Bernard I, duc de Septimanie

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Bernat I de Septimània, duc de Septimània

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Autun, Saone-et-Loire, Burgundy, France
Death: Died in Aix La Chapelle, Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
Cause of death: Executed by Charles the Bald for infidelity
Immediate Family:

Son of St. William of Gellone, count of Toulouse and Guibour von Hornbach
Husband of Dhuoda, comtesse consort de Toulouse
Father of Guillaume de Septimanie, comte d'Agen; Bernard II Plantevelue, comte d'Auvergne and Rogelinde
Brother of Bertha de Toulouse, Queen of Italy; Rotlinde de Toulouse; Gaucelme, comte du Roussillon; Théodoric IV, comte d'Autun; Garnier de Toulouse and 1 other
Half brother of Ingeltrude Königin von Italien; Héribert of Toulouse; Gerberge de Toulouse; Guicaire de Toulouse; Hildehelm de Toulouse and 1 other

Occupation: Comte de Toulouse et d'Autun, Comte, de Toulouse, d'Autun, Marquis, de Septimanie, Chambellan, de Louis le Pieux, Conde de Auvernia y Lieugarda, d'Auvergne, Count of Barcelona, de Razès, Duc de Septimanie, Comte de Gothie et du Palais, Duc
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Bernard I, duc de Septimanie

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Bernarddiedafter844B

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_of_Septimania

Bernard of Septimania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bernard (or Bernat) of Septimania (795–844), son of William of Gellone, was the Frankish Duke of Septimania and Count of Barcelona from 826 to 832 and again from 835 to his execution. He was also count of Carcassonne from 837. He was appointed to succeed his fellow Frank Rampon. During his career, he was one of the closest counsellors of the Emperor Louis the Pious, a leading proponent of the war against the Moors, and opponent of the interests of the local Visigothic nobility.

Title

Bernard was indisputably a count (comes) of Barcelona and several other counties over the course of his long career. He also appears in the chronicles with the title duke (dux), though the extent to which this was a military designation is obscure.[1] He is sometimes retrospectively referred to by historians as a margrave (marchio). Here are his name and title as they appear in several primary sources:

   * Bernhardus comes Barcinonensis[2] ("Bernard, Count of Barcelona")
   * duce Bernhardo[3] ("Duke Bernard")
   * præfatus Bernardus[4] ("Prefect Bernard")
   * Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem[5] ("Bernard, Duke of Barcelona")
   * Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ[4] ("Bernard, Count of the Hispanic March")
   * Bernardo comiti Tolosano[6] ("Bernard, Count of Toulouse")

Count of Barcelona

Bernard is first attested in historical records as one of four sons in a document of his father's dating to 14 December 804 dealing with the foundation of the monastery of Gellone.[7]

Bernard must have inherited land in the area around Toulouse from which he expanded his power to become count around 826. He first attracted the attention of higher-ups by quelling the local revolt of a nobleman named Aisso, who was perhaps a Gothic lieutenant of the deposed Bera, Count of Barcelona.[8] The garrisons of the castles in the area, who had been favorable to Bera, joined Aisso in a revolt against the new count. Only the castle of Roda de Ter, in the county of Ausona, resisted and was subsequently destroyed by Aisso. From his newly-occupied territory, Aisso attacked the county of Cerdanya and the region of the Vallès. The young count Bernard requested and received some help from the Emperor, as well as that of some local hispani (probably Gothic noblemen). To counter these reinforcements, Aiss sent his brother to request help from Abd ar-Rahman II, Emir of Córdoba, the only potential ally powerful enough to threaten the Franks. Abd ar-Rahman sent the general Ubayd Allah Abu Marwan to Zaragoza in May 827, from whence he invaded the territory of Barcelona, reaching the city itself in the summer. He besieged it and ransacked its environs, but failed to take it.

When the Emperor learned of these raids, he ordered his second son, Pepin, then King of Aquitaine, and the counts Hugh of Tours and Matfrid of Orléans to recruite an army against the Muslims, but recruitment was slow. By the time the army arrived, Abu Marwan had already returned to Muslim territory, taking Aisso and his followers with him (late 827).

This reprieve, seen as a victory, greatly increased Bernard's prestige. Though the ravaged county of Ausona, a dependency of Barcelona, remained depopulated into the mid-ninth century, its ruin was attributed to the late arrival of Hugh and Matfird. Both counts were dispossessed of their counties at the Assembly of Aachen in 828. At that assembly, Orléans was granted to Odo and Bernard's brother Gaucelm received the fiefs of Conflent and Rasez. As Leibulf of Provence had died in the spring, his vast dominions — Narbonne, Béziers, Agde, Melgueil, Nîmes, and probably Uzès — were assigned to Bernard. From this wide collection of honores in Septimania, Bernard took the title "Duke of Septimania". In another assembly, at Ingelheim in June, a reprisal raid into Cordoban territory was considered, but although an army was gathered in Thionville, it did not enter the lands controlled by Bernard as the risk of Muslim raiding seemed to have declined.

Court career

In August 829, the Emperor sent his son Lothair to Pavia to wear the Iron Crown. Louis summoned Bernard to replace his son at court, with granting him the title of camerarius or Chamberlain and the custody of the young Charles, then just Duke of Alsace, Alemannia, and Rhaetia, but later destined to be King of West Francia. Bernard delegated the government of his counties to his brother Gaucelm, who thereupon took the title marchio or margrave.

After only a few months at court, Bernard had made many enemies. Indeed, he was the prime catalyst for the revolt of Lothair the following year.[9] Thegan of Trier, in his Gesta Hludowici, recorded that he was accused of having an illicit relationship with Empress, Judith of Bavaria, but considered these rumours to be lies. Nevertheless, these rumours provoked a riot in the army gathered at Rennes to fight the Bretons in April 830. His life under threat, as the three elder children of Louis supported the opposition against him, Bernard abandoned the court and, according to the Annales Bertiniani, returned to Barcelona. His brother, Eribert, who had remained at court, was banished. Bernard was deprived of the county of Autun which he had sometime before been granted.

At an assembly in Nijmegen in October 830, the Emperor recovered his authority after a brief civil war with his sons. Subsequently in another assembly, at Aachen in February 831, he proceeded to a divide the Empire, giving Gothia to Charles, although the division would not be effective until his death. Bernard attempted to regain favour with Judith and Charles, but they avoided renewing relations with him after his fall from grace. At the Assembly of Thionville, October 831, Bernard spoke personally with the Emperor, but could not regain his previous position at court. In response, Bernard reversed his previous loyalties and side with the Emperor's enemies.

Civil war of 831–832

In November 831, Pepin of Aquitaine revolted against his father. While Berengar the Wise, Count of Toulouse, advised him against such a course of action, Bernard encouraged it. In early 832, Louis the Pious began the campaign against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, invaded the Bernard's honores and took Roussillon (with Vallespir) and probably also Rasez and Conflent. By 2 February, Berenguer was already in Elna.

Finally in the autumn, the successive victories of the imperial forces compelled Pepin and Bernard to appear before the Emperor in October. Pepin was dispossessed of his kingdom and sent as prisoner to Trier, having ceded all his territories to his half-brother Charles. Bernard was accused of infidelity and dismissed from all his offices and dispossessed of all his honores in Septimania and Gothia, which were given to Berengar. His brother Gaucelm was probably also dispossessed, but for a time he remained in possession of the County of Empúries, ignoring his dismissal.

Civil war of 833–834

In 833, however, Lothair revolted. Pepin, with Bernard and Gaucelm, remained loyal to Louis and, after defeating Lothair's forces, and returning the emperor to power on 1 March 834, Bernard requested the return of his honores, citing the loss of men he had sustained for the emperor's cause. However, Berengar was still in legal possession. The Emperor hesitated over his decision, but, in June 835, he summoned Bernard and Berengar to an Assembly in Cremieux, near Lyon, where he would deliver a verdict. Berengar died unexpectedly on the way and, freed of obstacles, the Emperor gave Septimania and its counties and that of Toulouse to Bernard. The only territories not returned were Empúries and Roussillon, which had already been granted to Sunyer I and Alaric respectively, and Urgell and Cerdanya, which had been detached from Toulouse by the usurper Aznar I Galíndez. Sunifred, brother of Oliba of Carcasonne, was assigned to expel him.

Bernard returned to his domain, where the Goth population that had supported Bera and then Berengar, still opposed him. Ten complaints were presented against him at the Assembly of Quierzy-sur-Oise in September 838. From 841, he was often absent participating in the struggles of the Empire, and the counties were administered by their respective viscounts.

Reign of Charles the Bald

Bernard avoided participating in the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye (25 June 841), where Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated their brother Lothair, who retreated to the south with his army. Bernard remained outside the battle awaiting its result, upon which he sent his son William to offer homage to Charles the Bald and to promise him that his father would obtain the submission of Pepin II, the rebellious son of Pepin, who was claiming to rule Aquitaine. It seems that Bernard had no intention of keeping this last promise.

During Charles the Bald's campaign in Aquitaine (842), he decided to punish Bernard, dispossessing him of the county of Toulouse in favor of Acfred (July). Bernard, however, refused to accept the decision and revolted, openly allying himself to Pepin II and expelling Acfred from Toulouse (843). Charles responded by sending the dux Guerin of Provence, who in 842 directed the campaign in Aquitaine, against Septimania. Various other events — renewed Viking invasions and Breton raids — compelled an end to the internal civil struggles afflicting the Empire and, in August 843, the Treaty of Verdun was signed between the three brothers, Charles, Louis, and Lothair. Septimania and Gothia were left in the hands of Charles the Bald. The county of Uzès, where Bernat still possessed estates was assigned to Lothair. Furthermore, the county of Autun, which had long been lost to Bernard, and to which his son was renewed a claim, was given to Guerin.

In 844, Charles the Bald returned to Aquitaine with the objective of forcing Pepin II to submit and conquering Toulouse. Bernard of Septimania was captured, either by the royal forces during the assault on Toulouse or, according to French historian Pierre Andoque, the year before by the Guerin in Uzès. Andoque maintains that in 844 he was merely brought before Charles during his campaign through Aquitaine. One way or the other, in May 844 Bernard was presented to Charles, who ordered his execution.

The following month, Pepin II and Bernard's son William dealt a severe blow to Charles in the Angoumois on 14 June. Bernard's honores were given to Sunifred, who had been tasked previously with subduing Aznar in the Aragon.

Bernard married Dhuoda, (Dhuoda Sanchez) possible daughter of Sancho I of Gascony, (Sancho Loupez) on 29 June 824 in Aachen. By her he had two sons, the aforementioend William and another named Bernard Plantapilosa.

Notes

  1. ^ Archibald R. Lewis, "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550-751" Speculum 51.3 (July 1976), pp. 381-410 offers some disambiguation of these Frankish titles.
  2. ^ Annales Fuldenses (Gesta quorundam regum Francorum) s.a. AD 829 (entry ascribed to Einhard), p. 360.
  3. ^ Thegan, p 597.
  4. ^ a b Annales Bertiniani.
  5. ^ Annales Fuldenses s.a. AD 844 (entry ascribed to Rudolf of Fulda), pp. 364.
  6. ^ Flodoard, p 338.
  7. ^ Thomassy, p 179. There are two extant versions of this charter and one is dated to 15 December and does not mention Bernard.
  8. ^ Others hypothesise that the name "Aisso" is a corruption of the Arabic Aysun, which was the name of the son of Sulayman al-Arabi, formerly imprisoned in Aachen, but who had escaped from captivity to the Hispanic March and established himself in the region of Vic.
  9. ^ Hummer, p 161.

Sources

   * Lewis, Archibald R. The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050. University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965.
   * Thomassy, R. "Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert," Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Series 1, Volume II (Paris, 1840–1844).
   * Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600 – 1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005.
   * Flodoard. Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ'. III, XXVI, MGH SS XXXVI.
   * Thegan of Trier. Gesta Hludowici. 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.
   * Annales Xantenses. MGH SS II, p. 227.
   * Annales Fuldenses (Gesta quorundam regum Francorum), ed. G.H. Pertz, Annales et chronica aevi Carolini. MGH Scriptores 1. Hanover, 1826. 337-415.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernat_of_Septimania

Bernard of Septimania

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Bernat of Septimania)

Bernard or Bernat of Septimania (795 – 844), son of William of Gellone, was the Frankish Duke of Septimania and Count of Barcelona from 826 to 832 and again from 835 to his execution. He was appointed to succeed his fellow Frank Rampon. During his career, he was one of the closest counsellors of the Emperor Louis the Pious, a leading proponent of the war against the Moors, and opponent of the interests of the local Visigothic nobility.Contents [hide]

1 Title

2 Count of Barcelona

3 Court career

4 Civil war of 831–832

5 Civil war of 833–834

6 Reign of Charles the Bald

7 Notes

8 Sources

[edit]

Title


Bernard's lands at their height in area.

Bernard was indisputably a count (comes) of Barcelona and several other counties over the course of his long career. He was also appears in the chronicles with the title duke (dux), though the extent to which this was a military designation is obscure.[1] He is sometimes retrospectively referred to by historians as a margrave (marchio). Here are his name and title as they appear in several primary sources:

Barnhardus comes Barcinonensis[2] ("Bernard, Count of Barcelona")

duce Bernhardo[3] ("Duke Bernard")

præfatus Bernardus[4] ("Prefect Bernard")

Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem[5] ("Bernard, Duke of Barcelona")

Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ[6] ("Bernard, Count of the Hispanic March")

Bernardo comiti Tolosano[7] ("Bernard, Count of Toulouse")

[edit]

Count of Barcelona

Bernard is first attested in historical records as one of four sons in a document of his father's dating to 14 December 804 dealing with the foundation of the monastery of Gellone.[8]

Bernard must have inherited land in the area around Toulouse from which he expanded his power to become count around 826. He first attracted the attention of higher-ups by quelling the local revolt of a nobleman named Aisso, who was perhaps a Gothic lieutenant of the deposed Bera, Count of Barcelona.[9] The garrisons of the castles in the area, who had been favorable to Bera, joined Aisso in a revolt against the new count. Only the castle of Roda de Ter, in the county of Ausona, resisted and was subsequently destroyed by Aisso. From his newly-occupied territory, Aisso attacked the county of Cerdanya and the region of the Vallès. The young count Bernard requested and received some help from the Emperor, as well as that of some local hispani (probably Gothic noblemen). To counter these reinforcements, Aiss sent his brother to request help from Abd ar-Rahman II, Emir of Córdoba, the only potential ally powerful enough to threaten the Franks. Abd ar-Rahman sent the general Ubayd Allah Abu Marwan to Zaragoza in May 827, from whence he invaded the territory of Barcelona, reaching the city itself in the summer. He besieged it and ransacked its environs, but failed to take it.

When the Emperor learned of these raids, he ordered his second son, Pepin, then King of Aquitaine, and the counts Hugh of Tours and Matfrid of Orléans to recruite an army against the Muslims, but recruitment was slow. By the time the army arrived, Abu Marwan had already returned to Muslim territory, taking Aisso and his followers with him (late 827).

This reprieve, seen as a victory, greatly increased Bernard's prestige. Though the ravaged county of Ausona, a dependency of Barcelona, remained depopulated into the mid-ninth century, its ruin was attributed to the late arrival of Hugh and Matfird. Both counts were dispossessed of their counties at the Assembly of Aachen in 828. At that assembly, Orléans was granted to Odo and Bernard's brother Gaucelm received the fiefs of Conflent and Rasez. As Leibulf of Provence had died in the spring, his vast dominions — Narbonne, Béziers, Agde, Melgueil, Nîmes, and probably Uzès — were assigned to Bernard. From this wide collection of honores in Septimania, Bernard took the title "Duke of Septimania". In another assembly, at Ingelheim in June, a reprisal raid into Cordoban territory was considered, but although an army was gathered in Thionville, it did not enter the lands controlled by Bernard as the risk of Muslim raiding seemed to have declined.

[edit]

Court career

In August 829, the Emperor sent his son Lothair to Pavia to wear the Iron Crown. Louis summoned Bernard to replace his son at court, with granting him the title of camerarius or chamberlain and the custody of the young Charles, then just Duke of Alsace, Alemannia, and Rhaetia, but later destined to be King of West Francia. Bernard delegated the government of his counties to his brother Gaucelm, who thereupon took the title marchio or margrave.

After only a few months at court, Bernard had made many enemies. Indeed, he was the prime catalyst for the revolt of Lothair the following year.[10] Thegan of Trier, in his Gesta Hludowici, recorded that he was accused of having an illicit relationship with Empress, Judith of Bavaria, but considered these rumours to be lies. Nevertheless, these rumours provoked a riot in the army gathered at Rennes to fight the Bretons in April 830. His life under threat, as the three elder children of Louis supported the opposition against him, Bernard abandoned the court and, according to the Annales Bertiniani, returned to Barcelona. His brother, Eribert, who had remained at court, was banished. Bernard was deprived of the county of Autun which he had sometime before been granted.

At an assembly in Nijmegen in October 830, the Emperor recovered his authority after a brief civil war with his sons. Subsequently in another assembly, at Aachen in February 831, he proceeded to a divide the Empire, giving Gothia to Charles, although the division would not be effective until his death. Bernard attempted to regain favour with Judith and Charles, but they avoided renewing relations with the him after his fall from grace. At the Assembly of Thionville, October 831, Bernard spoke personally with the Emperor, but could not regain his previous position at court. In response, Bernard reversed his previous loyalties and side with the Emperor's enemies.

[edit]

Civil war of 831–832

In November 831, Pepin of Aquitaine revolted against his father. While Berengar the Wise, Count of Toulouse, advised him against such a course of action, Bernard encouraged it. In early 832, Louis the Pious began the campaign against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, invaded the Bernard's honores and took Roussillon (with Vallespir) and probably also Rasez and Conflent. By 2 February, Berenguer was already in Elna.

Finally in the autumn, the successive victories of the imperial forces compelled Pepin and Bernard to appear before the Emperor in October. Pepin was dispossessed of his kingdom and sent as prisoner to Trier, having ceded all his territories to his half-brother Charles. Bernard was accused of infidelity and dismissed from all his offices and dispossessed of all his honores in Septimania and Gothia, which were given to Berengar. His brother Gaucelm was probably also dispossessed, but for a time he remained in possession of the County of Empúries, ignoring his dismissal.

[edit]

Civil war of 833–834

In 833, however, Lothair revolted. Pepin, with Bernard and Gaucelm, remained loyal to Louis and, after defeating Lothair's forces, and returning the emperor to power on 1 March 834, Bernard requested the return of his honores, citing the loss of men he had sustained for the emperor's cause. However, Berengar was still in legal possession. The Emperor hesitated over his decision, but, in June 835, he summoned Bernard and Berengar to an Assembly in Cremieux, near Lyon, where he would deliver a verdict. Berengar died unexpectedly on the way and, freed of obstacles, the Emperor gave Septimania and its counties and that of Toulouse to Bernard. The only territories not returned were Empúries and Roussillon, which had already been granted to Sunyer I and Alaric respectively, and Urgell and Cerdanya, which had been detached from Toulouse by the usurper Aznar I Galíndez. Sunifred, brother of Oliba of Carcasonne, was assigned to expel him.

Bernard returned to his domain, where the Goth population that had supported Bera and then Berengar, still opposed him. Ten complaints were presented against him at the Assembly of Quierzy-sur-Oise in September 838. From 841, he was often absent participating in the struggles of the Empire, and the counties were administered by their respective viscounts.

[edit]

Reign of Charles the Bald

Bernard avoided participating in the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye (25 June 841), where Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated their brother Lothair, who retreated to the south with his army. Bernard remained outside the battle awaiting its result, upon which he sent his son William to offer homage to Charles the Bald and to promise him that his father would obtain the submission of Pepin II, the rebellious son of Pepin, who was claiming to rule Aquitaine. It seems that Bernard had no intention of keeping this last promise.

During Charles the Bald's campaign in Aquitaine (842), he decided to punish Bernard, dispossessing him of the county of Toulouse in favor of Acfred (July). Bernard, however, refused to accept the decision and revolted, openly allying himself to Pepin II and expelling Acfred from Toulouse (843). Charles responded by sending the dux Guerin of Provence, who in 842 directed the campaign in Aquitaine, against Septimania. Various other events — renewed Viking invasions and Breton raids — compelled an end to the internal civil struggles afflicting the Empire and, in August 843, the Treaty of Verdun was signed between the three brothers, Charles, Louis, and Lothair. Septimania and Gothia were left in the hands of Charles the Bald. The county of Uzès, where Bernat still possessed estates was assigned to Lothair. Furthermore, the county of Autun, which had long been lost to Bernard, and to which his son was renewed a claim, was given to Guerin.

In 844, Charles the Bald returned to Aquitaine with the objective of forcing Pepin II to submit and conquering Toulouse. Bernard of Septimania was captured, either by the royal forces during the assault on Toulouse or, according to French historian Pierre Andoque, the year before by the Guerin in Uzès. Andoque maintains that in 844 he was merely brought before Charles during his campaign through Aquitaine. One way or the other, in May 844 Bernard was presented to Charles, who ordered his execution.

The following month, Pepin II and Bernard's son William dealt a severe blow to Charles in the Angoumois on 14 June. Bernard's honores were given to Sunifred, who had been tasked previously with subduing Aznar in the Aragon.

Bernard married Dhuoda, (Dhuoda Sanchez) possible daughter of Sancho I of Gascony, (Sancho Loupez) on 29 June 824 in Aachen. By her he had two sons, the aforementioend William and another named Bernard Plantapilosa.

[edit]

Notes

^ Archibald R. Lewis, "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550-751" Speculum 51.3 (July 1976), pp. 381-410 offers some disambiguation of these Frankish titles.

^ Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, p. 360.

^ Thegan, p 597.

^ Annales Bertiniani.

^ Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, pp 361 and 362.

^ Annales Bertiniani.

^ Flodoard, p 338.

^ Thomassy, p 179. There are two extant versions of this charter and one is dated to 15 December and does not mention Bernard.

^ Others hypothesise that the name "Aisso" is a corruption of the Arabic Aysun, which was the name of the son of Sulayman al-Arabi, formerly imprisoned in Aachen, but who had escaped from captivity to the Hispanic March and established himself in the region of Vic.

^ Hummer, p 161.

[edit]

Sources

Lewis, Archibald R. The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050. University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965.

Thomassy, R. "Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert," Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Series 1, Volume II (Paris, 1840–1844).

Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600 – 1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005.

Flodoard of Rheims. Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ'. III, XXVI, MGH SS XXXVI.

Thegan of Trier. Gesta Hludowici. 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.

Annales Xantenses. MGH SS II, p. 227.

Gesta quorundam regum Francorum. MGH SS I.Preceded by

Rampon Count of Barcelona

826 – 832 Succeeded by

Berengar

Preceded by

Berengar Count of Barcelona

835 – 844 Succeeded by

Sunifred I

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Bernard I Count of Autun, Margrave Septimania 1 2

Born: BEF 804 in Autun, Saone-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France 1

Died: 844 in Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, Midi-Pyrenees, France (executed) 1 2

Father: William I Count of Toulouse, Saint b: ABT 751 in Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, Midi-Pyrenees, France

Mother: Kunigunde (Auberge) b: ABT 775 in France

Marriage 1 Dhuoda of Gascony, Countess of Agen & Septimania b: ABT 804 in Gascony, France

Married: 29 JUN 824 in Aix-la-Chapelle, Aachen, Germany 1

Children:

William b: 826 d: 849

Rosalinda (Sancha) of Toulouse b: ABT 825 in Toulouse, Haute-Garonne, Midi-Pyrenees, France

Aton Trencavel, Vicomte de Rouergue b: ABT 830 in Sauveterre de Rouergue, Languedoc, France

Bernard II Plantevelue Comte d'Auvergne b: 22 MAR 840/41 in Uzes, Languedoc, France

Notes [PJ]

Bernard or Bernat of Septimania was Count of Barcelona from 826 to 832 and again from 835 to 844. He was the appointed successor of the Frankish Rampó, Count of Barcelona, a leading proponent of war against the Muslims, and opposed to the interests of the local Visigothic nobility.

Bernat established his grip on power from the start by quelling a local revolt. A noble called Aissó, who was perhaps a Gothic lieutenant of the ex-count Berà, or was perhaps an Arab (Aysun) son of Sulayman al-Arabi, formerly confined in Aachen, escaped from captivity to the Hispanic March, and established himself in the region of Vic. The garrisons of the castles of the neighborhood, who had been favorable to Berà, joined Aissó in a revolt against the new count, Bernat. Only the castle of Roda de Ter, in the county of Ausona, resisted and was subsequently destroyed by Aissó, even though they were recruited by some Muslim supporters of the Frankish peace. From the central zone that he now occupied, Aissó attacked the county of Cerdagne and the region of the Vallés. The young count Bernat, not yet thirty years old, requested and received some help from the Emperor, as well as that of some noble local Goths or hispani (826).

To counter these reinforcements, Aissó sent his brother to request help from Abd al-Rahman II, the Emir of Córdoba and the only available power to successfully oppose the Franks. Abd al-Rahman sent the general Ubayd Allah, known also as Abu Marwan, who arrived in Zaragoza in May 827, and then invaded the territory of the county of Barcelona. He reached Barcelona in the summer, besieging it, but without success, and ransacking its surroundings.

The Emperor Louis I the Pious, meanwhile, learning of the Muslim raid, ordered his son Pepin I, king in Aquitaine and the counts Hugo of Tours and Matfred of Orleans to recruit an army against the Muslims, but recruitment was slow. By the time the army arrived, Abu Marwan had already returned to Muslim territory, together with Aissó and his followers (827). Aissó was probably sheltered in Córdoba, where afterwards, suspected of conspiracy, he was murdered by order of the Emir.

The reprieve, seen as a victory, greatly increased Bernat's prestige. Though the ravaged county of Ausona, a dependency of Barcelona, remained depopulated into the mid-9th century, its ruin was attributed to the late arrival of Hugo of Tours and Matfred of Orleans. Both counts were dispossessed of their counties in the Assembly of Aachen (828): Orléans was granted to Eudes, father of Bernat and Bernat's brother Gaucelm received the fiefs of Conflent and Rasez. As the count Leibulf of Narbonne had expired in the spring of 828, his vast dominions were assigned to Bernat: Narbonne, Beziers, Agde, Melgueil, Nimes and probably Uzes. Because of his possessions, he was known as Bernat, Duke of Septimania\\ (or simply Bernat of Septimania).

In the Assembly of Ingelheim June 828, a reprisal raid to Cordoban territory was considered, but though an army was gathered in Thionville, it did not arrive to enter the domains of Bernat upon disappearing the Muslim threat, whose leaders were seeming have resigned to a new assault.

In August 829 the Emperor sent his son Lothar to Pavia, with the title of King of Italy. To replace him at court, Louis summoned Bernat of Septimania, with the title of camerarius, having the custody of the child Charles (one day to become Charles the Bald). Bernat delegated the government of his counties to his brother Gaucelm, who therefupon was called "marquis".

After only a few months at court, Bernat had made many enemies and was rumoured to be carrying on an illicit relationship with Louis' Empress, Judith of Bavaria. These rumors provoked a riot in the army gathered at Rennes to combat the Bretons in April 830. Threatened seriously, since the three greater children of Louis were supporting the opposition to him, Bernat abandoned the court and returned to his domains of Septimania and Gothia. A brother of Bernat who remained at court, Eribert, was banished.

In the struggles among the Carolingian heirs, for a time Lothar triumphed over father Louis I, but Louis recovered his power at the Assembly of Nijmegen in October 830 and, at the Assembly of Aachen in February 831, proceeded to a division of the Empire by which Gothia was assigned to Charles the Bald, though the division would not be effective until the death of Louis the Pious. Bernat attempted to regain favour with Judith and Charles, but these, after the previous events, avoided renewing relations with the marquis. At the Assembly of Thionville, October 831, Bernat succeeded in speaking personally with the Emperor, but could not recover his previous position at court. As a result, Bernat switched his loyalties.

In November 831, Pepin of Aquitaine revolted against his father. His counselor Berenguer, count of Toulouse from 814 and counselor of Pepin from 816, advised him against revolt, but Bernat of Septimania urged him to it. In early 832 Louis the Pious began the campaign against his rebellious son. Berenguer, loyal to the Emperor, invaded the domains of Bernat and was given some of them, with safety of Roussillon (with Vallespir), probably also Rasez and Conflent. By February 2, 832 Berenguer already was in Elna. Finally in autumn of the same year, successive victories of the imperial forces compelled Pepin and Bernat to appear before the Emperor (October). Pepin was dispossessed of his kingdom and sent as prisoner to Trier, having conceded his territories to his brother Charles. Bernat was accused of infidelity and dismissed of all his possessions in Septimania and Gothia, which were delivered to Berenguer of Toulouse.

Probably Gaucelm was also dispossessed of his counties, but for a time he preserved the county of Empúries, ignoring his dismissal. Finally in the year 833, by the mediation of Angenís the abbot of Fontanelle, he resigned and departed toward properties of the family in Burgundy, together with his staunch lieutenant Sanila. Gaucelm and Sanila were executed by have defended Chalon-sur-Saône against the assault of Lothar in 834 (even it was murdered a nun, Gerberga, sister of Gaucelm and Bernat). In this last war, where Lothar was defeated, Bernat and Gaucelm fought once again on the side of Pepin of Aquitaine, one of those which finally left victorious. Bernat of Septimania, alleging the high price of blood paid in the struggle, claimed the return of his old domains. Berenguer was in possession of them legally, however, and his party also left winning of the struggle, though weakened. The Emperor hesitated in his action; in June 835 he summoned to Bernat and Berenguer to an Assembly in Cremieux, near Lyon, where he would deliver a decision, but on the way Berenguer died unexpectedly. Freed of obstacles, the Emperor returned Berenguer's counties of Septimania, Gothia and Toulouse once again to Bernat. The only territories lacking in recreating his former possessions were Empúries and Roussillon, which had already been passed to the counts Sunyer I of Empúries and Alaric, and Urgell and Cerdagne, which had been separated from Toulouse by the usurper Aznar I Galíndez and to expel him had been assigned to Sunifred brother of the count Oliba of Carcasonne.

Bernat returned to acting without taking into special account the desires of the population of Gothic origin that before had supported first Berà and then Berenguer. Ten of complaint were presented against him in the Assembly of Quierzy-sur-Oise in September 838. From 841 was often absent participating in the struggles of the Empire, and the counties were administered by their respective viscounts.

At the battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye (June 25, 841) Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated their brother Lothar, who however retreated to the south with his army. Bernat stayed in the surroundings of the battlefield, awaiting its result, and upon finishing, sending to his son Guillem to offer homage to Charles the Bald, and to promise him that his father would obtain the submission of Pippin II of Aquitania (something that he had no intention of accomplishing). During the campaign of Charles the Bald in Aquitania of the year 842, he decided to punish Bernat, dispossessing him of the county of Toulouse in favor of the count Acfred (July 842), but Bernat refused to accept the decision and revolted, openly allying himself to Pepin II, and expelling Acfred from Toulouse (843). The count (ducem) Guerín of Provence, who in 842 directed the campaign in Aquitania, happened to combat in Septimania. Various external facts (the Norman invasion, the Breton revolt) compelled a cease to the civil struggles, and in August 843 was signed the Treaty of Verdun that distributed the Empire, leaving Septimania and Gothia in the lot of Charles the Bald, save the county of Uzès, where Bernat possessed patrimonial goods; Uzès was assigned to Lothar. Furthermore the county of Autun, claimed by Guillem, son of Bernat, was entrusted to Guerín, rival of Bernat.

In 844 Charles the Bald returned to Aquitania with the objective of submitting to Pippin II and to conquer Toulouse. It seems that in a lucky blow, Bernat of Septimania was captured by the imperial forces, perhaps during the assault on Toulouse. A French historian, Pierre Andoque, maintains that Bernat was captured before the year 843 by the duke Guerín in Uzès, and that in 844 he was carried before Charles during his travel to Aquitania. One way or the other, in May 844 Bernat was presented to Charles, who ordered his execution.

The following month, Pepin II and Guillem, son of Bernat, dealt a severe rout to Charles in Angoumois June 14, 844, and thus the followers of Bernat were not totally eliminated. Wikipedia - Bernat of Septimania

Notes [JW]

Count of Autun, Margrave of Septimania, Chamberlain of Louis "the Pious".

Sources:

Title: Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com

Page: Alan B Wilson, 12 Jun 1998

Title: The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968

Page: 10 -------------------- Mr. Mr. Bernard of The Franks-78314 [Parents] was born about 774. He died about 821. He married Mrs. Mrs. Bernard-75997.

   Other marriages:
       Bernard, Mrs.

Mrs. Mrs. Bernard-75997.Mrs. married Mr. Mr. Bernard of The Franks-78314.

They had the following children:

     		F 	i 	Thietrade Franks-79217.

-------------------- Bernard "Naso" - Solomon (Prince) NASI - ([795]-executed Toulouse Saint-Sernin [Jan/Jun] 844). "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Bernard being named in only one of the versions[140]. Flodoard refers to "Bernardo comiti Tolosano, propinquo suo [Teodulfo comite]"[141]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[142]. He was installed as Comte de Barcelona in 827 or before: Einhard's Annalesname "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[143]. It is not certain whether this means that the "March of Spain" was at that time part of the marquisate of Septimania. It is possible that Bernard was appointed to Barcelona after the disgrace of Bero in 820, but no primary source has been identified which confirms that this is correct. Comte d'Autun until 830. Marquis of Septimania until 831. The Gesta Francorum records that "Barnhardus comes Barcinonensis" was made camerarius in the palace in 829[144]. The AnnalesBertiniani record that "præfatus Bernardus" fled to Barcelona in 830[145]. The Gesta Francorum records that "Karolus" killed "Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem" in 844 "incautem et nihil ab eo suspicantem"[146]. Emperor Louis I appointed "Bernard Duke of Septimania" his chamberlain and entrusted his son Charles to him, but he "recklessly abused the imperial power…and undermined it entirely". He was banished to Septimania in [Apr 830] by the emperor's sons who rebelled against their father[147]. In Burgundy in 834, dispossessed 844. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ" was sentenced to death in 844[148]. The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus comes" was killed "a Karolo" in 844, after which "filio Bernhardi" and "Pippinus rex Aquitainiæ, filius Pippini" defeated the king's army[149].

----------------------------------------------------------------- BERNARD, son of GUILLAUME Comte de Toulouse, Marquis de Septimanie & his first wife Cunigundis --- ([795]-executed Toulouse Saint-Sernin [Jan/Jun] 844). The Vita S. Willelmi names “Bernardo…et Gaucelino” as sons of Guillaume[406]. "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Bernard being named in only one of the versions[407]. Flodoard refers to "Bernardo comiti Tolosano, propinquo suo [Teodulfo comite]"[408]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[409]. Comte d'Autun until 830. Marquis de Septimanie until 831. He was installed as Count of Barcelona in 827 or before: Einhard's Annales name "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[410]. It is not certain whether this means that the "March of Spain" was at that time part of the marquisate of Septimania. It is possible that Bernard was appointed to Barcelona after the disgrace of Bero in 820, but no primary source has been identified which confirms that this is correct. Einhard's Annales name "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[411]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Barnhardus comes Barcinonensis" was made camerarius in the palace in 829[412]. Emperor Louis I appointed "Bernard Duke of Septimania" as his chamberlain and entrusted his son Charles to him, but he "recklessly abused the imperial power…and undermined it entirely". He was banished to Septimania in [Apr 830] by the emperor's sons who rebelled against their father[413]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "præfatus Bernardus" fled to Barcelona in 830[414]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bernhardus" fled into exile in Spain and was deprived of his honours [in 831][415]. The same source records that "Werinus et Bernhardus comites" gathered a force in Burgundy and reached "Matronam fluvium" [in 834][416]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ" was sentenced to death in 844[417]. The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus comes" was killed "a Karolo" in 844, after which "filio Bernhardi" and "Pippinus rex Aquitainiæ, filius Pippini" defeated the king's army[418]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Karolus" killed "Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem" in 844 "incautem et nihil ab eo suspicantem"[419]. m (Aix-la-Chapelle 24 Jun 824) DHUODA [Doda], daughter of --- (-after 2 Feb 843). The Manual of Dhuoda records the marriage "anno XI domino nostro Ludoico VIII Kal Iul" at "Aquisgrani palatio" of Doda and Bernard[420]. The Manual was written in 843 and consists of her instructions to her son. Bernard & his wife had three children: 1. GUILLAUME (29 Nov 826-killed in battle Barcelona 850). The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "in XIII anno regni eius III Kal Dec" of "fili primogenite [Willelme]" of Doda and Bernard[421]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Guilhelmus filius Bernardi" captured "Impurium et Barcinonam" in 848, and captured "Aledramnum et Isembardum comites" in the march of Spain in 850 but was himself captured and killed at Barcelona[422]. The Chronicon Fontanellensis records that "Wilhelmus filius Bernardi Ducis" captured Barcelona and expelled "Aledranno custode illius urbis et limitis Hispanici", dated to [849/50], in a later passage recording that "Wilhelmo invasore urbis Barcinonæ" captured "Isembardus filius Warini et Aledrannus" but that Guillaume was later defeated and killed by "factione Aledranni et quorundam Gothorum"[423]. 2. BERNARD "Plantevelue" (Uzès 22 Mar 841-[20 Jun 885/Aug 886]). The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "XI Kal Apr", in the year following the death of Emperor Louis, at "Uzecia urbes" of the second child [Bernard] of Doda and Bernard[424]. The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[425]. Lay Abbot of Brioude 857/68. Comte d'Autun 864/69, deposed. Comte de Rodez 864/74. Comte d'Auvergne after 872. - DUKES of AQUITAINE. 3. [REGELINDIS ([843/44]-). The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that Vulgrin's wife was "sororem Willelmi Tolosani" and that he held "Aginnum…urbem" through her[426]. The identity of "Willelmi Tolosani" is unclear. The Histoire Générale de Languedoc speculates that he was Guillaume Comte de Bordeaux (who it refers to as comte de Toulouse) and therefore that Regelindis was the daughter of Bernard and his wife Doda[427]. This seems far from certain as this Guillaume, if he was indeed comte de Toulouse, could only have ruled the town briefly. In addition, it seems strange that the relationship with her more illustrious (or notorious) father, Bernard, would not have been used in the source to place the wife of Vulgrin, if she had been the daughter of Bernard. The difficulty is that no other comte de Toulouse named Guillaume has been identified in the mid-9th century. If she was the daughter of Bernard and Doda, she must have been born in [842/44] as the Manual of Dhuoda states that their second son Bernard was his mother's second child[428]. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. m ([860]) VULGRIN [I] Comte d'Angoulême, son of VULFARD [d'Angoulême] & his wife Susanna de Paris (-3 May 886, bur Angoulême Saint-Cybard).]

----------------------------------------------------------------- Bernardo di Settimania

di Ornella Mariani

Il clima politico della Francia dell'IX secolo fu caratterizzato dai nove anni di guerra fratricida fra i figli di Ludovico il Pio alternamente ribelli al padre medesimo che, vedovo, era passato a seconde nozze con Giuditta di Baviera. La nascita di Carlo il Calvo e le pressioni esercitate da costei, aspirante ad un Regno anche per il proprio figlio, rimisero infatti in discussione il già fissato assetto ereditario aprendo un duro fronte di conflittualità successoria.

In quell'aggrovigliato contesto s'inserì l'ambigua figura di Bernardo di Tolosa, discendente di una famiglia di vassalli dei Re carolingi che dal 778 amministrarono una parte del Regno d'Aquitania, restando in carica fino al 1271, quando la Contea fu annessa al Regno di Francia.

Conte di Tolosa e Conte di Autun, egli era nato nell'802 da Guglielmo di Gellone e Guitberga d'Hornbach. Nella gioventù, trascorsa fino all'820 in Gotia, si era distinto per la guerra ingaggiata assieme al fratello Gocelone contro al- Andalus ed in danno del fratellastro Berà, Conte pacifista di Barcellona.

Investito del ruolo di Ciambellano alla Corte di Ludovico il Pio ed infeudato anche del Ducato di Settimania, il 29 giugno dell'824 aveva sposato Dhuoda di Guascogna, figlia del Duca Sancho I Lopez: donna bellissima, colta, dotata di tempra eccezionale e di sensibilità profonda. Dall'unione nacquero due figli: Guglielmo e Bernardo Pianta di Velluto, per il quale ella compose, tra l'841 e l'843, un trattato di educazione intitolato Liber manualis Dhuodane quem ad filium suum transmisit Wilhelmum.

Admonitio erga seniorem tuum exhibenda. Seniorem quem habes Karolum, quando Deus, ut credo, et genitor tuus Bernardus, in tuae incoationis iuventute florigeram vigorem libi ad serviendum elegit, adhuc tene quod est generis ex magno utrumque nobilitatis orto progenie, non ita serviens ut tantum placeas oculis, sed etiam sensui capax, utrumque ad corpus et animam; puram et certam fili in omnibus tene utilitatis fidem... Quamobrem, fili, onor te ut quod tenes, corpore fideliter dum vivis tene et mente... Nunquam aliquando ex infidelitatis vesania improperium ex te exeat malum; non sit ortus nec in corde tuo unquam ascendens ut infidelis tuo seniori existas in ullo... Quod in te tuisque militantibus futurum esse non credo;...Tu ergo, fili Wilhelme, ex illorum progenie ortus, seniori ut praedixi tuo sis verax, vigil, utilisque atque praecipuus; et in omni negotio utilitatis regiae potestati, in quantum tibi Deus dederit vires, intus forisque prudentius te exhiberi satage. (III, 4).

(Comportamento da mantenere verso il tuo signore.

Dio, come credo, e tuo padre Bernardo, nel fiorente vigore dell'inizio della tua gioventù hanno scelto il signore che tu hai ora, Carlo; ricordati ancora che è nato da una grande stirpe ed è di origine nobile da entrambi i lati, e non lo servire in modo tale che piaccia solo all'apparenza, ma anche che coinvolga i tuoi sensi, e tieni il corpo e l'anima pura e preserva la fedeltà a lui in tutte le cose ... Perciò, figlio, ti esorto perché tu mantenga finché vivi la fedeltà con il corpo e con la mente... Mai esca da te un improperio a causa dell'insania dell'infedeltà; il male non nasca neppure nel tuo cuore, al punto da farti essere infedele in qualcosa al tuo signore... cosa che non credo che, avverrà né in te né nei tuoi compagni d'arme... Tu, pertanto, Guglielmo, figlio mio... come ti ho detto sii sincero, vigile, utile e eccellente; e sforzati di esibire, in ogni affare che sia di utilità del potere regio, per quanto Dio ti darà le forze, la massima prudenza dentro e fuori.)

Istigatore dell'Imperatrice, in particolare nella Dieta di Worms ove Ludovico acconsentì a cedere all'ultimo rampollo la corona della Germania del Nord, a revoca di quanto sancito nella Ordinatio Imperii dell'817 con la quale aveva equamente ripartito i beni fra i tre eredi di primo letto, nell'826 Bernardo fu investito della Contea di Barcellona.

Già all'atto del suo insediamento, alcuni Aristocratici goti guidati da Aissò, restato fedele a Berà, insorsero contro di lui e, con l'aiuto dei Musulmani, ne invasero il territorio.

La situazione fu aggravata dalla complessità del scontro: malgrado parte dei Visigoti avesse preso partito per lui, aiutandolo a contenere la spinta dei ribelli, Aissò si appellò all'Emiro di Cordova Abd al- Rahman II ibn al-Hakam che, nel maggio dell'827, pose sotto assedio il territorio di Barcellona. A quel momento di difficoltà, poi risolto con il rincalzo dei Mori capeggiati dal Generale Ubayd Allah, Ludovico il Pio rispose con ritardo impegnando il figlio Pipino ed i Conti di Tours e Orléans quando il Feudatario aveva già debellato i nemici, con quella stessa determinazione che avrebbe applicato a fronte di una nuova insurrezione nell'anno successivo.

Nell'agosto dell'829, il Sovrano lo volle a Corte.

Era già in atto la querelle familiare legata alla successione imperiale, quando Bernardo affidò i feudi al fratello maggiore per assumere l'incarico di sostituire il nuovo Re d'Italia Lotario I nella tutela del minore Carlo il Calvo.

Il compito fu svolto con tale zelante scrupolo, da suscitare antagonismo e rivalità degenerati nell'aperta accusa che egli fosse divenuto l'amante dell'Imperatrice Giuditta.

Impugnata tale pretestuosa circostanza, i tre figli maggiori di Ludovico il Pio nell'830 si coalizzarono e mossero contro il Conte, costringendolo alla fuga ed al rientro nei suoi domìni. Tuttavia, nel giro di pochi mesi, la tensione si ripianò: indifferenti al diverso parere del Consigliere di Palazzo Berengario il Saggio, figlio del Marchese Unroch del Friuli e di Engeltrude di Parigi, nel novembre dell'831 Pipino I d'Aquitania e il fratello Lotario, infatti, insorti contro il padre che tennero prigioniero a Compiègne, furono supportati nella rivolta proprio dal pugnace Bernardo. Epperò, nell'832, l'Imperatore ebbe ragione dei sovversivi e, alla Dieta di Nimega, riacquistato il favore dell'Aristocrazia, li fece arrestare: ai figli espropriò i beni in favore del giovane ultimogenito; poi, fatto porre sotto accusa per alto tradimento il Feudatario, lo esautorò di ogni potere; gli revocò il possesso della Contea di Barcellona; ne attribuì i feudi al fedele Berengario; lo obbligò a tornare nei territori familiari di Borgogna, col fratello Gocelone ed il Luogotenente Sunila.

Ma un nuovo colpo di scena intervenne nell'833, quando ribellatisi nuovamente all'autorità paterna, i turbolenti figli di Ludovico ricorsero alla mediazione di Gregorio IV per escludere definitivamente dall'asse ereditario il fratellastro. L'incontro si tenne in Alsazia e, in quella drammatica circostanza la cui regìa fu gestita da Bernardo, a fronte della defezione di gran parte del suo esercito Ludovico il Pio fu costretto a consegnarsi all'irriducibile Lotario, dal quale fu dichiarato decaduto.

Nell'834, però, le tensioni della irrequieta famiglia si attenuarono ed il fronte delle alleanze subì un ulteriore mutamento: Pipino, questa volta a sostegno del padre, mosse contro le forze congiunte del fratello maggiore e di Bernardo, battendole nell'assedio di Châlon sur Saône.

L'infausto esito della battaglia, le cui responsabilità furono ascritte al Conte, suscitarono una durissima rappresaglia: Lotario, infatti, irrogò la pena di morte in danno di Sunila, di Gocelone e della monaca Gerberga, rispettivamente fiducario, fratello e sorella del suo ambiguo cobelligerante.

L'evento spinse costui ad avvicinarsi al Sovrano e ad esigere, in nome dell'impegno già svolto in suo vantaggio e dell'alto tributo di sangue pagato alla sua causa, il pieno reintegro nei propri diritti. Nell'835, pertanto, deciso a revocarli a Berengario e a restituirli al legittimo titolare, Ludovico convocò un'Assemblea a Lione: il Consigliere, che risentito si accingeva a dar battaglia, si spense durante il viaggio facilitando l'antagonista nel recupero dei propri feudi, cui fu aggiunta la Contea di Tolosa.

Nell'841, maturò un nuovo sodalizio: Lotario fu sconfitto a Fontenoy dalle truppe di Ludovico il Giovane e Carlo il Calvo. Bernardo non perse tempo per ritagliarsi uno spazio nella nuova coalizione ed inviò presso quest'ultimo il figlio Guglielmo garantendogli l'aiuto necessario alla sottomissione di Pipino II Re d'Aquitania, in cambio della Contea di Autun: gli fu genericamente risposto che l'assegnazione sarebbe stata concessa in seguito, in quanto di quella regione era stato già investito il Luogotenente d'Aquitania Garì. Ritenuta la risposta un espediente dilatorio ed un affronto, il Conte replicò con la rottura dei rapporti e, dopo il Trattato di Verdun dell'843, in virtù del quale l'Aquitania, Tolosa e la Settimania venivano assegnate al Regno dei Franchi Occidentali di Carlo, attaccò il territorio nel tentativo di riguadagnarlo a sé.

Catturato, fu decapitato nel maggio dell'844.

In difesa dell'onore familiare e per lavare l'ingiustizia della brutale pena di morte comminata al padre, cui era subentrato nella guida dei feudi, insorse Guglielmo: alleatosi a Pipino II, inflisse una solenne sconfitta a Carlo il Calvo ad Angumois ed occupò Tolosa espropriandola a Fredelone di Roergue.

Era il 14 giugno dell'844.

A quattro anni dalla morte di Ludovico il Pio, la sfuggente esistenza di Bernardo di Tolosa di era conclusa.

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Bernard (or Bernat) of Septimania (795–844), son of William of Gellone, was the Frankish Duke of Septimania and Count of Barcelona from 826 to 832 and again from 835 to his execution. He was also count of Carcassonne from 837. He was appointed to succeed his fellow Frank Rampon. During his career, he was one of the closest counsellors of the Emperor Louis the Pious, a leading proponent of the war against the Moors, and opponent of the interests of the local Visigothic nobility. Contents [hide] 1 Title 2 Count of Barcelona 3 Court career 4 Civil war of 831–832 5 Civil war of 833–834 6 Reign of Charles the Bald 7 Notes 8 Sources [edit]Title

Bernard was indisputably a count (comes) of Barcelona and several other counties over the course of his long career. He also appears in the chronicles with the title duke (dux), though the extent to which this was a military designation is obscure.[1] He is sometimes retrospectively referred to by historians as a margrave (marchio). Here are his name and title as they appear in several primary sources: Bernhardus comes Barcinonensis[2] ("Bernard, Count of Barcelona") duce Bernhardo[3] ("Duke Bernard") præfatus Bernardus[4] ("Prefect Bernard") Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem[5] ("Bernard, Duke of Barcelona") Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ[4] ("Bernard, Count of the Hispanic March") Bernardo comiti Tolosano[6] ("Bernard, Count of Toulouse") [edit]Count of Barcelona

Bernard is first attested in historical records as one of four sons in a document of his father's dating to 14 December 804 dealing with the foundation of the monastery of Gellone.[7] Bernard must have inherited land in the area around Toulouse from which he expanded his power to become count around 826. He first attracted the attention of higher-ups by quelling the local revolt of a nobleman named Aisso, who was perhaps a Gothic lieutenant of the deposed Bera, Count of Barcelona.[8] The garrisons of the castles in the area, who had been favorable to Bera, joined Aisso in a revolt against the new count. Only the castle of Roda de Ter, in the county of Ausona, resisted and was subsequently destroyed by Aisso. From his newly-occupied territory, Aisso attacked the county of Cerdanya and the region of the Vallès. The young count Bernard requested and received some help from the Emperor, as well as that of some local hispani (probably Gothic noblemen). To counter these reinforcements, Aiss sent his brother to request help from Abd ar-Rahman II, Emir of Córdoba, the only potential ally powerful enough to threaten the Franks. Abd ar-Rahman sent the general Ubayd Allah Abu Marwan to Zaragoza in May 827, from whence he invaded the territory of Barcelona, reaching the city itself in the summer. He besieged it and ransacked its environs, but failed to take it. When the Emperor learned of these raids, he ordered his second son, Pepin, then King of Aquitaine, and the counts Hugh of Tours and Matfrid of Orléans to recruite an army against the Muslims, but recruitment was slow. By the time the army arrived, Abu Marwan had already returned to Muslim territory, taking Aisso and his followers with him (late 827). This reprieve, seen as a victory, greatly increased Bernard's prestige. Though the ravaged county of Ausona, a dependency of Barcelona, remained depopulated into the mid-ninth century, its ruin was attributed to the late arrival of Hugh and Matfird. Both counts were dispossessed of their counties at the Assembly of Aachen in 828. At that assembly, Orléans was granted to Odo and Bernard's brother Gaucelm received the fiefs of Conflent and Rasez. As Leibulf of Provence had died in the spring, his vast dominions — Narbonne, Béziers, Agde, Melgueil, Nîmes, and probably Uzès — were assigned to Bernard. From this wide collection of honores in Septimania, Bernard took the title "Duke of Septimania". In another assembly, at Ingelheim in June, a reprisal raid into Cordoban territory was considered, but although an army was gathered in Thionville, it did not enter the lands controlled by Bernard as the risk of Muslim raiding seemed to have declined. [edit]Court career

In August 829 the Emperor sent his son Lothair to Pavia to wear the Iron Crown. Louis summoned Bernard to replace his son at court, with granting him the title of camerarius or Chamberlain and the custody of the young Charles, then just Duke of Alsace, Alemannia, and Rhaetia, but later destined to be King of West Francia. Bernard delegated the government of his counties to his brother Gaucelm, who thereupon took the title marchio or margrave. After only a few months at court, Bernard had made many enemies. Indeed, he was the prime catalyst for the revolt of Lothair the following year.[9] Thegan of Trier, in his Gesta Hludowici, recorded that he was accused of having an illicit relationship with Empress, Judith of Bavaria, but considered these rumours to be lies. Nevertheless, these rumours provoked a riot in the army gathered at Rennes to fight the Bretons in April 830. His life under threat, as the three elder children of Louis supported the opposition against him, Bernard abandoned the court and, according to the Annales Bertiniani, returned to Barcelona. His brother, Eribert, who had remained at court, was banished. Bernard was deprived of the county of Autun which he had sometime before been granted. At an assembly in Nijmegen in October 830, the Emperor recovered his authority after a brief civil war with his sons. Subsequently in another assembly, at Aachen in February 831, he proceeded to a divide the Empire, giving Gothia to Charles, although the division would not be effective until his death. Bernard attempted to regain favour with Judith and Charles, but they avoided renewing relations with him after his fall from grace. At the Assembly of Thionville, October 831, Bernard spoke personally with the Emperor, but could not regain his previous position at court. In response Bernard reversed his previous loyalties and side with the Emperor's enemies. [edit]Civil war of 831–832

In November 831 Pepin of Aquitaine revolted against his father. While Berengar the Wise, Count of Toulouse, advised him against such a course of action, Bernard encouraged it. In early 832 Louis the Pious began the campaign against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, invaded the Bernard's honores and took Roussillon (with Vallespir) and probably also Rasez and Conflent. By 2 February, Berenguer was already in Elna. Finally in the autumn, the successive victories of the imperial forces compelled Pepin and Bernard to appear before the Emperor in October. Pepin was dispossessed of his kingdom and sent as prisoner to Trier, having ceded all his territories to his half-brother Charles. Bernard was accused of infidelity and dismissed from all his offices and dispossessed of all his honores in Septimania and Gothia, which were given to Berengar. His brother Gaucelm was probably also dispossessed, but for a time he remained in possession of the County of Empúries, ignoring his dismissal. [edit]Civil war of 833–834

In 833 however, Lothair revolted. Pepin, with Bernard and Gaucelm, remained loyal to Louis and, after defeating Lothair's forces, and returning the emperor to power on 1 March 834, Bernard requested the return of his honores, citing the loss of men he had sustained for the emperor's cause. However, Berengar was still in legal possession. The Emperor hesitated over his decision, but, in June 835, he summoned Bernard and Berengar to an Assembly in Cremieux, near Lyon, where he would deliver a verdict. Berengar died unexpectedly on the way and, freed of obstacles, the Emperor gave Septimania and its counties and that of Toulouse to Bernard. The only territories not returned were Empúries and Roussillon, which had already been granted to Sunyer I and Alaric respectively, and Urgell and Cerdanya, which had been detached from Toulouse by the usurper Aznar I Galíndez. Sunifred, brother of Oliba of Carcasonne, was assigned to expel him. Bernard returned to his domain, where the Goth population that had supported Bera and then Berengar, still opposed him. Ten complaints were presented against him at the Assembly of Quierzy-sur-Oise in September 838. From 841, he was often absent participating in the struggles of the Empire, and the counties were administered by their respective viscounts. [edit]Reign of Charles the Bald

Bernard avoided participating in the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye (25 June 841), where Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated their brother Lothair, who retreated to the south with his army. Bernard remained outside the battle awaiting its result, upon which he sent his son William to offer homage to Charles the Bald and to promise him that his father would obtain the submission of Pepin II, the rebellious son of Pepin, who was claiming to rule Aquitaine. It seems that Bernard had no intention of keeping this last promise. During Charles the Bald's campaign in Aquitaine (842), he decided to punish Bernard, dispossessing him of the county of Toulouse in favor of Acfred (July). Bernard, however, refused to accept the decision and revolted, openly allying himself to Pepin II and expelling Acfred from Toulouse (843). Charles responded by sending the dux Guerin of Provence, who in 842 directed the campaign in Aquitaine, against Septimania. Various other events — renewed Viking invasions and Breton raids — compelled an end to the internal civil struggles afflicting the Empire and, in August 843, the Treaty of Verdun was signed between the three brothers, Charles, Louis, and Lothair. Septimania and Gothia were left in the hands of Charles the Bald. The county of Uzès, where Bernat still possessed estates was assigned to Lothair. Furthermore, the county of Autun, which had long been lost to Bernard, and to which his son was renewed a claim, was given to Guerin. In 844 Charles the Bald returned to Aquitaine with the objective of forcing Pepin II to submit and conquering Toulouse. Bernard of Septimania was captured, either by the royal forces during the assault on Toulouse or, according to French historian Pierre Andoque, the year before by the Guerin in Uzès. Andoque maintains that in 844 he was merely brought before Charles during his campaign through Aquitaine. One way or the other, in May 844 Bernard was presented to Charles, who ordered his execution. The following month, Pepin II and Bernard's son William dealt a severe blow to Charles in the Angoumois on 14 June. Bernard's honores were given to Sunifred, who had been tasked previously with subduing Aznar in the Aragon. Bernard married Dhuoda, (Dhuoda Sanchez) possible daughter of Sancho I of Gascony, (Sancho Loupez) on 29 June 824 in Aachen. By her he had two sons, the aforementioend William and another named Bernard Plantapilosa. [edit]Notes

^ Archibald R. Lewis, "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550-751" Speculum 51.3 (July 1976), pp. 381-410 offers some disambiguation of these Frankish titles. ^ Annales Fuldenses (Gesta quorundam regum Francorum) s.a. AD 829 (entry ascribed to Einhard), p. 360. ^ Thegan, p 597. ^ a b Annales Bertiniani. ^ Annales Fuldenses s.a. AD 844 (entry ascribed to Rudolf of Fulda), pp. 364. ^ Flodoard, p 338. ^ Thomassy, p 179. There are two extant versions of this charter and one is dated to 15 December and does not mention Bernard. ^ Others hypothesise that the name "Aisso" is a corruption of the Arabic Aysun, which was the name of the son of Sulayman al-Arabi, formerly imprisoned in Aachen, but who had escaped from captivity to the Hispanic March and established himself in the region of Vic. ^ Hummer, p 161. [edit]Sources

Lewis, Archibald R. The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050. University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965. Thomassy, R. "Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert," Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Series 1, Volume II (Paris, 1840–1844). Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600 – 1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005. Flodoard. Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ'. III, XXVI, MGH SS XXXVI. Thegan of Trier. Gesta Hludowici. 36, MGH SS II, p. 597. Annales Xantenses. MGH SS II, p. 227. Annales Fuldenses (Gesta quorundam regum Francorum), ed. G.H. Pertz, Annales et chronica aevi Carolini. MGH Scriptores 1. Hanover, 1826. 337-415. -------------------- Bernard "Naso" - Solomon (Prince) NASI - ([795]-executed Toulouse Saint-Sernin [Jan/Jun] 844). "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Bernard being named in only one of the versions[140]. Flodoard refers to "Bernardo comiti Tolosano, propinquo suo [Teodulfo comite]"[141]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[142]. He was installed as Comte de Barcelona in 827 or before: Einhard's Annalesname "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[143]. It is not certain whether this means that the "March of Spain" was at that time part of the marquisate of Septimania. It is possible that Bernard was appointed to Barcelona after the disgrace of Bero in 820, but no primary source has been identified which confirms that this is correct. Comte d'Autun until 830. Marquis of Septimania until 831. The Gesta Francorum records that "Barnhardus comes Barcinonensis" was made camerarius in the palace in 829[144]. The AnnalesBertiniani record that "præfatus Bernardus" fled to Barcelona in 830[145]. The Gesta Francorum records that "Karolus" killed "Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem" in 844 "incautem et nihil ab eo suspicantem"[146]. Emperor Louis I appointed "Bernard Duke of Septimania" his chamberlain and entrusted his son Charles to him, but he "recklessly abused the imperial power…and undermined it entirely". He was banished to Septimania in [Apr 830] by the emperor's sons who rebelled against their father[147]. In Burgundy in 834, dispossessed 844. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ" was sentenced to death in 844[148]. The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus comes" was killed "a Karolo" in 844, after which "filio Bernhardi" and "Pippinus rex Aquitainiæ, filius Pippini" defeated the king's army[149].

----------------------------------------------------------------- BERNARD, son of GUILLAUME Comte de Toulouse, Marquis de Septimanie & his first wife Cunigundis --- ([795]-executed Toulouse Saint-Sernin [Jan/Jun] 844). The Vita S. Willelmi names “Bernardo…et Gaucelino” as sons of Guillaume[406]. "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Bernard being named in only one of the versions[407]. Flodoard refers to "Bernardo comiti Tolosano, propinquo suo [Teodulfo comite]"[408]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[409]. Comte d'Autun until 830. Marquis de Septimanie until 831. He was installed as Count of Barcelona in 827 or before: Einhard's Annales name "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[410]. It is not certain whether this means that the "March of Spain" was at that time part of the marquisate of Septimania. It is possible that Bernard was appointed to Barcelona after the disgrace of Bero in 820, but no primary source has been identified which confirms that this is correct. Einhard's Annales name "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[411]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Barnhardus comes Barcinonensis" was made camerarius in the palace in 829[412]. Emperor Louis I appointed "Bernard Duke of Septimania" as his chamberlain and entrusted his son Charles to him, but he "recklessly abused the imperial power…and undermined it entirely". He was banished to Septimania in [Apr 830] by the emperor's sons who rebelled against their father[413]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "præfatus Bernardus" fled to Barcelona in 830[414]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bernhardus" fled into exile in Spain and was deprived of his honours [in 831][415]. The same source records that "Werinus et Bernhardus comites" gathered a force in Burgundy and reached "Matronam fluvium" [in 834][416]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ" was sentenced to death in 844[417]. The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus comes" was killed "a Karolo" in 844, after which "filio Bernhardi" and "Pippinus rex Aquitainiæ, filius Pippini" defeated the king's army[418]. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Karolus" killed "Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem" in 844 "incautem et nihil ab eo suspicantem"[419]. m (Aix-la-Chapelle 24 Jun 824) DHUODA [Doda], daughter of --- (-after 2 Feb 843). The Manual of Dhuoda records the marriage "anno XI domino nostro Ludoico VIII Kal Iul" at "Aquisgrani palatio" of Doda and Bernard[420]. The Manual was written in 843 and consists of her instructions to her son. Bernard & his wife had three children: 1. GUILLAUME (29 Nov 826-killed in battle Barcelona 850). The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "in XIII anno regni eius III Kal Dec" of "fili primogenite [Willelme]" of Doda and Bernard[421]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Guilhelmus filius Bernardi" captured "Impurium et Barcinonam" in 848, and captured "Aledramnum et Isembardum comites" in the march of Spain in 850 but was himself captured and killed at Barcelona[422]. The Chronicon Fontanellensis records that "Wilhelmus filius Bernardi Ducis" captured Barcelona and expelled "Aledranno custode illius urbis et limitis Hispanici", dated to [849/50], in a later passage recording that "Wilhelmo invasore urbis Barcinonæ" captured "Isembardus filius Warini et Aledrannus" but that Guillaume was later defeated and killed by "factione Aledranni et quorundam Gothorum"[423]. 2. BERNARD "Plantevelue" (Uzès 22 Mar 841-[20 Jun 885/Aug 886]). The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "XI Kal Apr", in the year following the death of Emperor Louis, at "Uzecia urbes" of the second child [Bernard] of Doda and Bernard[424]. The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[425]. Lay Abbot of Brioude 857/68. Comte d'Autun 864/69, deposed. Comte de Rodez 864/74. Comte d'Auvergne after 872. - DUKES of AQUITAINE. 3. [REGELINDIS ([843/44]-). The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that Vulgrin's wife was "sororem Willelmi Tolosani" and that he held "Aginnum…urbem" through her[426]. The identity of "Willelmi Tolosani" is unclear. The Histoire Générale de Languedoc speculates that he was Guillaume Comte de Bordeaux (who it refers to as comte de Toulouse) and therefore that Regelindis was the daughter of Bernard and his wife Doda[427]. This seems far from certain as this Guillaume, if he was indeed comte de Toulouse, could only have ruled the town briefly. In addition, it seems strange that the relationship with her more illustrious (or notorious) father, Bernard, would not have been used in the source to place the wife of Vulgrin, if she had been the daughter of Bernard. The difficulty is that no other comte de Toulouse named Guillaume has been identified in the mid-9th century. If she was the daughter of Bernard and Doda, she must have been born in [842/44] as the Manual of Dhuoda states that their second son Bernard was his mother's second child[428]. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. m ([860]) VULGRIN [I] Comte d'Angoulême, son of VULFARD [d'Angoulême] & his wife Susanna de Paris (-3 May 886, bur Angoulême Saint-Cybard).]

----------------------------------------------------------------- Bernardo di Settimania

di Ornella Mariani

Il clima politico della Francia dell'IX secolo fu caratterizzato dai nove anni di guerra fratricida fra i figli di Ludovico il Pio alternamente ribelli al padre medesimo che, vedovo, era passato a seconde nozze con Giuditta di Baviera. La nascita di Carlo il Calvo e le pressioni esercitate da costei, aspirante ad un Regno anche per il proprio figlio, rimisero infatti in discussione il già fissato assetto ereditario aprendo un duro fronte di conflittualità successoria.

In quell'aggrovigliato contesto s'inserì l'ambigua figura di Bernardo di Tolosa, discendente di una famiglia di vassalli dei Re carolingi che dal 778 amministrarono una parte del Regno d'Aquitania, restando in carica fino al 1271, quando la Contea fu annessa al Regno di Francia.

Conte di Tolosa e Conte di Autun, egli era nato nell'802 da Guglielmo di Gellone e Guitberga d'Hornbach. Nella gioventù, trascorsa fino all'820 in Gotia, si era distinto per la guerra ingaggiata assieme al fratello Gocelone contro al- Andalus ed in danno del fratellastro Berà, Conte pacifista di Barcellona.

Investito del ruolo di Ciambellano alla Corte di Ludovico il Pio ed infeudato anche del Ducato di Settimania, il 29 giugno dell'824 aveva sposato Dhuoda di Guascogna, figlia del Duca Sancho I Lopez: donna bellissima, colta, dotata di tempra eccezionale e di sensibilità profonda. Dall'unione nacquero due figli: Guglielmo e Bernardo Pianta di Velluto, per il quale ella compose, tra l'841 e l'843, un trattato di educazione intitolato Liber manualis Dhuodane quem ad filium suum transmisit Wilhelmum.

Admonitio erga seniorem tuum exhibenda. Seniorem quem habes Karolum, quando Deus, ut credo, et genitor tuus Bernardus, in tuae incoationis iuventute florigeram vigorem libi ad serviendum elegit, adhuc tene quod est generis ex magno utrumque nobilitatis orto progenie, non ita serviens ut tantum placeas oculis, sed etiam sensui capax, utrumque ad corpus et animam; puram et certam fili in omnibus tene utilitatis fidem... Quamobrem, fili, onor te ut quod tenes, corpore fideliter dum vivis tene et mente... Nunquam aliquando ex infidelitatis vesania improperium ex te exeat malum; non sit ortus nec in corde tuo unquam ascendens ut infidelis tuo seniori existas in ullo... Quod in te tuisque militantibus futurum esse non credo;...Tu ergo, fili Wilhelme, ex illorum progenie ortus, seniori ut praedixi tuo sis verax, vigil, utilisque atque praecipuus; et in omni negotio utilitatis regiae potestati, in quantum tibi Deus dederit vires, intus forisque prudentius te exhiberi satage. (III, 4).

(Comportamento da mantenere verso il tuo signore.

Dio, come credo, e tuo padre Bernardo, nel fiorente vigore dell'inizio della tua gioventù hanno scelto il signore che tu hai ora, Carlo; ricordati ancora che è nato da una grande stirpe ed è di origine nobile da entrambi i lati, e non lo servire in modo tale che piaccia solo all'apparenza, ma anche che coinvolga i tuoi sensi, e tieni il corpo e l'anima pura e preserva la fedeltà a lui in tutte le cose ... Perciò, figlio, ti esorto perché tu mantenga finché vivi la fedeltà con il corpo e con la mente... Mai esca da te un improperio a causa dell'insania dell'infedeltà; il male non nasca neppure nel tuo cuore, al punto da farti essere infedele in qualcosa al tuo signore... cosa che non credo che, avverrà né in te né nei tuoi compagni d'arme... Tu, pertanto, Guglielmo, figlio mio... come ti ho detto sii sincero, vigile, utile e eccellente; e sforzati di esibire, in ogni affare che sia di utilità del potere regio, per quanto Dio ti darà le forze, la massima prudenza dentro e fuori.)

Istigatore dell'Imperatrice, in particolare nella Dieta di Worms ove Ludovico acconsentì a cedere all'ultimo rampollo la corona della Germania del Nord, a revoca di quanto sancito nella Ordinatio Imperii dell'817 con la quale aveva equamente ripartito i beni fra i tre eredi di primo letto, nell'826 Bernardo fu investito della Contea di Barcellona.

Già all'atto del suo insediamento, alcuni Aristocratici goti guidati da Aissò, restato fedele a Berà, insorsero contro di lui e, con l'aiuto dei Musulmani, ne invasero il territorio.

La situazione fu aggravata dalla complessità del scontro: malgrado parte dei Visigoti avesse preso partito per lui, aiutandolo a contenere la spinta dei ribelli, Aissò si appellò all'Emiro di Cordova Abd al- Rahman II ibn al-Hakam che, nel maggio dell'827, pose sotto assedio il territorio di Barcellona. A quel momento di difficoltà, poi risolto con il rincalzo dei Mori capeggiati dal Generale Ubayd Allah, Ludovico il Pio rispose con ritardo impegnando il figlio Pipino ed i Conti di Tours e Orléans quando il Feudatario aveva già debellato i nemici, con quella stessa determinazione che avrebbe applicato a fronte di una nuova insurrezione nell'anno successivo.

Nell'agosto dell'829, il Sovrano lo volle a Corte.

Era già in atto la querelle familiare legata alla successione imperiale, quando Bernardo affidò i feudi al fratello maggiore per assumere l'incarico di sostituire il nuovo Re d'Italia Lotario I nella tutela del minore Carlo il Calvo.

Il compito fu svolto con tale zelante scrupolo, da suscitare antagonismo e rivalità degenerati nell'aperta accusa che egli fosse divenuto l'amante dell'Imperatrice Giuditta.

Impugnata tale pretestuosa circostanza, i tre figli maggiori di Ludovico il Pio nell'830 si coalizzarono e mossero contro il Conte, costringendolo alla fuga ed al rientro nei suoi domìni. Tuttavia, nel giro di pochi mesi, la tensione si ripianò: indifferenti al diverso parere del Consigliere di Palazzo Berengario il Saggio, figlio del Marchese Unroch del Friuli e di Engeltrude di Parigi, nel novembre dell'831 Pipino I d'Aquitania e il fratello Lotario, infatti, insorti contro il padre che tennero prigioniero a Compiègne, furono supportati nella rivolta proprio dal pugnace Bernardo. Epperò, nell'832, l'Imperatore ebbe ragione dei sovversivi e, alla Dieta di Nimega, riacquistato il favore dell'Aristocrazia, li fece arrestare: ai figli espropriò i beni in favore del giovane ultimogenito; poi, fatto porre sotto accusa per alto tradimento il Feudatario, lo esautorò di ogni potere; gli revocò il possesso della Contea di Barcellona; ne attribuì i feudi al fedele Berengario; lo obbligò a tornare nei territori familiari di Borgogna, col fratello Gocelone ed il Luogotenente Sunila.

Ma un nuovo colpo di scena intervenne nell'833, quando ribellatisi nuovamente all'autorità paterna, i turbolenti figli di Ludovico ricorsero alla mediazione di Gregorio IV per escludere definitivamente dall'asse ereditario il fratellastro. L'incontro si tenne in Alsazia e, in quella drammatica circostanza la cui regìa fu gestita da Bernardo, a fronte della defezione di gran parte del suo esercito Ludovico il Pio fu costretto a consegnarsi all'irriducibile Lotario, dal quale fu dichiarato decaduto.

Nell'834, però, le tensioni della irrequieta famiglia si attenuarono ed il fronte delle alleanze subì un ulteriore mutamento: Pipino, questa volta a sostegno del padre, mosse contro le forze congiunte del fratello maggiore e di Bernardo, battendole nell'assedio di Châlon sur Saône.

L'infausto esito della battaglia, le cui responsabilità furono ascritte al Conte, suscitarono una durissima rappresaglia: Lotario, infatti, irrogò la pena di morte in danno di Sunila, di Gocelone e della monaca Gerberga, rispettivamente fiducario, fratello e sorella del suo ambiguo cobelligerante.

L'evento spinse costui ad avvicinarsi al Sovrano e ad esigere, in nome dell'impegno già svolto in suo vantaggio e dell'alto tributo di sangue pagato alla sua causa, il pieno reintegro nei propri diritti. Nell'835, pertanto, deciso a revocarli a Berengario e a restituirli al legittimo titolare, Ludovico convocò un'Assemblea a Lione: il Consigliere, che risentito si accingeva a dar battaglia, si spense durante il viaggio facilitando l'antagonista nel recupero dei propri feudi, cui fu aggiunta la Contea di Tolosa.

Nell'841, maturò un nuovo sodalizio: Lotario fu sconfitto a Fontenoy dalle truppe di Ludovico il Giovane e Carlo il Calvo. Bernardo non perse tempo per ritagliarsi uno spazio nella nuova coalizione ed inviò presso quest'ultimo il figlio Guglielmo garantendogli l'aiuto necessario alla sottomissione di Pipino II Re d'Aquitania, in cambio della Contea di Autun: gli fu genericamente risposto che l'assegnazione sarebbe stata concessa in seguito, in quanto di quella regione era stato già investito il Luogotenente d'Aquitania Garì. Ritenuta la risposta un espediente dilatorio ed un affronto, il Conte replicò con la rottura dei rapporti e, dopo il Trattato di Verdun dell'843, in virtù del quale l'Aquitania, Tolosa e la Settimania venivano assegnate al Regno dei Franchi Occidentali di Carlo, attaccò il territorio nel tentativo di riguadagnarlo a sé.

Catturato, fu decapitato nel maggio dell'844.

In difesa dell'onore familiare e per lavare l'ingiustizia della brutale pena di morte comminata al padre, cui era subentrato nella guida dei feudi, insorse Guglielmo: alleatosi a Pipino II, inflisse una solenne sconfitta a Carlo il Calvo ad Angumois ed occupò Tolosa espropriandola a Fredelone di Roergue.

Era il 14 giugno dell'844.

A quattro anni dalla morte di Ludovico il Pio, la sfuggente esistenza di Bernardo di Tolosa di era conclusa.

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Bernard (or Bernat) of Septimania (795–844), son of William of Gellone, was the Frankish Duke of Septimania and Count of Barcelona from 826 to 832 and again from 835 to his execution. He was also count of Carcassonne from 837. He was appointed to succeed his fellow Frank Rampon. During his career, he was one of the closest counsellors of the Emperor Louis the Pious, a leading proponent of the war against the Moors, and opponent of the interests of the local Visigothic nobility. Contents [hide] 1 Title 2 Count of Barcelona 3 Court career 4 Civil war of 831–832 5 Civil war of 833–834 6 Reign of Charles the Bald 7 Notes 8 Sources [edit]Title

Bernard was indisputably a count (comes) of Barcelona and several other counties over the course of his long career. He also appears in the chronicles with the title duke (dux), though the extent to which this was a military designation is obscure.[1] He is sometimes retrospectively referred to by historians as a margrave (marchio). Here are his name and title as they appear in several primary sources: Bernhardus comes Barcinonensis[2] ("Bernard, Count of Barcelona") duce Bernhardo[3] ("Duke Bernard") præfatus Bernardus[4] ("Prefect Bernard") Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem[5] ("Bernard, Duke of Barcelona") Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ[4] ("Bernard, Count of the Hispanic March") Bernardo comiti Tolosano[6] ("Bernard, Count of Toulouse") [edit]Count of Barcelona

Bernard is first attested in historical records as one of four sons in a document of his father's dating to 14 December 804 dealing with the foundation of the monastery of Gellone.[7] Bernard must have inherited land in the area around Toulouse from which he expanded his power to become count around 826. He first attracted the attention of higher-ups by quelling the local revolt of a nobleman named Aisso, who was perhaps a Gothic lieutenant of the deposed Bera, Count of Barcelona.[8] The garrisons of the castles in the area, who had been favorable to Bera, joined Aisso in a revolt against the new count. Only the castle of Roda de Ter, in the county of Ausona, resisted and was subsequently destroyed by Aisso. From his newly-occupied territory, Aisso attacked the county of Cerdanya and the region of the Vallès. The young count Bernard requested and received some help from the Emperor, as well as that of some local hispani (probably Gothic noblemen). To counter these reinforcements, Aiss sent his brother to request help from Abd ar-Rahman II, Emir of Córdoba, the only potential ally powerful enough to threaten the Franks. Abd ar-Rahman sent the general Ubayd Allah Abu Marwan to Zaragoza in May 827, from whence he invaded the territory of Barcelona, reaching the city itself in the summer. He besieged it and ransacked its environs, but failed to take it. When the Emperor learned of these raids, he ordered his second son, Pepin, then King of Aquitaine, and the counts Hugh of Tours and Matfrid of Orléans to recruite an army against the Muslims, but recruitment was slow. By the time the army arrived, Abu Marwan had already returned to Muslim territory, taking Aisso and his followers with him (late 827). This reprieve, seen as a victory, greatly increased Bernard's prestige. Though the ravaged county of Ausona, a dependency of Barcelona, remained depopulated into the mid-ninth century, its ruin was attributed to the late arrival of Hugh and Matfird. Both counts were dispossessed of their counties at the Assembly of Aachen in 828. At that assembly, Orléans was granted to Odo and Bernard's brother Gaucelm received the fiefs of Conflent and Rasez. As Leibulf of Provence had died in the spring, his vast dominions — Narbonne, Béziers, Agde, Melgueil, Nîmes, and probably Uzès — were assigned to Bernard. From this wide collection of honores in Septimania, Bernard took the title "Duke of Septimania". In another assembly, at Ingelheim in June, a reprisal raid into Cordoban territory was considered, but although an army was gathered in Thionville, it did not enter the lands controlled by Bernard as the risk of Muslim raiding seemed to have declined. [edit]Court career

In August 829 the Emperor sent his son Lothair to Pavia to wear the Iron Crown. Louis summoned Bernard to replace his son at court, with granting him the title of camerarius or Chamberlain and the custody of the young Charles, then just Duke of Alsace, Alemannia, and Rhaetia, but later destined to be King of West Francia. Bernard delegated the government of his counties to his brother Gaucelm, who thereupon took the title marchio or margrave. After only a few months at court, Bernard had made many enemies. Indeed, he was the prime catalyst for the revolt of Lothair the following year.[9] Thegan of Trier, in his Gesta Hludowici, recorded that he was accused of having an illicit relationship with Empress, Judith of Bavaria, but considered these rumours to be lies. Nevertheless, these rumours provoked a riot in the army gathered at Rennes to fight the Bretons in April 830. His life under threat, as the three elder children of Louis supported the opposition against him, Bernard abandoned the court and, according to the Annales Bertiniani, returned to Barcelona. His brother, Eribert, who had remained at court, was banished. Bernard was deprived of the county of Autun which he had sometime before been granted. At an assembly in Nijmegen in October 830, the Emperor recovered his authority after a brief civil war with his sons. Subsequently in another assembly, at Aachen in February 831, he proceeded to a divide the Empire, giving Gothia to Charles, although the division would not be effective until his death. Bernard attempted to regain favour with Judith and Charles, but they avoided renewing relations with him after his fall from grace. At the Assembly of Thionville, October 831, Bernard spoke personally with the Emperor, but could not regain his previous position at court. In response Bernard reversed his previous loyalties and side with the Emperor's enemies. [edit]Civil war of 831–832

In November 831 Pepin of Aquitaine revolted against his father. While Berengar the Wise, Count of Toulouse, advised him against such a course of action, Bernard encouraged it. In early 832 Louis the Pious began the campaign against his rebellious son. Berengar, loyal to the Emperor, invaded the Bernard's honores and took Roussillon (with Vallespir) and probably also Rasez and Conflent. By 2 February, Berenguer was already in Elna. Finally in the autumn, the successive victories of the imperial forces compelled Pepin and Bernard to appear before the Emperor in October. Pepin was dispossessed of his kingdom and sent as prisoner to Trier, having ceded all his territories to his half-brother Charles. Bernard was accused of infidelity and dismissed from all his offices and dispossessed of all his honores in Septimania and Gothia, which were given to Berengar. His brother Gaucelm was probably also dispossessed, but for a time he remained in possession of the County of Empúries, ignoring his dismissal. [edit]Civil war of 833–834

In 833 however, Lothair revolted. Pepin, with Bernard and Gaucelm, remained loyal to Louis and, after defeating Lothair's forces, and returning the emperor to power on 1 March 834, Bernard requested the return of his honores, citing the loss of men he had sustained for the emperor's cause. However, Berengar was still in legal possession. The Emperor hesitated over his decision, but, in June 835, he summoned Bernard and Berengar to an Assembly in Cremieux, near Lyon, where he would deliver a verdict. Berengar died unexpectedly on the way and, freed of obstacles, the Emperor gave Septimania and its counties and that of Toulouse to Bernard. The only territories not returned were Empúries and Roussillon, which had already been granted to Sunyer I and Alaric respectively, and Urgell and Cerdanya, which had been detached from Toulouse by the usurper Aznar I Galíndez. Sunifred, brother of Oliba of Carcasonne, was assigned to expel him. Bernard returned to his domain, where the Goth population that had supported Bera and then Berengar, still opposed him. Ten complaints were presented against him at the Assembly of Quierzy-sur-Oise in September 838. From 841, he was often absent participating in the struggles of the Empire, and the counties were administered by their respective viscounts. [edit]Reign of Charles the Bald

Bernard avoided participating in the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye (25 June 841), where Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated their brother Lothair, who retreated to the south with his army. Bernard remained outside the battle awaiting its result, upon which he sent his son William to offer homage to Charles the Bald and to promise him that his father would obtain the submission of Pepin II, the rebellious son of Pepin, who was claiming to rule Aquitaine. It seems that Bernard had no intention of keeping this last promise. During Charles the Bald's campaign in Aquitaine (842), he decided to punish Bernard, dispossessing him of the county of Toulouse in favor of Acfred (July). Bernard, however, refused to accept the decision and revolted, openly allying himself to Pepin II and expelling Acfred from Toulouse (843). Charles responded by sending the dux Guerin of Provence, who in 842 directed the campaign in Aquitaine, against Septimania. Various other events — renewed Viking invasions and Breton raids — compelled an end to the internal civil struggles afflicting the Empire and, in August 843, the Treaty of Verdun was signed between the three brothers, Charles, Louis, and Lothair. Septimania and Gothia were left in the hands of Charles the Bald. The county of Uzès, where Bernat still possessed estates was assigned to Lothair. Furthermore, the county of Autun, which had long been lost to Bernard, and to which his son was renewed a claim, was given to Guerin. In 844 Charles the Bald returned to Aquitaine with the objective of forcing Pepin II to submit and conquering Toulouse. Bernard of Septimania was captured, either by the royal forces during the assault on Toulouse or, according to French historian Pierre Andoque, the year before by the Guerin in Uzès. Andoque maintains that in 844 he was merely brought before Charles during his campaign through Aquitaine. One way or the other, in May 844 Bernard was presented to Charles, who ordered his execution. The following month, Pepin II and Bernard's son William dealt a severe blow to Charles in the Angoumois on 14 June. Bernard's honores were given to Sunifred, who had been tasked previously with subduing Aznar in the Aragon. Bernard married Dhuoda, (Dhuoda Sanchez) possible daughter of Sancho I of Gascony, (Sancho Loupez) on 29 June 824 in Aachen. By her he had two sons, the aforementioend William and another named Bernard Plantapilosa. [edit]Notes

^ Archibald R. Lewis, "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550-751" Speculum 51.3 (July 1976), pp. 381-410 offers some disambiguation of these Frankish titles. ^ Annales Fuldenses (Gesta quorundam regum Francorum) s.a. AD 829 (entry ascribed to Einhard), p. 360. ^ Thegan, p 597. ^ a b Annales Bertiniani. ^ Annales Fuldenses s.a. AD 844 (entry ascribed to Rudolf of Fulda), pp. 364. ^ Flodoard, p 338. ^ Thomassy, p 179. There are two extant versions of this charter and one is dated to 15 December and does not mention Bernard. ^ Others hypothesise that the name "Aisso" is a corruption of the Arabic Aysun, which was the name of the son of Sulayman al-Arabi, formerly imprisoned in Aachen, but who had escaped from captivity to the Hispanic March and established himself in the region of Vic. ^ Hummer, p 161. [edit]Sources

Lewis, Archibald R. The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society, 718–1050. University of Texas Press: Austin, 1965. Thomassy, R. "Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert," Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Series 1, Volume II (Paris, 1840–1844). Hummer, Hans J. Politics and Power in Early Medieval Europe: Alsace and the Frankish Realm 600 – 1000. Cambridge University Press: 2005. Flodoard. Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ'. III, XXVI, MGH SS XXXVI. Thegan of Trier. Gesta Hludowici. 36, MGH SS II, p. 597. Annales Xantenses. MGH SS II, p. 227. Annales Fuldenses (Gesta quorundam regum Francorum), ed. G.H. Pertz, Annales et chronica aevi Carolini. MGH Scriptores 1. Hanover, 1826. 337-415.

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Bernard I, duc de Septimanie's Timeline

795
795
Autun, Saone-et-Loire, Burgundy, France
795
824
June 24, 824
Age 29
Aachen, Rhineland, Prussia
826
November 29, 826
Age 31
Autun, Saone-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France
841
March 22, 841
Age 46
Uzès, Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
842
842
Age 47
Haute-Garonne, Midi-Pyrénées, France
844
February 14, 844
Age 49
Aix La Chapelle, Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
844
Age 49
????
Chamberlain of Louis "the Pious".
????
Count of Autun, Margrave of Septimania, Chamberlain of Louis 'the Pious'