobuz [Rurikid] (21 Jun 1226-7 Dec 1279). He succeeded in 1243 as BOLESŁAW V "Wstydliwy/the Modest" Prince of Krakow and Sandomir.

4. ANNA [Agnes] ([1226/27]-). Her parentage and marriage are indicated by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungariæ regis generum" as father-in-law of "Bulgarorum…princeps"[937]. The name of the wife of Rostislav is confirmed by the Annales Polonorum recording the marriage in 1265 of their daughter Gryfina, in a later passage specifying that she was daughter of "ducis Roczislay et…Anna"[938]. A charter dated 15 Jul 1264 records the confirmation by "ipsius patris regis Belæ IV" of a donation by "Agnes, viduæ post Radislaum ducem Galitiæ, ducissæ Galitiæ, de Bosna et de Mazo, ac Michaeli et Belæ natis eius"[939]. Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Rostislav and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[940]. m (1243) ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich ex-Prince of Galich, son of MIKHAIL Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Romanovna of Galich ([1225]-1263). After the Mongol invasion, he sought refuge with Béla IV King of Hungary, married the king's daughter, and was appointed Ban of Mačva. He assumed the title ROSTISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians, and was recognised as such by Hungary[941].

5. ELISABETH (1236-24 Oct 1271, bur Kloster Seligenthal). The Altahenses Annales record the marriage of "Heinricus filius O. ducis Bavarie" and "Elisabeth filia Bele regis Ungarie"[942]. The Altahenses Annales record the death "1271 IX Kal Nov" of "Elizabeth ducissa Bawarie"[943]. The necrology of Tegernsee records the death "IX Kal Nov" of "Elysabeth ducissa Bawarie filia regis Ungarie"[944]. The necrology of Windberg records the death "IX Kal Nov 1271" of "Elysabet ducissa Bawarie"[945]. The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IX Kal Nov 1271" of "domina Elizabet filia regis Ungarie ducissa Bawarie"[946]. m (1250) HEINRICH von Bayern, son of OTTO II "der Erlauchte" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Agnes von Sachsen [Este] (Landshut 19 Nov 1235-Burghausen 3 Feb 1290, bur Kloster Seligenth al). He succeeded his father in 1253 as HEINRICH I Joint-Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brother Ludwig II. He and his older brother divided the family's territories in 1255, whereupon Heinrich became Duke of Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern).

6. KONSTANZA. Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Lev and gives her origin citing sources in support[947]. m ([1251/52]) LEV Daniilovich of Galich, son of DANIIL Romanovich Grand Prince of Kiev, King of Galich & his first wife Anna Mstislavna of Novgorod ([1228]-1301). He succeed his uncle in 1269 as LEV King of Galich.

7. ISTVÁN (Dec 1239-1 Aug 1272). The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…dux Bela" as the two sons of "rex Bela quartus"[948]. He succeeded his father in 1270 as ISTVÁN V King of Hungary.

- see below.

8. MARGIT "the Younger" (1242-18 Jan 1271). Abbess on the Island of Hares near Ofen, afterwards called Margaret Island, she refused an offer of marriage from Otakar II King of Bohemia[949].

9. IOLANDA [Helena] ([1238/44]-16/17 Jun after 1303). The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the marriage in 1259 of "dux Boleslaus Polanorum" and "Iohelam filiam regis Hungarie"[950]. She was beatified 26 Sep 1827. m (1250) BOLESŁAW of Poland, son of WŁADYSŁAW Prince of Greater Poland & his wife Hedwig [von Pommerellen] (after 1221-13 Apr 1279). He succeeded in 1247 as BOLESŁAW "Poboźny/the Pious" Prince of Kalisch, until 1249 and 1253. He was Prince of Gnesen from 1249/50, and Prince of Greater Poland 1257.

10. BÉLA ([1245]-1269, bur Gran [Esztergom]). The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…dux Bela" as the two sons of "rex Bela quartus"[951]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "domina Maria regina, Grecorum imperatorum stirpe progenita…filio suo Bele…secundus…regis filius" was appointed duke of Croatia while still a minor[952]. He was installed by his father as Duke of Slavonia, Dalmatia & Croatia in 1262, territories previously held by his older brother István, who immediately rebelled against their father[953]. The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1270 of "Boleslaus filius Bele regis Hungarie"[954]. The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "duce Bela filio suo" was buried with his father "rex Bela" in "Strigony in ecclesia fratrum minorum"[955]. m (24/25 Oct 1264) as her first husband, KUNIGUNDE von Brandenburg, daughter of OTTO III Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his wife Beatrix [Božena] of Bohemia ([1247/52]-after 8 Jun 1292). The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmæ records the marriage "IV Kal Oct 1264" of "filiam Ottoni marchioni" and "filio regis nominee Belæ"[956]. The Historia Annorum 1264-1279 records the marriage in 1264 of "Bela frater Stephani regis Ungarie" and "filiam marchionis Brannburgensis", but does not name her[957]. The Altahenses Annales record the marriage "1262 in autumpno" of "filiam Ottonis marchionis de Brandenburch" and "Bele iuniore regi Ungarie"[958]. The Historia Annorum 1264-1279 records the marriage in 1264 of "Bela frater Stephani regis Ungarie" and "filiam marchionis Brannburgensis", but does not name her[959]. She is named in the Cronica Principum Saxonie which shows (in order) "Iohannem de Praga, Ottonem Magnum, Albertum, Ottonem, Conegundim, Mechtildim" as children of "Otto III" & his wife, specifying that Kunigund married "Bele filie Bele regis Ungarie, fratris beate Elisabet" in 1264, and also records her second marriage to "duci de Limburch"[960]. She married secondly ([10 Jan 1278]) as his second wife, Walram IV Duke of Limburg.

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IV. Béla magyar király [szerkesztés]

A Wikipédiából, a szabad enciklopédiából.

V. Béla Árpád-házi magyar király (1206. november 29. – 1270. május 3.) Magyarország uralkodója volt 1235. szeptember 25. és 1270. május 3. között. II. András és Gertrúd gyermeke, Szent Erzsébet testvére. Az ő nevéhez fűződik az ország tatárjárás utáni újjáépítése, ezért „második honalapító”-nak is nevezik.

Tartalomjegyzék [elrejtés]

1 Uralkodása

1.1 A tatárjárás

1.2 Reformok

1.3 A Babenberg-örökség

1.4 Belháború

2 Családja

3 Jegyzetek

4 Lásd még

5 Források

6 Külső hivatkozások

...

2►

Családja [szerkesztés]

1218-ban Béla feleségül vette Laszkarisz Máriát. Béla édesapja, II. András szerezte meg a lány kezét fia számára, miközben hazafelé tartott 1217-es szentföldi hadjáratáról. Mária a kis-ázsiai nikaiai görög császár, I. Teodor és felesége, Anna Angelina lánya volt. A párnak nyolc leánya és két fia született:

-1. Kunigunda (1224 – 1292) V. Boleszláv lengyel fejedelem felesége

-2. Margit (†1242 előtt)

-3. Katalin (†1242 előtt)

-4. Anna (1226/27 – 1271), Rosztiszláv kijevi nagyherceg felesége

-5. Jolán (1235/39 – 1298)

-6. Erzsébet (1236 – 1271), XIII. Henrik bajor herceg felesége

-7. Konstancia (? – ?), I. Leó halicsi király felesége

-8. István (1239 – 1272)

-9. Margit (1242 – 1270)

-10. Béla (1245 – 1269), Szlavónia hercege

Source / Forrás:

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/IV._B%C3%A9la

-------------------------------------------------

See also / Lásd még:

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/B%C3%A9la_IV_of_Hungary

----------------------------------------------------

Béla IV of Hungary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Béla IV (Hungarian: IV. Béla), (29 November 1206 – 3 May 1270), King of Hungary[1] (1235-1270) and of Croatia (as part of the Hungarian Kingdom) (1235-1270), duke of Styria between 1254-1258. One of the most famous kings of Hungary, distinguished himself through his policy of strenghtening of the royal power following the example of his grand father Bela III, and by the rebuilding Hungary after the catastrophy of the Mongolian invasion in 1241. For this reason was called by the Hungarians "the second founder of our country".

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Rex iunior

3 The first years of his reign

4 The Mongol invasion of Hungary (tatárjárás)

5 The "Second Founder of our Country"

6 External expansions

7 Struggles with his son

8 His last years

9 Marriage and children

10 His legacy

11 Titles

12 Ancestry

13 References

14 Sources

...

1. Early life

Béla was the eldest son of King Andrew II of Hungary and his first wife, Gertrude of Merania. Upon Pope Innocent III's request, the ecclesiastic and temporal dignitaries of the Kingdom of Hungary took an oath before his birth that they would accept him as his father's successor.

The infant Béla was probably present when a group of conspirators murdered his mother on 28 September 1213. Following the murder, his father ordered only the execution of the conspirators' leader and forgave the other members of the group, which resulted in Béla's emerging antipathy against his father.

In the beginning of 1214, Béla was engaged to a daughter of Tzar Boril of Bulgaria. Shortly afterwards, he was crowned junior king. When his father left for a Crusade in August 1217, his maternal uncle, Archbishop Berthold of Kalocsa took Béla to the fortress of Steyr in Styria and he returned to Hungary one year later, following his father's return from the Holy Land.

...

Marriage and children

1218: Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicaea and Anna Angelina, their children included

  1. Kunigunda (5 March 1224 – 24 July 1292), wife of Prince Bolesław V the Chaste of Poland
  2. Anna, (1226/1227 – after 3 July 1271), wife of Prince Rostislav of Mačva
  3. Elisabeth, (1236 – 24 October 1271), wife of Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria
  4. Konstantia, (? – ?), wife of King Leo I of Halych
  5. King Stephen V of Hungary, (before 18 October 1239 – 6 August 1272)
  6. Saint Margaret, (27 January 1242 – 18 January 1271)
  7. Ilona, (? – 16/17 June after 1303), wife of Bolesław the Pious Duke of Greater Poland
  8. Duke Béla of Slavonia (c. 1245 – 1269)
  9. ►Szabina, wife of Mózes (Majos/Majs/Mojs/Moys), Palatine of Hungary (? – 1280)[3][4][5]◄

Source / Forrás:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_IV_of_Hungary

  • ►According the MedLands Szabina was not the daughter, but nice of Bela IV. Szabina was the daughter of András (1210/12-1234) Prince of Galich and Szabina's original name was Erzsébet †1295/96 and her name Szabina became as a nun. Her husband was MOYS de Dáró, Judge of the Kumans ([-end 1280)]), Palatine of Hungary, Gespan of Sopron. They had one child: Erzsébet de Dáró◄
  • See: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#AndrasIIA

--------------------

Béla IV of Hungary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 (Redirected from Bela IV of Hungary)

Béla IV c.1270

Béla IV (Hungarian: IV. Béla, Croatian: Bela III, Slovak: Belo IV), (1206 – 3 May 1270), King of Hungary and Croatia (1214-1270), Duke of Styria (1254-1258). Béla was present, at the age of seven, when a group of conspirators killed his mother, and he could never forgive his father's generosity towards the conspirators' accomplices. Shortly afterwards, he was crowned junior king (rex iunior) and he governed several provinces of the Kingdom of Hungary during his father's reign. He endeavoured to restore the royal power that had declined since the death of his grandfather, King Béla, which resulted in permanent conflicts between Béla and his father. When he ascended the throne, he determined to revive his grandfather's internal policy which made him unpopular among his barons. However, he soon had to face the threat of the Mongol invasion of Europe; therefore he granted asylum to the Cumans in order to strengthen his military force. Nevertheless, the Mongol armies defeated his troops in the decisive battle and he had to escape to the farthest fortress of his kingdom while the Mongols were pillaging the country. When the Mongol troops were withdrawn unexpectedly, Béla returned and commenced to reconstruct his devasteted kingdom; he patronized the towns, persuaded the construction of fortresses and encouraged the immigration. His success is reflected by his popular epithet, "the Second Founder of our Country", in Hungary. During the second period of his reign, he could even expand his rule over the neighbouring countries. However, his last years were characterized by his permanent conflicts with his eldest son, Stephen.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Rex iunior

3 The first years of his reign

4 The Mongol invasion of Hungary (tatárjárás)

5 The "Second Founder of our Country"

6 External expansions

7 Struggles with his son

8 His last years

9 Marriage and children

10 His legacy

11 References

12 Sources

[edit]Early life

Béla was the eldest son of King Andrew II of Hungary and his first wife, Gertrude of Merania. Upon Pope Innocent III request, the ecclesiastic and temporal dignitaries of the Kingdom of Hungary took an oath before his birth that they would accept him as his father's successor.

The infant Béla was probably present when a group of conspirators murdered his mother on 28 September 1213. Following the murder, his father ordered only the execution of the conspirators' leader and forgave the other members of the group, which resulted in Béla's emerging antipathy against his father.

In the beginning of 1214, Béla was engaged to a daughter of Tzar Boril of Bulgaria. Shortly afterwards, he was crowned junior king. When his father left for a Crusade in August 1217, his maternal uncle, Archbishop Berthold of Kalocsa took Béla to the fortress of Steyr in Styria and he returned to Hungary one year later, following his father's return from the Holy Land.

[edit]Rex iunior

In 1220, Béla married Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Laskaris of Nicaea and his father entrusted him with the government of Slavonia. However, King Andrew II, who had arranged Béla's marriage during his return from the Crusade, persuaded Béla to separate from his wife in 1222. Pope Honorius III, however, denied to declare their marriage null and void; therefore Béla took back his wife and escaped to Austria fearing of his father's anger. Finally, King Andrew II made an agreement with his son with the mediation of the Pope and Béla took over again the government of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia.

As governor, Béla commenced, with the authorization of the Pope, to take back the royal domains that King Andrew II had granted to his partisans during the first half of his reign. He laid siege to Klis, the fortress of a turbulent Croatian baron who had to surrender.

In 1226, his father entrusted him with the government of Transylvania where he assisted the missionary work of the Blackfriars among the Cuman tribes who settled down in the territories west of the Dniester River. As a result of their missionary work, two chieftains of the Cumans, Bartz and Membrok were baptized and they acknowledged Béla's overlordship around 1228. In the meantime, Béla began to organise the Banat of Szörény, a march of the kingdom.

In 1228, he commenced to revise his father's "needless and fruitless" donations in the whole territory of the kingdom with the authorisation of his father. However, his military failure in Halych, when assisting his younger brother, Andrew, weakened his influence and King Andrew II put an end to the revision of his former donations. During the early 1230s, Béla took part in the military expeditions of his father against Halych and Austria.

His relation with his father even worsened, when King Andrew II married, on 14 May 1234, Beatrice D'Este, who was thirty years his younger.

[edit]The first years of his reign

When his father died on 21 September 1235, Béla ascended the throne without any opposition and Archbishop Robert of Esztergom crowned him on 14 October in Székesfehérvár. Shortly afterwards, he accused his young stepmother and his father's main advisor, Denis, Apud's son of adultery and ordered their arrest.

Béla's main purpose was to restore the royal power that had weakened during his father's rule; e.g., he ordered the burning of his advisors' seats, because he wanted to force them to stand in the presence of the king. As he also wanted to strengthen the position of the towns, he confirmed the charter of Székesfehérvár and granted new privileges to several key towns in the kingdom (Pest, Nagyszombat, Selmecbánya, Korpona, Zólyom, Bars, and Esztergom).[1]

He sent Friar Julian to find the Magyar tribes who had remained in their eastern homeland. Friar Julian, after meeting with the eastern Magyars returned to Hungary in 1239 and informed Béla of the planned Mongol invasion of Europe. Béla wanted to take precautions against the Mongols; therefore he granted asylum, in Hungary, to the Cumans who had been defeated by the Mongols. However, the nomadic culture of the Cumans caused tensions between them and the Hungarians which became more and more acute.

Béla tried to reinforce the eastern borders of his kingdom, but the Mongol troops, lead by Batu Khan, managed to break through the frontier defenses on 12 March 1241. On hearing of the Mongols' successful attack, the citizens of Pest, who had been accusing the Cumans of cooperating with the Mongols, murdered Köten, the Khan of the Cumans; therefore the enraged Cumans began to plunder the countryside and they left the country.

The Mongol invasion of Hungary (tatárjárás)

After the Cumans' departure, Béla could lead only a small army against the Mongols who defeated him in the Battle of Mohi on 11 April 1241. After his disastrous defeat, Béla fled to Pozsony and then to Hainburg where Duke Frederick II of Austria seized his treasury and enforced him to cede three western counties of his kingdom to Austria.

Béla fled from Hainburg to Zagreb and he sent his envoys to the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX to seek their assistance against the Mongols. He even offered to accept the overlordship of the Holy Roman Emperor in case he sent troops to Hungary, but none of the Western powers provided him any assistance.

In the meantime, the Mongols were plundering the territories of the kingdom west of the Danube River. Moreover, in January, they could cross the frozen Danube and Béla had to flee from the Mongol troops, the khan sent to capture him, to Trau.

Finally, in March 1241, the Mongol troops retired unexpectedly from Hungary, but they left a country totally pillaged behind them.

[edit]The "Second Founder of our Country"

Following the Mongol invasion of Hungary, Béla broke with his former internal policy. Based on the experiences of the occupation, he began to grant estates to his partisans, but simultaneously he also obliged them to build up fortresses there, because only fortresses could resist the conquerors. He also encouraged the towns to protect themselves by erecting walls. He called back the Cumans to Hungary and granted them the deserted territories between the Rivers Danube and Tisza.

Because of his successful internal policy, he is greatly respected in Hungary and commonly known as "the second founder" of the kingdom.

[edit]External expansions

Already in 1242, he could lead his troops against Duke Frederick II of Austria. During his campaign, he managed to reoccupy Sopron and Kőszeg and he compelled the duke to renounce the three counties he had occupied during the Mongol invasion.

On 30 June 1244, Béla made a peace with the Republic of Venice and he surrendered his supremacy over Zára but he retained the 1/3 of the Dalmatian city's revenues of customs. In 1245, Béla provided military assistance to his son-in-law, Prince Rostislav against Prince Danylo of Halych, but the latter forced back the pretender's attacks.

Upon his request, Pope Gregory IX absolved Béla of his oath he had taken to the Holy Roman Emperor during the Mongol invasion on 21 August 1245. Shortly afterwards, Duke Frederick II of Austria, who did not give up his claims to the western counties of the Kingdom of Hungary, launched an attack against Hungary. Although, he could defeate the Hungarian troops in a battle by the Leitha River, but he died in the battle. With his death, the male line of the House of Babenberg became extinct, and a struggle commenced for the rule over Austria and Styria.

Béla granted the Banat of Szörény to the Knights Hospitaller in 1249, when a rumour was spreading that the Mongols were preparing a new campaign against Europe. In the same year, he assisted again his son-in-law against Halych, but Prince Danylo defeated his troops by the San River. Finally, Béla decided to make an agreement with the Prince of Halych and they had a meeting in Zólyom in 1250 where Béla promised that he would not assist his son-in-law against Prince Danylo.

Béla decided to intervene in the struggle for the inheritance of the House of Babenberg and arranged a marriage between Gertrude of Austria, the niece of the deceased Duke Frederick II of Austria, and Roman Danylovich, a son of Prince Danylo of Halych. In 1252, he lead his armies against Austria and occupied the Vienna Basin. However, King Ottokar II of Bohemia, whose wife was Margaret, the sister of Duke Frederick II, also declared his claim to the two duchies. Béla made a campaign against Moravia but he could not occupy Olomouc; therefore he started negotiating with the King of Bohemia with the mediation of the Papal legates. Finally, Béla had a meeting with King Ottokar II in Pozsony and they concluded a peace. Based on the provision of the peace Wiener Neustadt and the Duchy of Styria came under Béla's rule.

[edit]Struggles with his son

Béla had had his eldest son, Stephen crowned junior king already in 1246, but he did not want to share the royal power with his son. However, Stephen recruited an army against his father and persuaded Béla to cede him the government of Transylvania in 1258.

In the same year, the Styrians, who would have preferred the rule of the King of Bohemia, rose against Béla's reign, but his troops suppressed their rebellion. After his victory, Béla appointed his son to Duke of Styria. Nevertheless, the Styrians rebelled against the rule of the King of Hungary again with the support of King Otakar II. Béla and his son commenced a military campaign against King Otakar II's lands, but their troops were defeated on July 12, 1260 in the Battle of Kroissenbrunn. Following the battle, Béla renounced his claim to the Duchy of Styria on behalf of the King of Bohemia in the Peace of Pressburg.

Shortly after the peace, Stephen took over again the government of Transylvania. Béla and his son lead jointly their armies against Bulgaria in 1261. Nevertheless, Béla favoured his younger son, Duke Béla and his daughter, Anna, the mother-in-law of the King of Bohemia; therefore his relationship with his elder son was getting tense. The two kings (father and son) began to harass the other's partisans, and their clash seemed inevitable. Finally, the Archbishops Fülöp of Esztergom and Smaragd of Kalocsa commenced to mediate between them and the two kings signed an agreement in the summer of 1262 in Pozsony. Based on the agreement, Stephen V took over the government of the parts of the Kingdom East of the Danube.

However, their reconciliation was only temporary, because their partisans were continuously inciting them against each other. In 1264, the junior king attached his mother's and sister's estates in his domains. Béla sent troops against his son, whose wife and son were soon captured, while Stephen had to retreat to the Castle of Feketehalom. However, the young king managed to repel the siege of his father's troops and to commence a counter-attack. Stephen V won a strategic victory over Béla's troops in the Battle of Isaszeg in March 1265 and in the subsequent peace Béla was obliged to cede the government of the Eastern parts of his kingdom again to his son. On March 23, 1266, they confirmed personally the peace in the Convent of the Blessed Virgin on the Nyulak szigete ('Rabbits' Island').

In 1267, the "prelates and nobles" of the Kingdom of Hungary held a joint assembly in Esztergom, and their decisions were confirmed by both Béla and his son.

[edit]His last years

Béla lost his favourite son in the summer of 1269. Afterwards, his favourite daughter, Anna was exercising more and more influence over him. In his last will, Béla entrusted his daughter and his followers to her son-in-law, King Otakar II of Bohemia, because he did not trust his son.

[edit]Marriage and children

  1. around 1218: Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicaea and Anna Angelina

Blessed Kinga (5 March 1224 – 24 July 1292), wife of Prince Bolesław V the Chaste of Poland

Anna, (1226/1227 – after 3 July 1271), wife of Prince Rostislav of Slavonia

Elisabeth, (1236 – 24 October 1271), wife of Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria

Constance, (? – ?), wife of King Leo I of Halych

King Stephen V of Hungary, (before 18 October 1239 – 6 August 1272)

Saint Margaret, (27 January 1242 – 18 January 1271)

Blessed Jolenta, (? – 16/17 June after 1303), wife of Duke Boleslaus of Greater Poland

Duke Béla of Slavonia (c. 1245 – 1269)

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Béla IV (Hungarian: IV. Béla, (1206 – 3 May 1270), King of Hungary and Croatia (1214-1270), Duke of Styria (1254-1258). Béla was present, at the age of seven, when a group of conspirators killed his mother, and he could never forgive his father's generosity towards the conspirators' accomplices. Shortly afterwards, he was crowned junior king (rex iunior) and he governed several provinces of the Kingdom of Hungary during his father's reign. He endeavoured to restore the royal power that had declined since the death of his grandfather, King Béla, which resulted in permanent conflicts between Béla and his father. When he ascended the throne, he determined to revive his grandfather's internal policy which made him unpopular among his barons. However, he soon had to face the threat of the Mongol invasion of Europe; therefore he granted asylum to the Cumans in order to strengthen his military force. After the Tatar invasion he became one of the most famous Hungarian kings. Nevertheless, the Mongol armies defeated his troops in a decisive battle requiring his escape to the farthest fortress of his kingdom while the Mongols were pillaging the country. When the Mongol troops were withdrawn unexpectedly, Béla returned and commenced reconstruction of his devastated kingdom; he patronized towns, constructed new fortresses and encouraged immigration. His success is reflected by his popular epithet, "the Second Founder of our Country", in Hungary. During the second period of his reign, he proceeded to expand his rule over the neighbouring countries. However his last years were characterized by his permanent conflicts with his eldest son, Stephen.

Béla was the eldest son of King Andrew II of Hungary and his first wife, Gertrude of Merania. Upon Pope Innocent III's request, the ecclesiastic and temporal dignitaries of the Kingdom of Hungary took an oath before his birth that they would accept him as his father's successor.

Marriage and children

Around 1218: Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicaea and Anna Angelina

Saint Kinga (5 March 1224 – 24 July 1292), wife of Prince Bolesław V the Chaste of Poland

Anna, (1226/1227 – after 3 July 1271), wife of Prince Rostislav of Slavonia

Elisabeth, (1236 – 24 October 1271), wife of Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria

Constance, (? – ?), wife of King Leo I of Halych

King Stephen V of Hungary, (before 18 October 1239 – 6 August 1272)

Saint Margaret, (27 January 1242 – 18 January 1271)

Blessed Jolenta, (? – 16/17 June after 1303), wife of Duke Boleslaus of Greater Poland

Duke Béla of Slavonia (c. 1245 – 1269)

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1235-70 magyar kiraly, a második honalapító

1270-ben Esztergomban a Ferences Rendnél temették el

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Wikipedia:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_IV._%28Ungarn%29

Béla IV. (Ungarn)

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Béla IV.

Béla venerabilis (* November 1206; † 3. Mai 1270 auf der Haseninsel (Margareteninsel) bei Buda) aus dem Geschlecht der Arpaden war seit 1235 als Béla IV. König von Ungarn und als Bela III. in Personalunion auch König von Kroatien sowie von 1254 bis 1258 Herzog der Steiermark.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Anzeigen]

   * 1 Leben
   * 2 Nachkommen
   * 3 Einzelnachweise
   * 4 Weblinks

Leben [Bearbeiten]

Er war der Sohn von König Andreas II. und seiner Frau Gertrud und der Bruder von Elisabeth von Thüringen.

Das wichtigste Ereignis in Bélas IV. Regierungszeiten war die Invasion eines mongolischen Heeres unter Batu, dem Khan der Goldenen Horde. Nach der Eroberung der Kiewer Rus (1240), des wichtigsten russischen Fürstentums, überrannten die Mongolen Halitsch-Wolhynien und griffen in zwei Heersäulen Polen und Mähren im Norden und Ungarn im Süden an. Khan Batu und Subutai führten die mongolische Hauptstreitmacht im Süden auf die ungarische Hauptstadt Ofen zu. Am 11. April 1241 wurden die Ungarn unter Béla IV. in der Schlacht bei Muhi vernichtend geschlagen. Im Anschluss daran vereinigten sich die mongolischen Abteilungen wieder auf ungarischem Gebiet. Der flüchtende Béla wurde von den Mongolen bis an die kroatische Mittelmeerküste verfolgt. Nach dem unerwarteten Tod des Groß-Khans Ögedei brach Batu jedoch seinen Feldzug ab und zog sich mit seinen Truppen in Richtung Osten zurück. Bis dahin hatten sie allerdings bereits weite Teile Ungarns in Massakern stark entvölkert. Es gibt Schätzungen, dass von den zwei Millionen Menschen, die 1240 in Ungarn gelebt haben sollen, die Hälfte dem Mongolensturm unmittelbar zum Opfer fielen und eine weitere halbe Million im Laufe der darauf folgenden Hungersnöte und Epidemien starben. Das für das Land verheerende Ereignis wird in Ungarn auch als tatárjárás bezeichnet.

In den Folgejahren begann Béla mit dem Wiederaufbau seines Landes. Dazu holte er Siedler ins Land, zunächst vor allem aus Frankreich und Wallonien, später aber überwiegend aus dem deutschen Rheinland. Weitere Siedler kamen aus den unmittelbaren Nachbarländern. Bereits ab 1239 waren auch vor den Mongolen fliehende Kumanen zwischen Donau und Theiß angesiedelt worden. In erster Linie aus ihnen bestand das nach dem Mongolensturm aufgebaute Heer, mit dem der König seine folgenden Feldzüge unternahm. Außerdem legte Béla ein umfangreiches Burgen- und Städtebauprogramm auf, bei dem ebenfalls die Siedler halfen. Das neue Konzept beim Städtebau war, dass die Städte durch Steinmauern umfasst wurden. Denn der Mangel an solchen befestigten Städten war ein Grund für den Erfolg des mongolischen Eroberungszuges. Am 16. November 1242 verlieh er Zagreb durch die Goldene Bulle (kroat. zlatna bula) den Titel einer freien Königsstadt.[1] Bereits 1234 erhielt Virovitica den Status einer freien Königsstadt. Béla schrieb zudem das erste Geschichtsbuch des Mittelalters.

Nachdem er 1246 Herzog Friedrich II. von Österreich und der Steiermark in der Schlacht an der Leitha besiegt hatte, wobei dieser getötet wurde, bemühte er sich um die Erlangung dessen Herzogswürde, die er den verbündeten Fürsten von Halitsch-Wolhynien (Galizien) übertragen wollte, was aber erfolglos blieb. Nachdem sich 1251 Ottokar II. in Österreich durchgesetzt hatte, schloss Béla 1254 mit ihm den Frieden von Ofen und ging 1261 im Frieden von Wien sogar ein enges Bündnis mit ihm ein.

Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Mit Maria Laskaris von Nicäa:

   * Elisabeth von Ungarn (* 1236, † 1271), ∞ Heinrich XIII., Herzog von Bayern (* 1250, † 1289/90)
   * Stephan V., König von Ungarn, Kroatien und Dalmatien (* 1240, † 1272)
   * Margareta von Ungarn (* 1242, † 1270), Heilige
   * Anna von Ungarn (* 1244), ∞ Rostislaw, Fürst von Kiew (* 1244, † 1264), ihre Tochter Kunigunde von Halitsch heiratete König Ottokar II. Přemysl von Böhmen
   * Kinga (Kunigunde) von Ungarn, Heilige der katholischen Kirche, (* 1243, † 1292), ∞ Boleslaw V. von Polen
   * Konstanze von Ungarn, ∞ Leo Přemysl, Fürst von Halitsch;

Einzelnachweise [Bearbeiten]

  1. ↑ Vjesnik. »Zlatna bula« - temelj razvoja Zagreba kroz stoljeća (kroatisch)

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

   * genealogie-mittelalter.de
   * britannica.com (engl.)
   * 1911encyclopedia.org (engl.)
   * Biographie von Bela IV im Ökumenischen Heiligenlexikon

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger

Andreas II./I. König von Ungarn

1235-1270 Stephan V./VI.

König von Kroatien, Dalmatien und Rama

1235-1270

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Wikipedia:

Béla IV (Hungarian: IV. Béla), (29 November 1206 – 3 May 1270), King of Hungary (1235-1270) and of Croatia (as part of the Hungarian Kingdom) (1235-1270), duke of Styria between 1254-1258. One of the most famous kings of Hungary, distinguished himself through his policy of strenghtening of the royal power following the example of his grand father Bela III, and by the rebuilding Hungary after the catastrophy of the Mongolian invasion in 1241. For this reason was called by the Hungarians "the second founder of our country".st fortress of his kingdom while the Mongols were pillaging the country. When the Mongol troops were withdrawn unexpectedly, Béla returned and commenced reconstruction of his devastated kingdom; he patronized towns, constructed new fortresses and encouraged immigration. His success is reflected by his popular epithet, "the Second Founder of our Country," in Hungary. During the second period of his reign, he proceeded to expand his rule over the neighbouring countries. However his last years were characterized by his permanent conflicts with his eldest .

Early life

Béla was the eldest son of King Andrew II of Hungary and his first wife, Gertrude of Merania. Upon Pope Innocent III's request, the ecclesiastic and temporal dignitaries of the Kingdom of Hungary took an oath before his birth that they would accept him as his father's successor.

The infant Béla was probably present when a group of conspirators murdered his mother on 28 September 1213. Following the murder, his father ordered only the execution of the conspirators' leader and forgave the other members of the group, which resulted in Béla's emerging antipathy against his father.

In the beginning of 1214, Béla was engaged to a daughter of Tzar Boril of Bulgaria. Shortly afterwards, he was crowned junior king. When his father left for a Crusade in August 1217, his maternal uncle, Archbishop Berthold of Kalocsa took Béla to the fortress of Steyr in Styria and he returned to Hungary one year later, following his father's return from the Holy Land.

Rex iunior

In 1220, Béla married Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Laskaris of Nicaea and his father entrusted him with the government of Slavonia. However, King Andrew II, who had arranged Béla's marriage during his return from the Crusade, persuaded Béla to separate from his wife in 1222. Pope Honorius III, however, denied to declare their marriage null and void; therefore Béla took back his wife and escaped to Austria fearing his father's anger. Finally, King Andrew II made an agreement with his son with the mediation of the Pope and Béla took over again the government of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia.

As governor, Béla began, with the authorization of the Pope, to take back the royal domains that King Andrew II had granted to his partisans during the first half of his reign. He laid siege to Klis, the fortress of a turbulent Croatian baron who had to surrender.

In 1226, his father entrusted him with the government of Transylvania where he assisted the missionary work of the Blackfriars among the Cuman tribes who settled down in the territories west of the Dniester River. As a result of their missionary work, two chieftains of the Cumans, Bartz and Membrok were baptized and they acknowledged Béla's overlordship around 1228. In the meantime, Béla began to organise the Banat of Szörény, a march of the kingdom.

In 1228, he began to revise his father's "needless and fruitless" donations in the whole territory of the kingdom with the authorisation of his father. However, his military failure in Halych, when assisting his younger brother, Andrew, weakened his influence and King Andrew II put an end to the revision of his former donations. During the early 1230s, Béla took part in the military expeditions of his father against Halych and Austria.

His relation with his father became even worse when King Andrew II married, on 14 May 1234, Beatrice D'Este, who was thirty years his junior.

The first years of his reign

When his father died on 21 September 1235, Béla ascended the throne without any opposition and Archbishop Robert of Esztergom crowned him on 14 October in Székesfehérvár. Shortly afterwards, he accused his young stepmother and his father's main advisor, Denis, Apud's son of adultery and ordered their arrest.

Béla's main purpose was to restore the royal power that had weakened during his father's rule; e.g., he ordered the burning of his advisors' seats, because he wanted to force them to stand in the presence of the king. As he also wanted to strengthen the position of the towns, he confirmed the charter of Székesfehérvár and granted new privileges to several key towns in the kingdom (Pest, Nagyszombat, Selmecbánya, Korpona, Zólyom, Bars, and Esztergom).

He sent Friar Julian to find the Magyar tribes who had remained in their eastern homeland. Friar Julian, after meeting with the eastern Magyars returned to Hungary in 1239 and informed Béla of the planned Mongol invasion of Europe. Béla wanted to take precautions against the Mongols; therefore he granted asylum, in Hungary, to the Cumans who had been defeated by the Mongols. However, the nomadic culture of the Cumans caused tensions between them and the Hungarians which became more and more acute.

Béla tried to reinforce the eastern borders of his kingdom, but the Mongol troops, led by Batu Khan, managed to break through the frontier defenses on 12 March 1241. On hearing of the Mongols' successful attack, the citizens of Pest, who had been accusing the Cumans of cooperating with the Mongols, murdered Köten, the Khan of the Cumans; therefore the enraged Cumans began to plunder the countryside and they left the country.

[edit] The Mongol invasion of Hungary (tatárjárás)

Béla IV flees from Mohi, detail from Chronicon Pictum

After the Cumans' departure, Béla could lead only a small army against the Mongols who defeated him in the Battle of Mohi on 11 April 1241. After his disastrous defeat, Béla fled to Pozsony and then to Hainburg where Duke Frederick II of Austria seized his treasury and enforced him to cede three western counties of his kingdom to Austria.

Béla fled from Hainburg to Zagreb and he sent his envoys to the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX to seek their assistance against the Mongols. He even offered to accept the overlordship of the Holy Roman Emperor in case he sent troops to Hungary, but none of the Western powers provided him any assistance.

In the meantime, the Mongols were plundering the territories of the kingdom west of the Danube River. Moreover, in January, they could cross the frozen Danube and Béla had to flee from the Mongol troops, the khan sent to capture him into Croatia. Tatars under the leadership of Kadan believed that the king was hiding in the Klis Fortress. They attaked it in March 1242, and experienced a major failure. But when they learnt that the king was not there, they abandoned their attack on the fortress, and ascending their mounts rode of in the direction of Trogir. All the same, number of them turned toward Split.

The Mongols attacked the Dalmatian cities for the next few years but eventually withdrew without major success, as the mountainous terrain and distance were not suitable for Mongol warfare. After failure against Croatian soldiers, Mongols retreated and Béla IV awarded Croatian towns and nobility. Anyway, much of Hungary and Croatia was plundered by the Mongols, but without any major military success.

The "Second Founder of our Country"

Following the Mongol invasion of Hungary, Béla broke with his former internal policy. Based on the experiences of the occupation, he began to grant estates to his partisans, but simultaneously he also obliged them to build up fortresses there, because only fortresses could resist the conquerors. He also encouraged the towns to protect themselves by erecting walls. He called back the Cumans to Hungary and granted them the deserted territories between the Rivers Danube and Tisza.

Because of his successful internal policy, he is greatly respected in Hungary and commonly known as "the second founder" of the kingdom.

External expansions

Already in 1242, he could lead his troops against Duke Frederick II of Austria. During his campaign, he managed to reoccupy Sopron and Kőszeg and he compelled the duke to renounce the three counties he had occupied during the Mongol invasion.

On 30 June 1244, Béla made a peace with the Republic of Venice and he surrendered his supremacy over Zadar (then called Zara) but he retained the 1/3 of the Dalmatian city's revenues of customs. In 1245, Béla provided military assistance to his son-in-law, Prince Rostislav against Prince Danylo of Halych, but the latter forced back the pretender's attacks.

Upon his request, Pope Gregory IX absolved Béla of his oath he had taken to the Holy Roman Emperor during the Mongol invasion on 21 August 1245. Shortly afterwards, Duke Frederick II of Austria, who did not give up his claims to the western counties of the Kingdom of Hungary, launched an attack against Hungary. Although, he could defeat the Hungarian troops in a battle by the Leitha River, but he died in the battle. With his death, the male line of the House of Babenberg became extinct, and a struggle commenced for the rule over Austria and Styria.

Béla granted the Banat of Szörény to the Knights Hospitaller in 1249, when a rumour was spreading that the Mongols were preparing a new campaign against Europe. In the same year, he assisted again his son-in-law against Halych, but Prince Danylo defeated his troops by the San River. Finally, Béla decided to make an agreement with the Prince of Halych and they had a meeting in Zólyom in 1250 where Béla promised that he would not assist his son-in-law against Prince Danylo.

Béla decided to intervene in the struggle for the inheritance of the House of Babenberg and arranged a marriage between Gertrude of Austria, the niece of the deceased Duke Frederick II of Austria, and Roman Danylovich, a son of Prince Danylo of Halych. In 1252, he led his armies against Austria and occupied the Vienna Basin. However, King Ottokar II of Bohemia, whose wife was Margaret, the sister of Duke Frederick II, also declared his claim to the two duchies. Béla made a campaign against Moravia but he could not occupy Olomouc; therefore he started negotiating with the King of Bohemia with the mediation of the Papal legates. Finally, Béla had a meeting with King Ottokar II in Pozsony and they concluded a peace. Based on the provision of the peace Wiener Neustadt and the Duchy of Styria came under Béla's rule.

Struggles with his son

Béla had had his eldest son, Stephen crowned junior king already in 1246, but he did not want to share the royal power with his son. However, Stephen recruited an army against his father and persuaded Béla to cede him the government of Transylvania in 1258.

In the same year, the Styrians, who would have preferred the rule of the King of Bohemia, rose against Béla's reign, but his troops suppressed their rebellion. After his victory, Béla appointed his son to Duke of Styria. Nevertheless, the Styrians rebelled against the rule of the King of Hungary again with the support of King Otakar II. Béla and his son commenced a military campaign against King Otakar II's lands, but their troops were defeated on 12 July 1260 in the Battle of Kressenbrunn. Following the battle, Béla renounced his claim to the Duchy of Styria on behalf of the King of Bohemia in the Peace of Pressburg.

Shortly after the peace, Stephen took over again the government of Transylvania. Béla and his son jointly led their armies against Bulgaria in 1261. Nevertheless, Béla favoured his younger son, Duke Béla and his daughter, Anna, the mother-in-law of the King of Bohemia; therefore his relationship with his elder son was getting tense. The two kings (father and son) began to harass the other's partisans, and their clash seemed inevitable. Finally, the Archbishops Fülöp of Esztergom and Smaragd of Kalocsa commenced to mediate between them and the two kings signed an agreement in the summer of 1262 in Pozsony. Based on the agreement, Stephen V took over the government of the parts of the Kingdom East of the Danube.

However, their reconciliation was only temporary, because their partisans were continuously inciting them against each other. In 1264, the junior king attached his mother's and sister's estates in his domains. Béla sent troops against his son, whose wife and son were soon captured, while Stephen had to retreat to the Castle of Feketehalom. However, the young king managed to repel the siege of his father's troops and to commence a counter-attack. Stephen V won a strategic victory over Béla's troops in the Battle of Isaszeg in March 1265 and in the subsequent peace Béla was obliged to cede the government of the Eastern parts of his kingdom again to his son. On 23 March 1266, they confirmed personally the peace in the Convent of the Blessed Virgin on the Nyulak szigete ('Rabbits' Island').

In 1267, the "prelates and nobles" of the Kingdom of Hungary held a joint assembly in Esztergom, and their decisions were confirmed by both Béla and his son.

His last years

Béla lost his favourite son in the summer of 1269. Afterwards, his favourite daughter, Anna exercised more and more influence over him. In his last will, Béla entrusted his daughter and his followers to her son-in-law, King Otakar II of Bohemia, because he did not trust his son.

Marriage and children

  1. around 1218: Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicaea and Anna Angelina
   * Saint Kinga (5 March 1224 – 24 July 1292), wife of Prince Bolesław V the Chaste of Poland
   * Anna, (1226/1227 – after 3 July 1271), wife of Prince Rostislav of Mačva
   * Elisabeth, (1236 – 24 October 1271), wife of Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria
   * Constance, (? – ?), wife of King Leo I of Halych
   * King Stephen V of Hungary, (before 18 October 1239 – 6 August 1272)
   * Saint Margaret, (27 January 1242 – 18 January 1271)
   * Blessed Jolenta, (? – 16/17 June after 1303), wife of Duke Boleslaus of Greater Poland
   * Duke Béla of Slavonia (c. 1245 – 1269)

His legacy

Because of the more and more chaotic internal situation after his death many thought him as the last ruler who brought peace to the realm. The epigram on his tomb refers this idea.

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Béla IV (Hungarian: IV. Béla, (1206 – 3 May 1270), King of Hungary and Croatia (1214-1270), Duke of Styria (1254-1258). Béla was present, at the age of seven, when a group of conspirators killed his mother, and he could never forgive his father's generosity towards the conspirators' accomplices. Shortly afterwards, he was crowned junior king (rex iunior) and he governed several provinces of the Kingdom of Hungary during his father's reign. He endeavoured to restore the royal power that had declined since the death of his grandfather, King Béla, which resulted in permanent conflicts between Béla and his father. When he ascended the throne, he determined to revive his grandfather's internal policy which made him unpopular among his barons. However, he soon had to face the threat of the Mongol invasion of Europe; therefore he granted asylum to the Cumans in order to strengthen his military force. After the Tatar invasion he became one of the most famous Hungarian kings. Nevertheless, the Mongol armies defeated his troops in a decisive battle requiring his escape to the farthest fortress of his kingdom while the Mongols were pillaging the country. When the Mongol troops were withdrawn unexpectedly, Béla returned and commenced reconstruction of his devastated kingdom; he patronized towns, constructed new fortresses and encouraged immigration. His success is reflected by his popular epithet, "the Second Founder of our Country", in Hungary. During the second period of his reign, he proceeded to expand his rule over the neighbouring countries. However his last years were characterized by his permanent conflicts with his eldest son, Stephen.

Béla was the eldest son of King Andrew II of Hungary and his first wife, Gertrude of Merania. Upon Pope Innocent III's request, the ecclesiastic and temporal dignitaries of the Kingdom of Hungary took an oath before his birth that they would accept him as his father's successor.

Marriage and children

Around 1218: Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicaea and Anna Angelina

Saint Kinga (5 March 1224 – 24 July 1292), wife of Prince Bolesław V the Chaste of Poland

Anna, (1226/1227 – after 3 July 1271), wife of Prince Rostislav of Slavonia

Elisabeth, (1236 – 24 October 1271), wife of Henry XIII, Duke of Bavaria

Constance, (? – ?), wife of King Leo I of Halych

King Stephen V of Hungary, (before 18 October 1239 – 6 August 1272)

Saint Margaret, (27 January 1242 – 18 January 1271)

Blessed Jolenta, (? – 16/17 June after 1303), wife of Duke Boleslaus of Greater Poland

Duke Béla of Slavonia (c. 1245 – 1269)

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Béla IV (Hungarian: IV. Béla, (1206 – 3 May 1270), King of Hungary[1] (1235-1270). Béla was present, at the age of seven, when a group of conspirators killed his mother, and he could never forgive his father's generosity towards the conspirators' accomplices. Shortly afterwards, he was crowned junior king (rex iunior) and he governed several provinces of the Kingdom of Hungary during his father's reign. He endeavoured to restore the royal power that had declined since the death of his grandfather, King Béla, which resulted in permanent conflicts between Béla and his father. When he ascended the throne, he determined to revive his grandfather's internal policy which made him unpopular among his barons. However, he soon had to face the threat of the Mongol invasion of Europe; therefore he granted asylum to the Cumans in order to strengthen his military force. After the Tatar invasion he became one of the most famous Hungarian kings. Nevertheless, the Mongol armies defeated his troops in a decisive battle requiring his escape to the farthest fortress of his kingdom while the Mongols were pillaging the country. When the Mongol troops were withdrawn unexpectedly, Béla returned and commenced reconstruction of his devastated kingdom; he patronized towns, constructed new fortresses and encouraged immigration. His success is reflected by his popular epithet, "the Second Founder of our Country", in Hungary. During the second period of his reign, he proceeded to expand his rule over the neighbouring countries. However his last years were characterized by his permanent conflicts with his eldest son, Stephen.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_IV_of_Hungary -------------------- Marriage and children1218: Maria Laskarina, a daughter of the Emperor Theodore I Lascaris of Nicaea and Anna Angelina, their children included

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Duke Béla of Slavonia (c. 1245 – 1269)

Szabina, wife of Mózes (Majos/Majs/Mojs/Moys), Palatine of Hungary (? – 1280)[3][4][5]


  • ^ Juck, Ľubomír (1984). Výsady miest a mestečiek na Slovensku (1238-1350). Bratislava: Veda.

  • ^ Gyula Pauler, A Magyar Nemzet Története: Az Árpádházi Királyok Alatt, Vol. 2., Athenaeum, 1899. Page 321

  • ^ Gyula Pauler, A Magyar Nemzet Története: Az Árpádházi Királyok Alatt, Vol. 2., Athenaeum, 1899. Page 531

  • ^ Mór Wertner, Az Árpádok Családi Története, Pleitz Fer. Pál könyvnyomdája, 1892. Page 606
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Bela IV ÁRPÁD(házi), King of Hungary's Timeline

1206
November 29, 1206
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1210
1210
Age 3
[alternate birth date]
1220
1220
Age 13
1224
March 5, 1224
Age 17
Esztergom, Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary
1226
1226
Age 19
Buda, Pest, Hungary
1229
1229
Age 22
Buda, Pest, Hungary
1236
1236
Age 29
1237
1237
Age 30
1239
October 18, 1239
Age 32
Buda, Pest, Hungary
1242
January 27, 1242
Age 35
Klissza - Klis, Hungary (now Croatia)