Birutė Vaidilutė, Lietuvos didžioji kunigaikštienė

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Birutė Vaidilutė, Lietuvos didžioji kunigaikštienė

Russian: Бірута Vaidilutė, великого князя Литовского
Also Known As: "Birutė iš Palangos"
Birthdate:
Death: Died
Place of Burial: Birutės hill, Palanga, Lithuania
Immediate Family:

Daughter of N1275 of Palanga
Wife of Kęstutis, Lietuvos didysis (submonarchas) kunigaikštis
Mother of Patirg of Lithuania; Butavas Enrikas Prince of Lithuania, kunigaikštis; Vytautas Aleksandras Kęstutaitis, Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis; Žygimantas Kęstutaitis, LDK; Milussa / Miluša Zodeykowa and 7 others

Occupation: Grand Duke of Lithuania
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Birutė Vaidilutė, Lietuvos didžioji kunigaikštienė

http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birut%C4%97s_kalnas

Probably she was born near Palanga to a Samogitian or Curonian magnate family. The story of her marriage to Kęstutis became a romantic legend in Lithuania. Chronicles mention that Birutė was a priestess (Lithuanian: vaidilutė) and served the Pagan gods by guarding the sacred fire. When Kęstutis heard of her beauty, he visited the shire and asked her to marry him. She refused because she had promised the gods to guard her virginity until her death. Kęstutis then took her by force to Trakai and threw a big wedding. She and Kęstutis had three sons and three daughters. Vytautas, their first son, was born around 1350. This suggests that the marriage took place in 1349 or a bit earlier.

Historian S.C. Rowell suggests that a marriage to a pagan duchess rather than to an Orthodox duchess from Slavic lands helped to win pagan Lithuanian support after Kęstutis and his brother Algirdas deposed Jaunutis in 1345

The circumstances surrounding Birutė's death are not entirely clear. Between 1381 and 1382 her husband Kęstutis waged a war against his nephew Jogaila who became the Grand Duke of Lithuania and signed a treaty with the Teutonic Knights against Kęstutis. Her husband was arrested and transported to the castle at Kreva. A week later Kęstutis was dead and some chronicles hint that he was murdered. In spite of the circumstances being unclear, one chronicle written by the Teutonic Knights briefly mentioned that Birutė was, for reasons of safety, moved to Brest, Belarus, where she drowned in fall of 1382 (likely in response to Vytautas escape from Kreva). However, there are no other sources that confirm or refute this claim. Thirty-five years later, a Samogitian delegation to the Council of Constance denied her murder, and another legend claimed that Birutė returned to the shrine where she had served earlier in Palanga, and resumed serving the gods until her death there circa 1389.

Legend has it that she was buried in Palanga at the bottom of the hill named in her honor

A cult around Birutė developed and remained strong long after her death. She was considered to be a goddess or the pagan equivalent of a saint by the local people. In 1989 archaeologists found evidence of a pagan sanctuary and observatory, which had existed on the top of Birutė Hill in the late 14th or early 15th century. It was likely built in Birutė's honor. There are many accounts of people praying to Birutė, asking her to bestow good health or fortune upon them. To discourage people from worshiping pagan gods and Birutė's grave, a chapel for Saint George was built on the top of the hill in 1506. In 1869 the chapel was re-built and survives to this day. It is a popular destination for many tourists.

Birutė Hill is the highest dune at the seaside resort of Palanga on the Baltic Seashore, and now a part of the Palanga Botanical Garden. Archaeological research shows that there was a village at the bottom of the hill in the 10th century. In the 13th century, when the Teutonic Knights and Livonian Order invaded, the villagers built a defense system with a tower. After an initial defeat, the system was rebuilt and made even stronger; it now had two towers and a wall surrounded the top of the hill. However, when this was burned in the second half of the 14th century, a pagan shrine and observatory was built in its place instead.

--------------------

Birutė (died in 1382) was the second wife of Kęstutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and mother of Vytautas the Great. There is very little known about Birutė's life but after her death a strong cult developed among Lithuanians, especially in Samogitia.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Marriage

1.2 Death

2 Worship

3 Notes

4 References


Life
Marriage

Probably she was born near Palanga to a Samogitian or Curonian magnate family. The story of her marriage to Kęstutis became a romantic legend in Lithuania. Chronicles mention that Birutė was a priestess (Lithuanian: vaidilutė) and served the Pagan gods by guarding the sacred fire. When Kęstutis heard of her beauty, he visited the shire and asked her to marry him. She refused because she had promised the gods to guard her virginity until her death. Kęstutis then took her by force to Trakai and threw a big wedding. She and Kęstutis had three sons and three daughters. Vytautas, their first son, was born around 1350. This suggests that the marriage took place in 1349 or a bit earlier.

Historian S.C. Rowell suggests that a marriage to a pagan duchess rather than to an Orthodox duchess from Slavic lands helped to win pagan Lithuanian support after Kęstutis and his brother Algirdas deposed Jaunutis in 1345.[1]

Death

The circumstances surrounding Birutė's death are not entirely clear. Between 1381 and 1382 her husband Kęstutis waged a war against his nephew Jogaila who became the Grand Duke of Lithuania and signed a treaty with the Teutonic Knights against Kęstutis. Her husband was arrested and transported to the castle at Kreva. A week later Kęstutis was dead and some chronicles hint that he was murdered. In spite of the circumstances being unclear, one chronicle written by the Teutonic Knights briefly mentioned that Birutė was, for reasons of safety, moved to Brest, Belarus, where she drowned in fall of 1382 (likely in response to Vytautas escape from Kreva). However, there are no other sources that confirm or refute this claim. Thirty-five years later, a Samogitian delegation to the Council of Constance denied her murder, and another legend claimed that Birutė returned to the shrine where she had served earlier in Palanga, and resumed serving the gods until her death there circa 1389.

Legend has it that she was buried in Palanga at the bottom of the hill named in her honor.

[edit] Worship


A grotto at the bottom of Birutė Hill, designed by Édouard AndréA cult around Birutė developed and remained strong long after her death. She was considered to be a goddess or the pagan equivalent of a saint by the local people. In 1989 archaeologists found evidence of a pagan sanctuary and observatory, which had existed on the top of Birutė Hill in the late 14th or early 15th century. It was likely built in Birutė's honor. There are many accounts of people praying to Birutė, asking her to bestow good health or fortune upon them. To discourage people from worshiping pagan gods and Birutė's grave, a chapel for Saint George was built on the top of the hill in 1506. In 1869 the chapel was re-built and survives to this day. It is a popular destination for many tourists.

Birutė Hill is the highest dune at the seaside resort of Palanga on the Baltic Seashore, and now a part of the Palanga Botanical Garden. Archaeological research shows that there was a village at the bottom of the hill in the 10th century. In the 13th century, when the Teutonic Knights and Livonian Order invaded, the villagers built a defense system with a tower. After an initial defeat, the system was rebuilt and made even stronger; it now had two towers and a wall surrounded the top of the hill. However, when this was burned in the second half of the 14th century, a pagan shrine and observatory was built in its place instead.

--------------------

Birutė

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Birutė (died in 1382) was the second wife of Kęstutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and mother of Vytautas the Great. There is very little known about Birutė's life but after her death a strong cult developed among Lithuanians, especially in Samogitia.

Life

[edit]Marriage

Probably she was born near Palanga to a Samogitian or Curonian magnate family. The story of her marriage to Kęstutis became a romantic legend in Lithuania. Chronicles mention that Birutė was a priestess (Lithuanian: vaidilutė) and served the Pagan gods by guarding the sacred fire. When Kęstutis heard of her beauty, he visited the shire and asked her to marry him. She refused because she had promised the gods to guard her virginity until her death. Kęstutis then took her by force to Trakai and threw a big wedding. She and Kęstutis had three sons and three daughters. Vytautas, their first son, was born around 1350. This suggests that the marriage took place in 1349 or a bit earlier.

Historian S.C. Rowell suggests that a marriage to a pagan duchess rather than to an Orthodox duchess from Slavic lands helped to win pagan Lithuanian support after Kęstutis and his brother Algirdas deposed Jaunutis in 1345.[1]

[edit]Death

The circumstances surrounding Birutė's death are not entirely clear. Between 1381 and 1382 her husband Kęstutis waged a war against his nephew Jogaila who became the Grand Duke of Lithuania and signed a treaty with the Teutonic Knights against Kęstutis. Her husband was arrested and transported to the castle at Kreva. A week later Kęstutis was dead and some chronicles hint that he was murdered. In spite of the circumstances being unclear, one chronicle written by the Teutonic Knights briefly mentioned that Birutė was, for reasons of safety, moved to Brest, Belarus, where she drowned in fall of 1382 (likely in response to Vytautas escape from Kreva). However, there are no other sources that confirm or refute this claim. Thirty-five years later, a Samogitian delegation to the Council of Constance denied her murder, and another legend claimed that Birutė returned to the shrine where she had served earlier in Palanga, and resumed serving the gods until her death there circa 1389.

Legend has it that she was buried in Palanga at the bottom of the hill named in her honor.

[edit]Worship

A cult around Birutė developed and remained strong long after her death. She was considered to be a goddess or the pagan equivalent of a saint by the local people. In 1989 archaeologists found evidence of a pagan sanctuary and observatory, which had existed on the top of Birutė Hill in the late 14th or early 15th century. It was likely built in Birutė's honor. There are many accounts of people praying to Birutė, asking her to bestow good health or fortune upon them. To discourage people from worshiping pagan gods and Birutė's grave, a chapel for Saint George was built on the top of the hill in 1506. In 1869 the chapel was re-built and survives to this day. It is a popular destination for many tourists.

Birutė Hill is the highest dune at the seaside resort of Palanga on the Baltic Seashore, and now a part of the Palanga Botanical Garden. Archaeological research shows that there was a village at the bottom of the hill in the 10th century. In the 13th century, when the Teutonic Knights and Livonian Order invaded, the villagers built a defense system with a tower. After an initial defeat, the system was rebuilt and made even stronger; it now had two towers and a wall surrounded the top of the hill. However, when this was burned in the second half of the 14th century, a pagan shrine and observatory was built in its place instead.

[edit]Notes

^ Rowell, S. C. (Spring 1994). "Pious Princesses or Daughters of Belial: Pagan Lithuanian Dynastic Diplomacy, 1279–1423". Medieval Prosopography 15 (1): 12. ISSN 0198-9405.

[edit]References

History: Birutė, from "Encyclopedia Lituanica," II, Boston, 1972, pages 361-362, Palanga Botanical Park, Lithuanian Art Museum. Accessed May 24, 2006.

(Lithuanian) Vykintas Vaitkevičius, Rašytiniai Šaltiniai apie Birutės Kalną, Palanga Botanical Park, Lithuanian Art Museum. Accessed May 24, 2006.

(Lithuanian) Dr. Libertas Klimka Birutės kalnas, Palanga Botanical Park, Lithuanian Art Museum. Accessed May 24, 2006.

(Lithuanian) Vladas Žulkus, Palangos priešistorė ir viduramžiai archeologo akimis, part II, from Palangos istorija, Klaipėda: Libra Memelensis, 1999, Palanga Botanical Park, Lithuanian Art Museum. Accessed May 24, 2006.

(Lithuanian) Inga Deidulė, Vytauto Didžiojo įvaizdžio genezės mįslė, - "ieškokite moterų", Birutės kultas, Vartiklis. Accessed May 24, 2006.

Apie Birutė Vaidilutė, Lietuvos didžioji kunigaikštienė (Lietuvių)

Birutė (m. 1382 m. ar apie 1389 m.) – Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio Kęstučio antroji žmona, žymiausio Lietuvos valdovo Vytauto motina.

Birutė yra kilusi iš Palangos, iš žemaičių bajorų giminės. Jos dėdė iš tėvo pusės buvo žemaičių didžiūnas Vidmantas.

Kęstučio žmona

1349 m. ar anksčiau tapo Kęstučio žmona. Kęstučiui tuomet buvo apie 50 metų.

Istorikai ne kartą ginčijosi, kelinta žmona Kęstučiui buvo Birutė. Lietuvos metraštis teigia Vytautą buvus vyriausiuoju sūnumi, gimusiu iš karto po Birutės ir Kęstučio vedybų. Po to gimė dar penki jų vaikai.

Birutės vaikai

Sūnus:

  • Vytautas Didysis (1350–1430 m.)
  • Tautvilas (žuvo 1390 m.)
  • Žygimantas (1365–1440 m.)

Dukros:

  • Miklausė Marija (1375 m. ištekėjo į Tverę)
  • Ona Danutė (ištekėjo į Mozūriją)
  • Rimgailė Elzbieta (1390 m. ištekėjo už Mozūrų kunigaikščio Henriko, o 1419 m. už Moldavijos kunigaikščio Aleksandro I Gerojo, mirė ne savo mirtimi 1433 m.)

Birutės tolesnis likimas ir mirtis

1382 m. rengdamasis kovai su Jogaila, Kęstutis išsiuntė ją į Brastą. Tolesnis jos likimas nežinomas. Istoriniai šaltiniai mini dvi versijas: anot vienos ji buvo Jogailos nužudyta, anot kitos, po Kęstučio mirties dar gyveno ir mirė sava mirtimi. 1384 m. sutarties tarp Vokiečių ordino ir Vytauto įžangoje užfiksuota, kad Vytautas ordinui nusiskundęs, jog iš jo atimta tėviškė, o tėvas ir motina nužudyti.

Savo motinos žudiku Jogailą Vytautas vadina ir skunde prieš Jogailą ir Skirgailą, rašytame antro pabėgimo į Prūsiją metu (1390 m.). Šį faktą pakartojo ordino kronikininkas Vygandas Marburgietis: Jogaila Birutę prigirdęs.

Priešingai teigė Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės ir Lenkijos Karalystės delegacija, atremdama Vokiečių ordino atstovų kaltinimus Jogailai Konstanco bažnytiniame susirinkime (1415–1418 m.). Esą Birutė dar gyvenusi po Kęstučio mirties, su ja buvo elgiamasi pagarbiai ir mirusi ji prideramai palaidota. Labiau tikėtina pirma versija.

Legenda apie Kęstutį ir Birutę

XVI amžiaus pradžioje Lietuvos metraščių Plačiajame sąvade (Bychovco kronika) užfiksuota tokia legenda:

„Kęstutis, viešpataudamas Trakuose bei Žemaičiuose, išgirdo esant Palangoje mergelę, vardu Birutė, kuri pagonišku papročiu buvo pasižadėjusi savo dievams išsaugoti skaistybę ir pati buvo žmonių garbinama kaip dievaitė. Nuvyko pats didysis kunigaikštis Kęstutis tenai, ir labai ji jam patiko, nes buvo labai graži mergaitė ir protinga. Ir prašė ją, kad būtų jo žmona. Ji nenorėjo sutikti ir atsisakė, kad pasižadėjusi savo dievams išsaugoti skaistybę iki mirties. Ir kunigaikštis Kęstutis paėmė ją prievarta iš tos vietos, su didžia pagarba palydėjo ją į savo sostinę Trakus ir, sukvietęs brolius, iškėlė su savaisiais broliais dideles vestuves ir paėmė tą mergelę Birutę sau už žmoną“.

Šaltiniai ir literatūra

  • Gediminaičiai: enciklopedinis žinynas, Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas, 2005 m. ISBN 5-420-01558-7
  • Alfredas Bumblauskas: Senosios Lietuvos istorija 1009-1795, Vilnius: Paknys, 2005 m. ISBN 9986-830-89-3

LITERATŪRA

Iš laisvosios interneto enciklopedijos Vikipedija. Prieigą per internetą, žiūrėtą 2014-11-18 <http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birut%C4%97>.

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