Boleslaw I of Poland, King (c.967 - 1025) MP

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Nicknames: "King of Poland", "the Brave", "Chrobry", "Bolesław I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry)", "in the past also known as Bolesław I the Great", "Vortigern / Wytgeorn of Wenden / Wendland", "Burizleif Wyrtgeorn rex Winidorium", "Furst Wendland"
Birthplace: Poznań, Wielkopolskie, Polska
Death: Died in Gniezno, Greater Poland, Poland
Occupation: król Polski, Prince, Fyrste, Kung av Polen, I Król Polski
Managed by: Andrzej Hennel
Last Updated:

About Boleslaw I of Poland, King

Bolesław Chrobry w Wikipedii po Polsku

Bolesław Chrobry on Wikipedia in English

http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_I_av_Polen

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Bolesław I Chrobry (Bolesław I the Brave or the Valiant) (967 – 17 June 1025), in the past also known as Bolesław I the Great (Wielki), was a Duke of Poland from 992-1025 and the first King of Poland from 19 April 1025 until his death. He also ruled as Boleslav IV, Duke of Bohemia during 1002-1003. He was the firstborn son of Mieszko I by his first wife, Dobrawa, daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia. He was named after his maternal grandfather. Bolesław I was a remarkable politician, strategist and statesman. He was able to turn Poland into one of the largest and most powerful monarchies in eastern Europe. Bolesław conducted successful military campaigns to the west, south and east. He consolidated the Polish lands and conquered territories outside of modern borders of Poland such as Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen and Lusatia as well as Bohemia.

-------------------------- Yrke: Furste av Polen 992-1025

Far: Mieszko I av Polen (922 - 992)

Mor: Dubrawka av Böhmen (925 - 977)

 

Född: omkring 967 Poznan, Polen 1)

Död: 1025-07-17 1)

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Familj med Judith av Ungern

Vigsel: 988 1)

Barn: Mieszko II Lambert av Polen (990 - 1034)

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Noteringar

Var även hertig av Böhmen 1003-1004.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Källor

1)  Directory of Royal Genealogical Data, Hull, England 

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död 1025. kung. den dristige.

det polska rikets grundloggare, furste 992, kung 1025. Han

erövrade Pommern och hade kontakter med Norden, von med Erik

Segersoll och motstOndare till Sven Tveskogg. Även i söder gjorde

han erövringar, Lausitz och Böhmen.Ett katolskt orkestift

inröottades i Gnesen 1000 och en oberoende polsk kyrka kom till

stOnd mot att tyske kejsarens överhöghet erkondes. Han förde dock

ett kraftigt motstOnd mot den tyska expansionen och erkondes som

vostslavernas fromste talesman.

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Boleslaw I, King of Poland (1)

M, #145541, d. 1025

Last Edited=7 Mar 2007

    Boleslaw I, King of Poland is the son of Mieszko I, Duke of Poland. (1) He died in 1025. (1)
    Boleslaw I, King of Poland also went by the nick-name of Boleslaw 'the Brave' (?). (1) He was a member of the House of Piast. (1) He succeeded to the title of Duke of Poland in 992. (1) He succeeded to the title of Duke of Bohemia in 1003. (2) He was deposed as Duke of Bohemia in 1004. (29 He was created King Boleslaw I of Poland in 1025. (1)

Children of Boleslaw I, King of Poland

-1. Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland+ d. 1034 (1)

-2. unknown daughter (?)+ (3)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p14555.htm#i145541

Bolesław I

king of Poland

by name Bolesław the Brave, Polish Bolesław Chrobry

born 966/967

died June 17, 1025

Main

duke (from 992) and then (from 1024) first king of Poland, who expanded his country’s territory to include Pomerania, Lusatia, and, for a time, the Bohemian princely lands. He made Poland a major European state and also created a Polish church independent of German control.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/71995/Boleslaw-I

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Bolesław I Chrobry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bolesław I Chrobry

King of Poland


Portrait by Jan Matejko.

Reign Duke: 992 – April 18, 1025

King: April 18 – June 17, 1025

Coronation April 18, 1025

Gniezno Cathedral, Poland.

Born 967

Birthplace Poznań

Died June 17, 1025[aged 58]

Place of death Kraków?

Buried Cathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, Poznań

Predecessor Mieszko I

Successor Mieszko II Lambert

Wives Hunilda (?), daughter of Rikdag

Judith of Hungary

Emnilda of Lusatia

Oda of Meissen

Offspring With Hunilda:

A daughter, Princess of Pomerania

With Judith:

Bezprym

With Enmilda:

A daughter, nun

Regelinda, Margravine of Meissen

Mieszko II Lambert

A daughter, Grand Princess of Kiev

Otto

With Oda:

Matilda

Dynasty Piast dynasty

Father Mieszko I

Mother Dobrawa of Bohemi

Bolesław I the Brave or the Valiant (Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry, Czech: Boleslav I (IV) Chrabrý; b. 967 - d. 17 June 1025), in the past also known as Bolesław I the Great (Wielki), was a Duke of Poland from 992-1025 and the first King of Poland since 19 April 1025 until his death. He also ruled as Boleslav IV, Duke of Bohemia during 1002-1003.

He was the firstborn son of Mieszko I by his first wife, Dobrawa, daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia.[1][2] He was named after his maternal grandfather.

Bolesław I was a remarkable politician, strategist and statesman. He was able to turn Poland into one of the largest and most powerful monarchies in eastern Europe. Boleslaw conducted successful military campaigns to the west, south and east. He consolidated the Polish lands and conquered territories outside of modern borders of Poland such as Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen and Lusatia as well as Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs.

He was an ally of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III who may have crowned him rex, although opinions vary on that point. Following the death of Otto III in 1002, Bolesław I conducted a series of successful wars against the Empire and Otto III's cousin and heir Henry II ending with the Peace of Bautzen in 1018. In the summer of 1018, in one of his most famous expeditions, Bolesław I captured Kiev, where, according to legend, he notched his sword when hitting Kiev's Golden Gate. Later, a sword known as szczerbiec, meaning notched sword, would become the ceremonial sword used in the coronation ceremony of Polish kings.

Bolesław I also managed to establish a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno, independent of German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which laid claims to the Polish area. During the famous Congress of Gniezno he was able to officially free himself of tribute to Germany and finally, in his most momentous act, he had himself crowned King, the first Polish ruler to do so.

He was an able administrator, establishing the so-called “prince’s law”, building numerous forts, churches, monasteries and bridges. Bolesław I established the first Polish monetary system, of grzywna divided into 240 denarii,[1] and minted his own coin. He is widely considered one of the most talented and accomplished of the Piast rulers.

Contents [hide]

1 Life

1.1 Youth

1.2 Accession

1.3 Extent of his domains

1.4 Duke of Poland

1.4.1 First years (992-1000)

1.4.2 Congress of Gniezno and alliance with the Holy Roman Empire (1000-1002)

1.4.3 Occupation of Meissen, Lusatia, Bautzen and the intervention in Bohemia (1002-1003)

1.4.4 Polish-German War (1002-1018)

1.4.5 Intervention in the Kievan Succession (1015-1019)

1.4.6 Coronation and Death (1025)

2 Bolesław I's Legacy

2.1 Military

2.2 Economy

2.3 Political

3 Marriages and Issue

4 See also

5 References


[edit] Life

[edit] Youth


Boleslaw I Chrobry as imagined by Jan MatejkoBolesław I was born in Poznań as the first child of Mieszko I, Duke of Poland and his wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa. At age six he may have been sent to the Imperial court in Germany as a hostage, according to the agreements of the Imperial Diet of Quedlinburg (although this fact is now disputed among the historians). Another theory stated that Bolesław I spent some time during the 980's at the court of his maternal uncle, Duke Boleslav II the Pious of Bohemia.

In 984 and at the instigation of his father, the eighteen-year-old Bolesław I married the daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen, probably named Hunilda or Oda. It is believed that following the wedding he became the ruler of Lesser Poland with his capital at Kraków. The death of Margrave Rikdag in 985 left the marriage devoid of any political value, and shortly thereafter the union was dissolved and Hunilda was repudiated.

At the end of 985, probably at the instigation of Boleslav II the Pious, Bolesław I married an unknown Hungarian princess with whom he had a son, Bezprym.[3] In older literature, the princess was identified as Judith, daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary.[4] Though opinions vary about the identity of Bolesław I 's second wife, there is a number of researchers who still support the hypothesis of her being the daughter of Géza.[5] However, this union also came to a quick end, probably because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary, and around 987 the union was dissolved.

By 989,and perhaps as early as 987, Bolesław I married Emnilda, daughter of Dobromir, a Slavic prince of Lusatia. Through this marriage he had a daughter Regelinda, a son, the future king Mieszko II, another daughter and a son Otton. At this time Bolesław I’s rule in Lesser Poland may have been at Bohemian conferment. Presuming that it was, he added this province to Poland only after Duke Boleslav II the Pious' death in 999. However assuming that Mieszko I took control of Lesser Poland in 990 (which is likely), than Bolesław I was bestowed the rule in Lesser Poland by his father but without its territory being included in the Polish realm. Bolesław I wasn't included in the document Dagome Iudex, and as such it may be supposed that Lesser Poland was already known as Bolesław I’s inheritance, while his two surviving half-brothers Mieszko and Lambert, sons of Mieszko I by his second wife Oda, were to divide the rest of the realm between each other. Another theory is that Bolesław I's absence from the document might be explained by an old Slavic custom whereby children received their inheritance as soon as they reached the age of majority. Thus Bolesław I might have received Kraków as his part of his father's legacy before the Dagome iudex had been written.[6]

[edit] Accession


Boleslaw I being crowned, oil on canvas, by Jan MatejkoThe circumstances in which Bolesław I took control of the country following the passing of his father, Mieszko I, forecasted what would later become a prevalent practice among the Piast dynasty. It consisted of struggle for domination, usually a military one, among the offspring of nearly every deceased monarch of the Piast dynasty. Bolesław I was no different, and shortly after the death of Mieszko I (25 May 992), he banished his stepmother Oda and his two half-brothers, as they had to be considered competitors to the throne, especially in light of the Dagome Iudex. The exact circumstances of Bolesław I’s ascension to the Ducal throne are unknown, but it is known that by June, he was the unquestioned ruler of Poland - as Otto III asked for his military aid in the summer of 992. Also immediately after gaining the full control over Poland, Bolesław I quelled the opposition of the Barons by blinding two of their leaders, the magnates Odylen and Przybywoj.[7] As cruel a sentence as this was, it proved most effective as it triggered such obedience of his subjects that from that point on there was no mention of any challenge of his position whatsoever.

[edit] Extent of his domains


Poland at the beginning of the reign of Boleslaw I

Statue of Boleslaw I Chrobry at WroclawBolesław I inherited from his father a realm that was close in dimensions to modern-day Poland. It centered on the core of Polanian country, the later Greater Poland (Polish: Wielkopolska). Greater Poland encompassed the valley of river Warta, stretched to the north to the Notec river and to the south it encompassed Kalisz. Outside of this core the nascent Poland included the surrounding areas subdued by Bolesław I's father, Mieszko I which included: parts of Pomerania to the north, including Kolobrzeg in the west and Gdansk in the east, Mazovia with its capital at Plock to the east and Silesia to the south-west. It is disputed whether Lesser Poland, centered around Kraków, was incorporated into the Polish realm by Mieszko I before 992 or whether it was added by Bolesław I in 999. Either way by the year 1000 Bolesław I was the lord of a domain larger than contemporary England, Denmark, León or Burgundy.

[edit] Duke of Poland

[edit] First years (992-1000)

It appears, from the lack of any record of international activity, that Bolesław I spent the first years as ruler more concerned about gaining the throne and remaining on it than trying to increase the size of his dominion. It is during this period of consolidation of power that he allied himself with Otto III, the Emperor of Germany, when in 995 he aided the Holy Roman Emperor in his expedition against the Lusatians.

Endeavoring to extend his influence to the territory of the Prussians, Bolesław I encouraged Christianizing missions in the Prussian lands. Most famous of those was the mission of Vojtěch from the Bohemian princely Slavník clan, former bishop of Prague. Known as Adalbert of Prague upon the death of Adalbert of Magdeburg in 981, Adalbert's mission took place in 997 and ended in the missionary’s martyrdom at the hands of the pagan Prussians, which occurred in April 997 on the Baltic Sea coast in the vicinity of Truso (a medieval emporia near modern city of Elbląg). The remains of the missionary were held for ransom by the Prussians and Bohemian Přemyslid rulers refused to pay for Adalbert's (Vojtech) body, consequently it was purchased by Duke Bolesław I for its weight in gold, and buried in Gniezno. In 999 Bishop Adalbert was canonized as Saint Adalbert by Pope Sylvester II. He was later made the patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, and Prussia. Canonization of Vojtěch increased the prestige of the Polish church in Europe and the prestige of Polish state on the international arena.

[edit] Congress of Gniezno and alliance with the Holy Roman Empire (1000-1002)

Main article: Congress of Gniezno


Bolesław I as depicted on Gniezno Doors, mid. 12th centuryBy the year 1000, Bolesław I had consolidated his position as Duke (Dux) of Poland. Not only did he not meet any internal opposition, but he furthermore had gained the respect of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (980-1002).[8] Consequently in the year 1000, Otto III visited Poland under the pretext of a pilgrimage to the grave of his friend, the recently canonized Bishop Adalbert (Vojtěch). In addition to the religious motivation, Otto III’s voyage also carried a strong political agenda: he had intentions to renew the Holy Roman Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum".[9] Within the federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire.[9]

The Emperor needed to assess Poland’s strength and establish its status within the Holy Roman Empire. The ensuing Congress of Gniezno, where Bolesław I entertained his distinguished guest, is one of the most famous episodes of medieval Polish history. During the time the emperor spent in Poland, Bolesław I did not hide the wealth of his country, in fact he showed off its affluence at every step as he tried to dazzle the emperor. Among other gifts the Polish ruler presented to Otto III were 300 armored knights, while the Emperor responded with a gift of a copy of the lance of Saint Maurice.Evidently Otto III was impressed with what he saw and he decided that Poland should be treated as a kingdom on par with Germany and Italy, not merely as a tributary duchy like Bohemia[10]. Since Otto III had intentions to renew the Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum”, and within that federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire it was towards this end that the Emperor placed his Imperial crown on Bolesław I’s brow and invested him with the titles frater et cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire") and populi Romani amicus et socius.[9] He also raised Bolesław I to the dignity of patricius or "elder of the Roman nation".[11] This episode has long been a subject of hot debate among historians. Some historians see this as an act of favor between an Emperor and his vassal, others as a gesture of friendship between equals. Could placing of the Imperial crown on Bolesław’s head mean that the Emperor crowned the Polish Duke? . Most modern historians agree that it could not. Though it was undoubtedly a sign of Otto’s respect for the Polish ruler, it could not truly mean Bolesław I was King as only the Pope had the authority to invest a prince with the crown and elevate his realm to a status of a kingdom.[8] According to one source afterwards Bolesław I traveled with the Emperor to Aix-la-Chapelle where Otto III had the tomb of Charlemagne opened. From there Otto III is reputed to have removed the Imperial throne itself and presented it to the Polish Duke.[10]

Other political talks took place as well. Otto III decided that Poland will no longer be required to pay tribute to the Empire. Gniezno was confirmed as an Archbishopric and a Metropolitan See for the Polish area. Three new Bishoprics were created and confirmed with papal consent. They were placed at Krakow, Wroclaw and Kolobrzeg. The Poznań missionary Bishopric was confirmed as subject directly to the Vatican. Bolesław I and his heirs gained the right of investiture of bishops. The future marriage of Bolesław I’s son Mieszko to Richeza (Polish: Rycheza), niece of Otto III, was also probably agreed upon at this point.[12]

The untimely death of Otto III at age 22 in 1002 upset the ambitious renovatio plans, which were never fully implemented. Henry II, Otto III's less idealistic successor, and an opponent of Otto's policies, reversed the course of Imperial policy towards the east.[13]

[edit] Occupation of Meissen, Lusatia, Bautzen and the intervention in Bohemia (1002-1003)


statue of Bolesław I and Mieszko I in the Golden Chapel, PoznanThe excellent relations of Poland and Germany enjoyed during the Reign of Otto III, quickly deteriorated following his death. Bolesław I supported Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen, for the German throne. When Eckard was assassinated in April, Bolesław I lent his support to Henry IV, Duke of Bavaria, and helped him ascend to the German throne as Henry II. Bolesław I took advantage of internal strife following the Emperor's death and occupied important areas to the west of the Oder: Margraviate of Meissen and March of Lusatia, including strongholds Budziszyn and Strzala. Bolesław I claimed an hereditary right to Meissen as a relative of its former ruler Margrave Rikdag (only through marriage; he was the former husband of his daughter). Henry II accepted Bolesław I’s gains and he allowed the Polish Duke to keep Lusatia as a fief. The one exception was Meissen, which Bolesław I was not allowed to keep. Though at this point Polish–German relations were normalized, soon thereafter Henry II organized a failed assassination attempt on Bolesław I's life and relations between the two countries were severed.[14]

In the same year (1003) Bolesław I became entangled in Bohemian affairs when the Duke Vladivoj died earlier in that year. Following this Bolesław I aided a pretender, Boleslav III the Red, in gaining the throne. Later Boleslav III undermined his own position by ordering a massacre of his leading nobles, the Vršovci, at Vyšehrad. Those nobles who survived the massacre secretly sent messengers to Bolesław I and entreated him to come to their aid. The Polish Duke willingly agreed, and invited Boleslav III to visit him at his castle in Kraków. There, Boleslav III was trapped, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying in captivity some thirty years later. Bolesław I, claiming the Ducal throne for himself, invaded Bohemia in 1003 and took Prague without any serious opposition, ruling as Boleslav IV for a little over a year. It is also likely that Polish forces took control of Moravia and Slovakia in 1003 as well.

[edit] Polish-German War (1002-1018)


Statue of Boleslaw I Chrobry at Gniezno, by Jerzy SobocinskiOnce the relations with Henry II soured, Bolesław I expected Germany to revert to the policy of constant invasions into Polish territory. Being conscious of the western threat the Polish prince took a preemptive action and took control of marches of Lusatia, Sorbian Meissen, and the cities of Budziszyn (Bautzen) and Meissen in 1002, and refused to pay the tribute to the Empire from the conquered territories.

Henry II answered with an offensive a year later. Though the first attack wasn't successful, already in the autumn of 1004 the German forces deposed Bolesław I from the Bohemian throne. Bolesław I did manage to keep Moravia and Slovakia, however, over which he exercised control until 1018. During the next part of the offensive Henry II retook Meissen and in 1005 his army advanced as far into Poland as the city of Poznan where a peace treaty was signed.[15] According to the peace treaty Bolesław I lost Lusatia and Meissen and likely gave up his claim to the Bohemian throne. Also in 1005, a pagan rebellion in Pomerania overturned Boleslaw's rule and resulted in the destruction of the just implemented local bishopric.[16]

In 1007 Henry II denounced the Peace of Poznań, resulting in Bolesław I’s attack on the Archbishopric of Magdeburg as well as re-occupation of marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen including the city of Bautzen. The German counter-offensive began three years later, in 1010. It was of no significant consequence, beyond some pillaging in Silesia. In 1012 a five year peace was signed.

Bolesław I broke the peace however, and once again invaded Lusatia. Bolesław I’s forces pillaged and burned the city of Lubusz (Lebus).[15] In 1013 a peace accord was signed at Merseburg. As part of peace Bolesław I payed homage to Henry II, in exchange for which he received the marks of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as fiefs. Also, was performed the marriage of his son Mieszko with Richeza of Lotharingia, daughter of the Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II.

In 1014 Bolesław I sent his son Mieszko to Bohemia in order to form an alliance with duke Oldrich against Emperor Henry II. Bolesław I also refused to aid the Emperor militarily in his Italian expedition. This led to imperial intervention in Poland and so in 1015 a war erupted once again. The war started out well for the Emperor as he was able to defeat the Polish forces at Ciani. Once the imperial forces crossed the river Oder, Bolesław I sent a detachment of Moravian knights in a diversionary attack against the Eastern March of the empire. Soon thereafter the German army retreated from Poland without making any permanent gains. Following this Bolesław I’s forces took the initiative. The Margrave of Meissen, Gero II, was defeated and killed during a clash with the Polish forces late in 1015.

Later that year, Bolesław I’s son Mieszko was sent to plunder Meissen. His attempt at conquering the city however, failed. [15] In 1017 Bolesław I defeated Margrave Henry V of Bavaria. In 1017 with Czech and Wendish support Henry II once again invaded Poland, however, once again to very little effect. He did besiege cities of Glogow and Niemcza, but was unable to take them. Taking advantage of Czech troops’ involvement, Bolesław I ordered his son to invade Bohemia, where Mieszko met very little resistance. On 30 January 1018 the Peace of Bautzen (which made Bolesław I a clear winner), was signed. The Polish ruler was able to keep the contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen not as fiefs, but as part of Polish territory, and also received military aid in his expedition against Kievan Rus. Also, Bolesław I (then a widower) reforced his dynastic bonds with the German nobility through his marriage with Oda, daughter of Margrave Eckard I of Meissen. The wedding took place four days later, on 3 February in the castle (German: Burg) of Cziczani (also Sciciani, at the site of either modern Groß-Seitschen[17] or Zützen[18]).

[edit] Intervention in the Kievan Succession (1015-1019)


Boleslaw I Chrobry entering conquered Kiev. Painting by Jan MatejkoBolesław I organized his first expedition against his eastern neighbor in 1015, but the decisive engagements were to take place in 1018 after the peace of Budziszyn was already signed. At the request of his son-in-law Sviatopolk I of Kiev, the Polish duke invaded Kievan Rus with an army of between 2,000–5,000 Polish warriors, in addition to Thietmar's reported 1,000 Pechenegs, 300 German knights, and 500 Hungarian mercenaries[19]. After collecting his forces during June, Boleslaw led his troops to the border in July and on 23 July at the banks of the Western Bug River, near Wielen, he defeated the forces of Yaroslav the Wise prince of Kiev, in what became known as the Battle at Bug river. All primary sources agree that the Polish prince was victorious in battle.[20][21] Yaroslav retreated north to Novgorod, rather than to Kiev. The victory opened the road to Kiev, already under harassment from Boleslaw’s Pecheneg allies. The city, which suffered from fires caused by the Pecheneg siege, surrendered upon seeing the main Polish force on 14 August. The entering army, led by Bolesław I, was ceremonially welcomed by the local archbishop and the family of Vladimir I of Kiev. Bolesław I may have deployed his troops in the capital of Rus for no more than six months (see Kiev Expedition of 1018) but had to recall them eventually due to popular uprising against the Poles. According to popular legend Bolesław I notched his sword (Szczerbiec) hitting the Golden Gate of Kiev. During this campaign Poland re-annexed the Red Strongholds, later called Red Ruthenia, lost by Bolesław I's father in 981.

In 1015 Bolesław I sent a detachment of Polish horsemen to aid his nephew Canute the Great, son of his sister Swietoslawa, in his conquest of England.[11]

[edit] Coronation and Death (1025)


Poland at the end of the reign of Boleslaw I.After Henry's death in 1024, Bolesław I took advantage of the interregnum in Germany and crowned himself king in 1025, thus raising Poland to the rank of a kingdom before its neighbor Bohemia. He was the first Polish king (rex), his predecessors having been unable to attain the honor, they were therefore considered dukes (dux) by the Holy Roman Empire as well as the papacy, the usual arbiters in these matters. The exact place and date of the coronation are unknown. Bolesław I died not long after the coronation, due most likely to an illness.

The whereabouts of Boleslaw's burial are uncertain. It is believed that recently discovered remains of a double tomb in Poznan cathedral may be the burial places of the first two Polish Rulers: Boleslaw I and his father Mieszko. Bolesław I's son, Mieszko II, crowned himself king immediately after his father died in Poznań.

[edit] Bolesław I's Legacy

[edit] Military


Bolesław I the Brave, Painting by Aleksander Lesser.‎

At the time of his death Bolesław I left Poland larger than he inherited her, adding to its domains the long contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as well as Red Ruthenia and possibly Lesser Poland. Militarily, at the time, Poland was unquestioningly a considerable power as Bolesław I was able to fight successful campaigns against both Holy Roman Empire and the Kievan Rus. On the other hand it must be highlighted that his long-term involvement in the war against Germany allowed Western Pomerania to gain independence from the Polish aegis. Another negative side of Bolesław I’s drawn out military campaigns was a damaging influence on the economy of his kingdom. With the passing of each year, Bolesław I needed an ever increasing amounts to finance his wars, especially when fought on two fronts; in Germany and Kiev. Unceasing war had placed ever increasing fiscal obligations on the shoulders of his subjects, which in turn caused negative sentiment, sentiment that was to increase throughout his reign, and that would erupt into popular revolt soon after his death.

[edit] Economy


Denar of Boleslaw I.Bolesław I was a gifted and organized administrator. He was largely responsible for fully implementing the “Prince’s Law” throughout the Polish lands. The Prince's Law created a sort of nationalized economy, controlled by the state, whose sole duty it was to finance the prince's spending needs. These needs were considerable, as the Duke was responsible for all manner of building projects. The foundation of the “Prince's Law” lay in a network of fortified towns called grody, but the ruler also commissioned the building of churches, monasteries, roads, bridges etc, in short the development of an infrastructure. The building projects were financed by collecting taxes in money or goods. Also peasants were required to house the monarch or provide the prince with different manner of goods and services which included communications, hunting, military or others. To produce necessary goods Bolesław I organized a network of service settlements that specialized each in manufacturing about 30 different goods, such as: barrels, arches, metal wares, spears, as well as settlements responsible for animal husbandry, i.e., swine, horses or cattle. Hundreds of villages were thus specialized and named to reflect their particular job. To this day one may find scores of settlements in Poland with names left over from that era, such as: Szewce, Kuchary or Kobylniki. This quite impressive system functioned well enough to support Bolesław I throughout his 33 year reign.

[edit] Political


The Piast White Eagle, circa 13th century.‎‎

Increasing both the internal and external strength of the realm was of paramount importance to Bolesław I, especially in the face of increasing pressure from the magnates. The magnates demanded a larger share in the administration of the country while Bolesław I sought to strengthen the central authority of the ruler. Bolesław I’s coronation, sometime in 1025, was aimed precisely to reinforce his leading position. In general an overall integration of the country took place during his reign.

Bolesław I was able to establish an independent Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno, with papal and imperial sanction. His work laid a foundation for the use of designation “Poland” that was to unite all regions of the realm, as well as for the use of one symbol to represent the supreme authority of the prince. The symbol was a sign of Gniezno’s knightly class: the white eagle.

[edit] Marriages and Issue

First marriage: 984 - 985

An unknown daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen, probably named Hunilda or Oda. After Rikdag's death in 985, she was repudiated by her husband and sent away.

Issue:

1.A daughter (b. ca. 985 - d. aft. 997), married ca. 996/97 to an undentified Prince of Pomerania.[22]

Second marriage: 986 - 987/89

An unknown Hungarian princess formerly believed to be Judith, daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary. Around 987, as a consequence of the deterioration in the political relations between Poland and Hungary, she was repudiated.

Issue:

1.Bezprym (b. ca. 986 - d. 1032).

Third marriage: 987/89 - 1013

Emnilda, daughter of Dobromir, prince of Lusatia.

Issue:

1.A daughter (b. 988 - d. aft 1013), a nun.

2.Regelinda (b. 989 - d. 21 March aft. 1014), married by 30 April 1002 to Herman I, Margrave of Meissen.

3.Mieszko II Lambert (b. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034).

4.A daughter (b. ca. 991 - d. aft. 14 August 1018), married bef. 15 July 1015 to Sviatopolk I, Grand Prince of Kiev.

5.Otto (b. 1000 - d. 1033).

Fourth marriage: 1018 - 1025

Oda (b. ca. 996 - d. aft. 1025), daughter of Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen.

Issue:

1.Matilda (b. aft. 1018 - d. aft. 1036), betrothed (or married) on 18 May 1035 to Otto of Schweinfurt, since 1048 Duke Otto III of Swabia.

[edit] See also

History of Poland (966-1385)

Castle Chrobry in Szprotawa

Bolesław Chrobry Tournament - speedway event named after the King

Forrás / Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_I_Chrobry

I. Boleszláv lengyel király [szerkesztés]

Megtekintett lap (+/-)

Ez az utolsó megtekintett változat (összes); elfogadva: 2009. szeptember 20.

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I. Boleszláv, Vitéz Boleszláv (lengyelül: Bolesław I Chrobry (Wielki)) (967. – 1025. június 17.) lengyel uralkodó a Piast-házból. 992. május 25-étől 1025 húsvétjáig fejedelemként, élete utolsó hónapjaiban királyként uralkodott. Elsőszülött fia I. Mieszko lengyel fejedelemnek és Dobrawa Przemyśl, a cseh I. Kegyetlen Boleszláv herceg és Adiva, angol hercegnő lányának.

Tartalomjegyzék [elrejtés]

1 Boleszláv fiatal évei és trónra kerülése

2 Mieszko halála után

3 A gnieznoi érsekség megalapítása

4 Családfája

5 Irodalom


Boleszláv fiatal évei és trónra kerülése [szerkesztés]

I. Mieszko és I. Boleszláv hasonló szerepet tölt be a lengyel történelemben, mint Géza fejedelem és Szent István a magyaréban. Mieszko, a Piast-dinasztia első jelentős tagja egyesítette uralma alatt az Odera és Visztula folyók között és a Warta folyó mentén lakó törzseket, majd egy katonai vereség hatására Lengyelország későbbi sorsát alapvetően meghatározó változtatásokra kényszerült. 965-ben feleségül vette a keresztény Dobrawa hercegnőt, maga is megkeresztelkedett és I. Ottó német-római császártól térítő papokat kért. Elsőszülött fia, Boleszláv nevével a Quedlinburgban tartott birodalmi találkozó kapcsán találkozhatunk a forrásokban először. A 973. húsvétján tartott találkozón az akkor nyolc éves körüli Boleszláv képviselte Lengyelországot, és bizonytalan, hogy a lengyel herceg ekkor békét szavatoló túsznak, vagy diplomáciai küldetést teljesítő követnek volt-e tekinthető.

Mieszko halála után [szerkesztés]

Mieszko 992. május 25-én halt meg. Az ezt követő eseményekről a források ellentmondásosak, egyes feltételezések szerint Mieszkónak szándékában állt elsőszülött fiát kizárni az örökösödésből, mások szerint felosztotta az országot három fia között. A jelek arra mutatnak, hogy ezután mintegy három évig trónharcok voltak Lengyelországban. Mieszko második felesége, Oda saját fiát akarta a lengyel trónra ültetni és e törekvésében élvezte a kijevi nagyfejedelem, Nagy Vlagyimír támogatását is. A kísérlet végül nem járt sikerrel, Boleszláv mostohaanyját és féltestvéreit kijevi száműzetésbe tudta kényszeríteni. 995-ben már szilárd hatalma lehetett Lengyelországban, ezt az is mutatja, hogy III. Ottó oldalán részt vett a még meg nem keresztelkedett szláv törzsek elleni hadjáratokban.

A gnieznoi érsekség megalapítása [szerkesztés]

A következő években a német–lengyel viszony konfliktusmentes volt és ez alkalmat adott Boleszlávnak arra, hogy folytassa apja megkezdett művét, a lengyel állami és egyházi szervezet kiépítését. A korabeli fiatal keresztény államok függetlenségének legjelentősebb eleme az önálló egyházszervezet volt és a jelek szerint Mieszkónak ezen a téren nem sikerült teljes sikert elérnie. Lengyelország első püspöke, Jordan – a források egy része szerint vándorpüspökként, más része szerint Poznań székhellyel – a magdeburgi érseknek volt alárendelve. Ez egyértelmű német befolyást jelentett, ezért 999-ben a gnieznoi érsekség megalapítása az önálló Lengyelország megteremtésének egyik legjelentősebb eseménye volt. Az érsekség megalapítása a kor egyik Európa-szerte ismert egyházi személyisége, Szent Adalbert halálával volt kapcsolatos. Boleszláv jó barátságban volt Adalberttel, és mikor a püspököt 997-ben Gdańsk közelében megölték, holttestét – súlyával megegyező mennyiségű aranyért – kiváltotta, majd Gnieznoban temettette el. Szent Adalbert tisztelői és barátai közé számított III. Ottó német–római császár és II. Szilveszter pápa is, így halála után néhány évvel hozzájárultak ahhoz, hogy a vértanú püspök sírja egy új egyházszervezet központjává váljon. Lengyelország első érsekségének élére Szent Adalbert testvére, Radim-Gaudentius került.

Családfája [szerkesztés]

4. (apai nagyapa) Siemomysł †962

   2.  (apa) I. Mieszko †992 május 25. 

5. (apai nagyanya) ismeretlen

     1. Vitéz Boleszláv †1025. június 17. 

6. (anyai nagyapa) Kegyetlen Boleszláv †972 július 15.

   3.  (anya) Dobrawa †977     

7. (anyai nagyanya) Biagota (?)

Forrás / Source:

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/I._Boleszl%C3%A1v_lengyel_kir%C3%A1ly

--------------------

Biografi - Biography

Boleslaus [Boleslaw] «den Tapre» var hertug av Polen 992 - 1025 og ble den første konge av Polen.

Han erobret Lausitz og Meissen i 1002. Bøhmen overtok han etter at Boleslav III av Bøhmen ble fordrevet, men keiser Henrik II tvang ham snart til å oppgi dette igjen. Boleslaus var en varm forkjempe for kristendommen. Hans herredømme strakte seg like til Østersjøen.

I de norske sagaer kalles han Burislav. Hans søster, Gunhild, ble gift med Svend Tjugeskjegg. En av hans døtre, Geila, skal ha vært gift med Olav Trygvasson i hans ungdom.

Beleslav var gift

1. gang tidligst 987-88 med Hemmilde av Meisen,

2. gang med Judith, datter til hertug Geza i Ungarn,

3. gang med Conilde og

4. gang med Oda, datter til markgreve Eckhard I av Meissen.

Boleslaus tok kongenavn kort tid før sin død i 1025. 1

1.

Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 20. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 80. Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Copyright (c) 2000.

--------------------

Marriage (1): Rikdaga in 984

Marriage (2): Thyra Haraldsdatter Queen of Norway

Marriage (3): Judith about 990

Marriage (4): Enmilda about 995

Marriage (5): Oda about 998

--------------------

Bolesław I the Brave or the Valiant (Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry, Czech: Boleslav I (IV) Chrabrý; b. 967 - d. 17 June 1025), in the past also known as Bolesław I the Great (Wielki), was a Duke of Poland from 992-1025 and the first King of Poland from 19 April 1025 until his death. He also ruled as Boleslav IV, Duke of Bohemia during 1002-1003.

He was the firstborn son of Mieszko I by his first wife, Dobrawa, daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia.[1][2] He was named after his maternal grandfather.

Bolesław I was a remarkable politician, strategist and statesman. He was able to turn Poland into one of the largest and most powerful monarchies in eastern Europe. Boleslaw conducted successful military campaigns to the west, south and east. He consolidated the Polish lands and conquered territories outside of modern borders of Poland such as Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen and Lusatia as well as Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs.

He was an ally of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III who may have crowned him rex, although opinions vary on that point. Following the death of Otto III in 1002, Bolesław I conducted a series of successful wars against the Empire and Otto III's cousin and heir Henry II ending with the Peace of Bautzen in 1018. In the summer of 1018, in one of his most famous expeditions, Bolesław I captured Kiev, where, according to legend, he notched his sword when hitting Kiev's Golden Gate. Later, a sword known as szczerbiec, meaning notched sword, would become the ceremonial sword used in the coronation ceremony of Polish kings.

Bolesław I also managed to establish a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno, independent of German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which laid claims to the Polish area. During the famous Congress of Gniezno he was able to officially free himself of tribute to Germany and finally, in his most momentous act, he had himself crowned King, the first Polish ruler to do so.

He was an able administrator, establishing the so-called “prince’s law”, building numerous forts, churches, monasteries and bridges. Bolesław I established the first Polish monetary system, of grzywna divided into 240 denarii,[1] and minted his own coin. He is widely considered one of the most talented and accomplished of the Piast rulers.

Contents [hide]

1 Life

1.1 Youth

1.2 Accession

1.3 Extent of his domains

1.4 Duke of Poland

1.4.1 First years (992-1000)

1.4.2 Congress of Gniezno and alliance with the Holy Roman Empire (1000-1002)

1.4.3 Occupation of Meissen, Lusatia, Bautzen and the intervention in Bohemia (1002-1003)

1.4.4 Polish-German War (1002–1018)

1.4.5 Intervention in the Kievan Succession (1015-1019)

1.4.6 Coronation and Death (1025)

2 Bolesław I's Legacy

2.1 Military

2.2 Economy

2.3 Political

3 Marriages and Issue

4 See also

5 References

5.1 Notes

[edit]Life

[edit]Youth

Boleslaw I Chrobry as imagined by Jan Matejko

Bolesław I was born in Poznań as the first child of Mieszko I, Duke of Poland and his wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa. At age six he may have been sent to the Imperial court in Germany as a hostage, according to the agreements of the Imperial Diet of Quedlinburg (although this fact is now disputed among historians). Another theory stated that Bolesław I spent some time during the 980's at the court of his maternal uncle, Duke Boleslav II the Pious of Bohemia.

In 984 and at the instigation of his father, the eighteen-year-old Bolesław I married the daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen, probably named Hunilda or Oda. It is believed that following the wedding he became the ruler of Lesser Poland with his capital at Kraków. The death of Margrave Rikdag in 985 left the marriage devoid of any political value, and shortly thereafter the union was dissolved and Hunilda was repudiated.

At the end of 985, probably at the instigation of Boleslav II the Pious, Bolesław I married an unknown Hungarian princess with whom he had a son, Bezprym.[3] In older literature, the princess was identified as Judith, daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary.[4] Though opinions vary about the identity of Bolesław I 's second wife, there are a number of researchers who still support the hypothesis of her being the daughter of Géza.[5] However, this union also came to a quick end, probably because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary, and around 987 the union was dissolved.

By 989,and perhaps as early as 987, Bolesław I married Emnilda, daughter of Dobromir, a Slavic prince of Lusatia. Through this marriage he had a daughter Regelinda, a son, the future king Mieszko II, another daughter and a son Otton. At this time Bolesław I’s rule in Lesser Poland may have been at Bohemian conferment. Presuming that it was, he added this province to Poland only after Duke Boleslav II the Pious' death in 999. However assuming that Mieszko I took control of Lesser Poland in 990 (which is likely), than Bolesław I was bestowed the rule in Lesser Poland by his father but without its territory being included in the Polish realm. Bolesław I wasn't included in the document Dagome Iudex, and as such it may be supposed that Lesser Poland was already known as Bolesław I’s inheritance, while his two surviving half-brothers Mieszko and Lambert, sons of Mieszko I by his second wife Oda, were to divide the rest of the realm between each other. Another theory is that Bolesław I's absence from the document might be explained by an old Slavic custom whereby children received their inheritance as soon as they reached the age of majority. Thus Bolesław I might have received Kraków as his part of his father's legacy before the Dagome iudex had been written.[6]

[edit]Accession

Boleslaw I being crowned, oil on canvas, by Jan Matejko

The circumstances in which Bolesław I took control of the country following the passing of his father, Mieszko I, forecasted what would later become a prevalent practice among the Piast dynasty. It consisted of struggle for domination, usually a military one, among the offspring of nearly every deceased monarch of the Piast dynasty. Bolesław I was no different, and shortly after the death of Mieszko I (25 May 992), he banished his stepmother Oda and his two half-brothers, as they had to be considered competitors to the throne, especially in light of the Dagome Iudex. The exact circumstances of Bolesław I’s ascension to the Ducal throne are unknown, but it is known that by June, he was the unquestioned ruler of Poland - as Otto III asked for his military aid in the summer of 992. Also immediately after gaining the full control over Poland, Bolesław I quelled the opposition of the Barons by blinding two of their leaders, the magnates Odylen and Przybywoj.[7] As cruel a sentence as this was, it proved most effective as it triggered such obedience of his subjects that from that point on there was no mention of any challenge of his position whatsoever.

[edit]Extent of his domains

Poland at the beginning of the reign of Boleslaw I

Statue of Boleslaw I Chrobry at Wroclaw

Bolesław I inherited from his father a realm that was close in dimensions to modern-day Poland. It centered on the core of Polanian country, the later Greater Poland (Polish: Wielkopolska). Greater Poland encompassed the valley of river Warta, stretched to the north to the Notec river and to the south it encompassed Kalisz. Outside of this core the nascent Poland included the surrounding areas subdued by Bolesław I's father, Mieszko I which included: parts of Pomerania to the north, including Kolobrzeg in the west and Gdansk in the east, Mazovia with its capital at Plock to the east and Silesia to the south-west. It is disputed whether Lesser Poland, centered around Kraków, was incorporated into the Polish realm by Mieszko I before 992 or whether it was added by Bolesław I in 999. Either way by the year 1000 Bolesław I was the lord of a domain larger than contemporary England, Denmark, León or Burgundy.

[edit]Duke of Poland

[edit]First years (992-1000)

It appears, from the lack of any record of international activity, that Bolesław I spent the first years as ruler more concerned about gaining the throne and remaining on it than trying to increase the size of his dominion. It is during this period of consolidation of power that he allied himself with Otto III, the Emperor of Germany, when in 995 he aided the Holy Roman Emperor in his expedition against the Lusatians.

Endeavoring to extend his influence to the territory of the Prussians, Bolesław I encouraged Christianizing missions in the Prussian lands. Most famous of those was the mission of Vojtěch from the Bohemian princely Slavník clan, former bishop of Prague. Known as Adalbert of Prague upon the death of Adalbert of Magdeburg in 981, Adalbert's mission took place in 997 and ended in the missionary’s martyrdom at the hands of the pagan Prussians, which occurred in April 997 on the Baltic Sea coast in the vicinity of Truso (a medieval emporia near modern city of Elbląg). The remains of the missionary were held for ransom by the Prussians and Bohemian Přemyslid rulers refused to pay for Adalbert's (Vojtech) body, consequently it was purchased by Duke Bolesław I for its weight in gold, and buried in Gniezno. In 999 Bishop Adalbert was canonized as Saint Adalbert by Pope Sylvester II. He was later made the patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, and Prussia. Canonization of Vojtěch increased the prestige of the Polish church in Europe and the prestige of Polish state on the international arena.

[edit]Congress of Gniezno and alliance with the Holy Roman Empire (1000-1002)

Main article: Congress of Gniezno

Bolesław I as depicted on Gniezno Doors, mid. 12th century

By the year 1000, Bolesław I had consolidated his position as Duke (Dux) of Poland. Not only did he not meet any internal opposition, but he furthermore had gained the respect of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (980-1002).[8] Consequently in the year 1000, Otto III visited Poland under the pretext of a pilgrimage to the grave of his friend, the recently canonized Bishop Adalbert (Vojtěch). In addition to the religious motivation, Otto III’s voyage also carried a strong political agenda: he had intentions to renew the Holy Roman Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum".[9] Within the federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire.[9]

The Emperor needed to assess Poland’s strength and establish its status within the Holy Roman Empire. The ensuing Congress of Gniezno, where Bolesław I entertained his distinguished guest, is one of the most famous episodes of medieval Polish history. During the time the emperor spent in Poland, Bolesław I did not hide the wealth of his country, in fact he showed off its affluence at every step as he tried to dazzle the emperor. Among other gifts the Polish ruler presented to Otto III were 300 armored knights, while the Emperor responded with a gift of a copy of the lance of Saint Maurice.Evidently Otto III was impressed with what he saw and he decided that Poland should be treated as a kingdom on par with Germany and Italy, not merely as a tributary duchy like Bohemia[10]. Since Otto III had intentions to renew the Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum”, and within that federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire it was towards this end that the Emperor placed his Imperial crown on Bolesław I’s brow and invested him with the titles frater et cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire") and populi Romani amicus et socius.[9] He also raised Bolesław I to the dignity of patricius or "elder of the Roman nation".[11] This episode has long been a subject of hot debate among historians. Some historians see this as an act of favor between an Emperor and his vassal, others as a gesture of friendship between equals. Could placing of the Imperial crown on Bolesław’s head mean that the Emperor crowned the Polish Duke? . Most modern historians agree that it could not. Though it was undoubtedly a sign of Otto’s respect for the Polish ruler, it could not truly mean Bolesław I was King as only the Pope had the authority to invest a prince with the crown and elevate his realm to a status of a kingdom.[8] According to one source afterwards Bolesław I traveled with the Emperor to Aix-la-Chapelle where Otto III had the tomb of Charlemagne opened. From there Otto III is reputed to have removed the Imperial throne itself and presented it to the Polish Duke.[10]

Other political talks took place as well. Otto III decided that Poland will no longer be required to pay tribute to the Empire. Gniezno was confirmed as an Archbishopric and a Metropolitan See for the Polish area. Three new Bishoprics were created and confirmed with papal consent. They were placed at Krakow, Wroclaw and Kolobrzeg. The Poznań missionary Bishopric was confirmed as subject directly to the Vatican. Bolesław I and his heirs gained the right of investiture of bishops. The future marriage of Bolesław I’s son Mieszko to Richeza (Polish: Rycheza), niece of Otto III, was also probably agreed upon at this point.[12]

The untimely death of Otto III at age 22 in 1002 upset the ambitious renovatio plans, which were never fully implemented. Henry II, Otto III's less idealistic successor, and an opponent of Otto's policies, reversed the course of Imperial policy towards the east.[13]

[edit]Occupation of Meissen, Lusatia, Bautzen and the intervention in Bohemia (1002-1003)

Statues of Bolesław I and Mieszko I by Christian Daniel Rauch in the Golden Chapel, Poznan

The excellent relations of Poland and Germany enjoyed during the Reign of Otto III, quickly deteriorated following his death. Bolesław I supported Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen, for the German throne. When Eckard was assassinated in April, Bolesław I lent his support to Henry IV, Duke of Bavaria, and helped him ascend to the German throne as Henry II. Bolesław I took advantage of internal strife following the Emperor's death and occupied important areas to the west of the Oder: Margraviate of Meissen and March of Lusatia, including strongholds Budziszyn and Strzala. Bolesław I claimed an hereditary right to Meissen as a relative of its former ruler Margrave Rikdag (only through marriage; he was the former husband of his daughter). Henry II accepted Bolesław I’s gains and he allowed the Polish Duke to keep Lusatia as a fief. The one exception was Meissen, which Bolesław I was not allowed to keep. Though at this point Polish–German relations were normalized, soon thereafter Henry II organized a failed assassination attempt on Bolesław I's life and relations between the two countries were severed.[14]

In the same year (1003) Bolesław I became entangled in Bohemian affairs when the Duke Vladivoj died earlier in that year. Following this Bolesław I aided a pretender, Boleslav III the Red, in gaining the throne. Later Boleslav III undermined his own position by ordering a massacre of his leading nobles, the Vršovci, at Vyšehrad. Those nobles who survived the massacre secretly sent messengers to Bolesław I and entreated him to come to their aid. The Polish Duke willingly agreed, and invited Boleslav III to visit him at his castle in Kraków. There, Boleslav III was trapped, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying in captivity some thirty years later. Bolesław I, claiming the Ducal throne for himself, invaded Bohemia in 1003 and took Prague without any serious opposition, ruling as Boleslav IV for a little over a year. It is also likely that Polish forces took control of Moravia and Slovakia in 1003 as well.

[edit]Polish-German War (1002–1018)

Statue of Boleslaw I Chrobry at Gniezno, by Jerzy Sobocinski

As mentioned above, Bolesław I had taken control of the marches of Lusatia, Sorbian Meissen, and the cities of Budziszyn (Bautzen) and Meissen in 1002, and refused to pay the tribute to the Empire from the conquered territories.

Henry II, allied with the Lutici, answered with an offensive a year later. Though the first attack wasn't successful, already in the autumn of 1004 the German forces deposed Bolesław I from the Bohemian throne. Bolesław I did manage to keep Moravia and Slovakia, however, over which he exercised control until 1018. During the next part of the offensive Henry II retook Meissen and in 1005 his army advanced as far into Poland as the city of Poznan where a peace treaty was signed.[15] According to the peace treaty Bolesław I lost Lusatia and Meissen and likely gave up his claim to the Bohemian throne. Also in 1005, a pagan rebellion in Pomerania overturned Boleslaw's rule and resulted in the destruction of the just implemented local bishopric.[16]

In 1007 Henry II denounced the Peace of Poznań, resulting in Bolesław I’s attack on the Archbishopric of Magdeburg as well as re-occupation of marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen including the city of Bautzen. The German counter-offensive began three years later, in 1010. It was of no significant consequence, beyond some pillaging in Silesia. In 1012 a five year peace was signed.

Bolesław I broke the peace however, and once again invaded Lusatia. Bolesław I’s forces pillaged and burned the city of Lubusz (Lebus).[15] In 1013 a peace accord was signed at Merseburg. As part of peace Bolesław I paid homage to Henry II, in exchange for which he received the March of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as fiefs. Also, was performed the marriage of his son Mieszko with Richeza of Lotharingia, daughter of the Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II.

In 1014 Bolesław I sent his son Mieszko to Bohemia in order to form an alliance with duke Oldrich against Emperor Henry II. Bolesław I also refused to aid the Emperor militarily in his Italian expedition. This led to imperial intervention in Poland and so in 1015 a war erupted once again. The war started out well for the Emperor as he was able to defeat the Polish forces at Ciani. Once the imperial forces crossed the river Oder, Bolesław I sent a detachment of Moravian knights in a diversionary attack against the Eastern March of the empire. Soon thereafter the German army retreated from Poland without making any permanent gains. Following this Bolesław I’s forces took the initiative. The Margrave of Meissen, Gero II, was defeated and killed during a clash with the Polish forces late in 1015.

Later that year, Bolesław I’s son Mieszko was sent to plunder Meissen. His attempt at conquering the city however, failed.[15] In 1017 Bolesław I defeated Margrave Henry V of Bavaria. In 1017 with Czech and Wendish support Henry II once again invaded Poland, however, once again to very little effect. He did besiege cities of Glogow and Niemcza, but was unable to take them. Taking advantage of Czech troops' involvement, Bolesław I ordered his son to invade Bohemia, where Mieszko met very little resistance. On 30 January 1018, the Peace of Bautzen (which made Bolesław I a clear winner), was signed. The Polish ruler was able to keep the contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen not as fiefs, but as part of Polish territory, and also received military aid in his expedition against Kievan Rus. Also, Bolesław I (then a widower) reinforced his dynastic bonds with the German nobility through his marriage with Oda, daughter of Margrave Eckard I of Meissen. The wedding took place four days later, on 3 February in the castle (German: Burg) of Cziczani (also Sciciani, at the site of either modern Groß-Seitschen[17] or Zützen[18]).

[edit]Intervention in the Kievan Succession (1015-1019)

Main article: Boleslaw I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis, 1018

Boleslaw I Chrobry entering conquered Kiev. Painting by Jan Matejko

Bolesław I organized his first expedition against his eastern neighbor in 1015, but the decisive engagements were to take place in 1018 after the peace of Budziszyn was already signed. At the request of his son-in-law Sviatopolk I of Kiev, the Polish duke invaded Kievan Rus with an army of between 2,000–5,000 Polish warriors, in addition to Thietmar's reported 1,000 Pechenegs, 300 German knights, and 500 Hungarian mercenaries[19]. After collecting his forces during June, Boleslaw led his troops to the border in July and on 23 July at the banks of the Western Bug River, near Wielen, he defeated the forces of Yaroslav the Wise prince of Kiev, in what became known as the Battle at Bug river. All primary sources agree that the Polish prince was victorious in battle.[20][21] Yaroslav retreated north to Novgorod, rather than to Kiev. The victory opened the road to Kiev, already under harassment from Boleslaw’s Pecheneg allies. The city, which suffered from fires caused by the Pecheneg siege, surrendered upon seeing the main Polish force on 14 August. The entering army, led by Bolesław I, was ceremonially welcomed by the local archbishop and the family of Vladimir I of Kiev. Bolesław I may have deployed his troops in the capital of Rus for no more than six months (see Kiev Expedition of 1018) but had to recall them eventually due to popular uprising against the Poles. According to popular legend Bolesław I notched his sword (Szczerbiec) hitting the Golden Gate of Kiev. During this campaign Poland re-annexed the Red Strongholds, later called Red Ruthenia, lost by Bolesław I's father in 981.

In 1015 Bolesław I sent a detachment of Polish horsemen to aid his nephew Canute the Great, son of his sister Swietoslawa, in his conquest of England.[11]

[edit]Coronation and Death (1025)

Poland at the end of the reign of Boleslaw I.

After Henry's death in 1024, Bolesław I took advantage of the interregnum in Germany and crowned himself king in 1025, thus raising Poland to the rank of a kingdom before its neighbor Bohemia. He was the first Polish king (rex), his predecessors having been unable to attain the honor, they were therefore considered dukes (dux) by the Holy Roman Empire as well as the papacy, the usual arbiters in these matters. The exact place and date of the coronation are unknown. Bolesław I died not long after the coronation, due most likely to an illness.

The whereabouts of Boleslaw's burial are uncertain. It is believed that recently discovered remains of a double tomb in Poznan cathedral may be the burial places of the first two Polish Rulers: Boleslaw I and his father Mieszko. Bolesław I's son, Mieszko II, crowned himself king immediately after his father died in Poznań.

[edit]Bolesław I's Legacy

[edit]Military

Bolesław I the Brave, Painting by Aleksander Lesser.

At the time of his death Bolesław I left Poland larger than he inherited her, adding to its domains the long contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as well as Red Ruthenia and possibly Lesser Poland. Militarily, at the time, Poland was unquestionably a considerable power as Bolesław I was able to fight successful campaigns against both Holy Roman Empire and the Kievan Rus. On the other hand it must be highlighted that his long-term involvement in the war against Germany allowed Western Pomerania to gain independence from the Polish aegis. Another negative side of Bolesław I’s drawn out military campaigns was a damaging influence on the economy of his kingdom. With the passing of each year, Bolesław I needed an ever increasing amounts to finance his wars, especially when fought on two fronts; in Germany and Kiev. Unceasing war had placed ever increasing fiscal obligations on the shoulders of his subjects, which in turn caused negative sentiment, sentiment that was to increase throughout his reign, and that would erupt into popular revolt soon after his death.

[edit]Economy

Bolesław I was a gifted and organized administrator. He was largely responsible for fully implementing the “Prince’s Law” throughout the Polish lands. The Prince's Law created a sort of nationalized economy, controlled by the state, whose sole duty it was to finance the prince's spending needs. These needs were considerable, as the Duke was responsible for all manner of building projects. The foundation of the “Prince's Law” lay in a network of fortified towns called grody, but the ruler also commissioned the building of churches, monasteries, roads, bridges etc., in short the development of an infrastructure. The building projects were financed by collecting taxes in money or goods. Also peasants were required to house the monarch or provide the prince with different manner of goods and services which included communications, hunting, military or others. To produce necessary goods Bolesław I organized a network of service settlements that specialized each in manufacturing about 30 different goods, such as: barrels, arches, metal wares, spears, as well as settlements responsible for animal husbandry, i.e., swine, horses or cattle. Hundreds of villages were thus specialized and named to reflect their particular job. To this day one may find scores of settlements in Poland with names left over from that era, such as: Szewce, Kuchary or Kobylniki. This quite impressive system functioned well enough to support Bolesław I throughout his 33 year reign.

[edit]Political

The Piast White Eagle, circa 13th century.

‎‎

Increasing both the internal and external strength of the realm was of paramount importance to Bolesław I, especially in the face of increasing pressure from the magnates. The magnates demanded a larger share in the administration of the country while Bolesław I sought to strengthen the central authority of the ruler. Bolesław I’s coronation, sometime in 1025, was aimed precisely to reinforce his leading position. In general an overall integration of the country took place during his reign.

Bolesław I was able to establish an independent Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno, with papal and imperial sanction. His work laid a foundation for the use of designation “Poland” that was to unite all regions of the realm, as well as for the use of one symbol to represent the supreme authority of the prince. The symbol was a sign of Gniezno’s knightly class: the white eagle.

[edit]Marriages and Issue

First marriage: 984 - 985

An unknown daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen, probably named Hunilda[citation needed] or Oda[citation needed]. After Rikdag's death in 985, she was repudiated by her husband and sent away.

Issue:

A daughter (b. ca. 985 - d. aft. 997), married ca. 996/97 to an undentified Prince of Pomerania.[22]

Second marriage: 986 - 987/89

An unknown Hungarian princess formerly believed to be Judith, daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary. Around 987, as a consequence of the deterioration in the political relations between Poland and Hungary, she was repudiated.

Issue:

Bezprym (b. ca. 986 - d. 1032).

Third marriage: 987/89 - 1013

Emnilda, daughter of Dobromir, prince of Lusatia[citation needed].

Issue:

A daughter (b. 988 - d. aft 1013), a nun.

Regelinda (b. 989 - d. 21 March aft. 1014), married by 30 April 1002 to Herman I, Margrave of Meissen.

Mieszko II Lambert (b. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034).

A daughter (b. ca. 991 - d. aft. 14 August 1018), married bef. 15 July 1015 to Sviatopolk I, Grand Prince of Kiev.

Otto (b. 1000 - d. 1033).

Fourth marriage: 1018 - 1025

Oda (b. ca. 996[citation needed] - d. aft. 1025), daughter of Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen.

Issue:

Matilda (b. aft. 1018 - d. aft. 1036), betrothed (or married) on 18 May 1035 to Otto of Schweinfurt, since 1048 Duke Otto III of Swabia.

[edit]See also

History of Poland (966-1385)

Castle Chrobry in Szprotawa

Bolesław Chrobry Tournament - speedway event named after the King

[edit]References

[edit]Notes

^ a b A. Czubinski, J. Topolski, Historia Polski, Ossolineum 1989

^ L. Bielski, M.Traba, Poczet Krolow i Ksazat Polskich. Pp.18-28

^ Kazimierz Jasiński: Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, Warsaw 1993

^ Oswald Balzer: Genealogia Piastów, Kraków 1895, pp. 39-41

^ S. A. Sroka, Historia Węgier do 1526 roku w zarysie, p. 19.

^ A.Chwalba, Kalendarium dziejów Polski: od prahistorii do 1998,Wydawnictwo Literackie, Kraków 1999

^ L. Bielski, M.Trąba, Poczet Krolów i Książąt Polskich. Pp.24

^ a b L. Bielski, M.Trąba, Poczet Królów I Książąt Polskich. 2005

^ a b c Andreas Lawaty, Hubert Orłowski, Deutsche und Polen: Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, 2003, p.24, ISBN 3406494366, 9783406494369

^ a b A.Zamoyski, The Polish Way, 1987

^ a b N.Davies, God's Playground, a History of Poland, 1982

^ J.Strzelczyk, Bolesław Chrobry, 2003

^ S.Rosik, Bolesław Chrobry i jego czasy, 2001

^ K .Jasiński, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, 1992

^ a b c Thietmar of Merseburg, Thietmari merseburgiensis episcopi chronicon, 1018

^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.32, ISBN 839061848

^ Digitales historisches Ortsverzeichnis von Sachsen

^ Elke Mehnert, Sandra Kersten, Manfred Frank Schenke, Spiegelungen: Entwürfe zu Identität und Alterität ; Festschrift für Elke Mehnert, Frank & Timme GmbH, 2005, p.481, ISBN 3865960154

^ R.Jaworski,Wyprawa Kijowska Chrobrego, 2006

^ Cross, Samuel Hazzard; Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Olgerd, eds. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text, 1953

^ Anonymous Gaul,Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum

^ According to one theory, they were probably parents of Zemuzil, Duke of Pomerania.

Bolesław I Chrobry

Piast Dynasty

Born: 966 or 967 Died: 17 June 1025

Preceded by

Mieszko I Duke of the Polans

May 25, 992– June 17, 1025

King of Poland (since April 18, 1025) Succeeded by

King

Mieszko II Lambert

Preceded by

Vladivoj Duke of Bohemia

1003–1004 Succeeded by

Jaromir

[hide]

v • d • e

Monarchs of Poland

Legendary and semi-legendary

Lech · Krak · Wanda · Popiel · Piast the Wheelwright

Piast

Siemowit · Lestko · Siemomysł ·

Mieszko I · Bolesław I the Brave · Mieszko II Lambert · Bezprym · Mieszko II Lambert · Interregnum · Casimir I the Restorer · Bolesław II the Bold · Władysław I Herman · Zbigniew · Bolesław III Wrymouth

Fragmentation period

(Supreme Princes)

Władysław II the Exile · Bolesław IV the Curly · Mieszko III the Old · Casimir II the Just · Leszek I the White · Władysław III Spindleshanks · Władysław Odonic · Mieszko IV Tanglefoot · Konrad I · Henry I the Bearded · Henry II the Pious · Bolesław V the Chaste · Leszek II the Black · Henryk IV Probus · Przemysł II

Přemyslid

Wenceslaus II · Wenceslaus III

Piast

Władysław I the Elbow-high · Casimir III the Great

Capet-Anjou

Louis I the Hungarian · Jadwiga

Jagiellon

Władysław II Jagiełło · Władysław III of Varna · Casimir IV · John I Albert · Alexander · Sigismund I the Old · Sigismund II August

Elected

Henry of Valois · Anna the Jagiellonian · Stephen Báthory · Sigismund III Vasa · Władysław IV Vasa · John II Casimir Vasa · Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki · John III Sobieski · August II the Strong · Stanisław Leszczyński · August III the Saxon · Stanisław August Poniatowski

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Marriage (1): Judith of Hungary in 988

Marriage (2): Hemmilde after 986

Other names for Boleslaw were Boleslaus I Chobry, Boleslaw Chrobry and Boleslaw the Brave.

General Notes:

Duke (from 992) and then (from 1024) first king of Poland, who expanded his country's territory to include Pomerania, Lusatia, and, for a time, the Bohemian princely lands. He made Poland a major European state and also created a Polish church independent of German control.

The son of Mieszko I, the first of the Piast dukes, and the Bohemian princess Dobrawa (Dubravka), Boleslaw I inherited the principality of Great Poland (Wielkopolska, between the Oder and the Warta rivers) upon his father's death in 992. He soon began, by energetic political and military action, to develop and expand the Polish state. He conquered Pomerania along the Baltic Sea in 996 and seized Kraków (formerly a Bohemian possession) soon afterward. He ransomed the relics of the martyred St. Adalbert, bishop of Prague, from the pagan Prussians and buried the relics at Gniezno. The Holy Roman emperor Otto III, who had been Adalbert's student and Boleslaw's ally since 992, attended that ceremony (March 1000) and marked the occasion by personally acknowledging Boleslaw as the sovereign ruler of Poland. With Pope Sylvester II's approval, the emperor granted Poland its own archdiocese, with Gniezno as its seat. Boleslaw then reorganized Poland's church structure, making it a national church directly under papal jurisdiction and independent of German ecclesiastical control.

After Emperor Otto III's death (1002), Boleslaw seized the imperial lands of Lusatia and Misnia (Meissen) and the principality of Bohemia. These actions started a series of three wars between him and the German king Henry II that lasted until 1018, when, by the Treaty of Bautzen, Boleslaw retained Lusatia and Misnia and Henry II won Bohemia. Boleslaw's expansionist policy continued. When he defeated Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev in battle (July 21, 1018) and placed his own son-in-law (and Yaroslav's brother), Svyatopolk, on the Kievan throne, his control extended from the western tributaries of the middle Elbe River to the eastern reaches of the Bug River. Though recognized as a sovereign by Otto III in 1000, Boleslaw sought to strengthen his position and his independence from imperial control with his papally-sanctioned coronation by the archbishop of Gniezno on Dec. 25, 1024.

I de norske sagaer kalles han Burislav. Hans søster, Gunhild, ble gift med Svend Tjugeskjegg. En av hans døtre, Geila, skal ha vært gift med Olav Trygvasson i hans ungdom.

Beleslav var gift

1. gang tidligst 987-88 med Hemmilde av Meisen,

2. gang med Judith, datter til hertug Geza i Ungarn,

3. gang med Conilde og

4. gang med Oda, datter til markgreve Eckhard I av Meissen.

Noted events in his life were:

• Acceded: King of Poland, 1024.

--------------------

Bolesław I Chrobry var den förste kungen av Polen. Han regerade från år 992 till 1025. Han var son till Mieszko I av Polen och far till Mieszko II av Polen, och tillhörde Piast-dynastin (på polska. dynastia piastów).

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Bole´slav I (pol. Boles§aw), kallad Chrobry, "den dristige", f. ca 967, d. 1025, hertig i Polen 992 och landets förste kung 1025, son till Mieszko I. I konkurrens med tyska furstar men även med nordiska vikingar lyckades han erövra ett vidsträckt slaviskt område s. om Östersjön och grunda ett självständigt Polen. Genom att på 990-talet underordna sig den tysk-romerske kejsaren lade B. grunden till en oberoende polsk kyrka. Far till Mieszko II Lambert.

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Bolesław I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry; Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – June 17, 1025), in the past also known as Bolesław I the Great (Polish: Bolesław Chrobry I (Wielki)), ruled as Duke of Poland from 992-1025 and as the first King of Poland in 1025. He was a member of the Piast dynasty.

--------------------

Bolesław I the Brave or the Valiant (Polish : Bolesław I Chrobry, Czech : Boleslav I (IV) Chrabrý; b. 967 - d. 17 June 1025 ), in the past also known as Bolesław I the Great (Wielki), was a Duke of Poland from 992-1025 and the first King of Poland since 19 April 1025 until his death. He also ruled as Boleslav IV, Duke of Bohemia during 1002-1003.

He was the firstborn son of Mieszko I by his first wife, Dobrawa , daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel , Duke of Bohemia. He was named after his maternal grandfather.

Bolesław I was a remarkable politician, strategist and statesman. He was able to turn Poland into one of the largest and most powerful monarchies in eastern Europe . Boleslaw conducted successful military campaigns to the west, south and east. He consolidated the Polish lands and conquered territories outside of modern borders of Poland such as Slovakia , Moravia , Red Ruthenia , Meissen and Lusatia as well as Bohemia . He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs.

He was an ally of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III who may have crowned him rex, although opinions vary on that point. Following the death of Otto III in 1002, Bolesław I conducted a series of successful wars against the Empire and Otto III's cousin and heir Henry II ending with the Peace of Bautzen in 1018. In the summer of 1018, in one of his most famous expeditions, Bolesław I captured Kiev , where, according to legend, he notched his sword when hitting Kiev's Golden Gate . Later, a sword known as szczerbiec , meaning notched sword, would become the ceremonial sword used in the coronation ceremony of Polish kings.

Bolesław I also managed to establish a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno , independent of German Archbishopric of Magdeburg , which laid claims to the Polish area. During the famous Congress of Gniezno he was able to officially free himself of tribute to Germany and finally, in his most momentous act, he had himself crowned King , the first Polish ruler to do so.

He was an able administrator, establishing the so-called “prince’s law”, building numerous forts, churches, monasteries and bridges. Bolesław I established the first Polish monetary system , of grzywna divided into 240 denarii, and minted his own coin. He is widely considered one of the most talented and accomplished of the Piast rulers.

Bolesław I was born in Poznan as the first child of Mieszko I, Duke of Poland and his wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa . At age six he may have been sent to the Imperial court in Germany as a hostage, according to the agreements of the Imperial Diet of Quedlinburg (although this fact is now disputed among the historians). Another theory stated that Bolesław I spent some time during the 980's at the court of his maternal uncle, Duke Boleslav II the Pious of Bohemia.

In 984 and at the instigation of his father, the eighteen-year-old Bolesław I married the daughter of Rikdag , Margrave of Meissen , probably named Hunilda or Oda. It is believed that following the wedding he became the ruler of Lesser Poland with his capital at Kraków . The death of Margrave Rikdag in 985 left the marriage devoid of any political value, and shortly thereafter the union was dissolved and Hunilda was repudiated.

At the end of 985, probably at the instigation of Boleslav II the Pious, Bolesław I married an unknown Hungarian princess with whom he had a son, Bezprym. In older literature, the princess was identified as Judith , daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary. Though opinions vary about the identity of Bolesław I 's second wife, there is a number of researchers who still support the hypothesis of her being the daughter of Géza. However, this union also came to a quick end, probably because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary, and around 987 the union was dissolved.

By 989,and perhaps as early as 987, Bolesław I married Emnilda , daughter of Dobromir , a Slavic prince of Lusatia . Through this marriage he had a daughter Regelinda, a son, the future king Mieszko II , another daughter and a son Otton. At this time Bolesław I’s rule in Lesser Poland may have been at Bohemian conferment. Presuming that it was, he added this province to Poland only after Duke Boleslav II the Pious ' death in 999. However assuming that Mieszko I took control of Lesser Poland in 990 (which is likely), than Bolesław I was bestowed the rule in Lesser Poland by his father but without its territory being included in the Polish realm. Bolesław I wasn't included in the document Dagome Iudex , and as such it may be supposed that Lesser Poland was already known as Bolesław I’s inheritance, while his two surviving half-brothers Mieszko and Lambert , sons of Mieszko I by his second wife Oda , were to divide the rest of the realm between each other. Another theory is that Bolesław I's absence from the document might be explained by an old Slavic custom whereby children received their inheritance as soon as they reached the age of majority . Thus Bolesław I might have received Kraków as his part of his father's legacy before the Dagome iudex had been written.

Accession

The circumstances in which Bolesław I took control of the country following the passing of his father, Mieszko I, forecasted what would later become a prevalent practice among the Piast dynasty. It consisted of struggle for domination, usually a military one, among the offspring of nearly every deceased monarch of the Piast dynasty. Bolesław I was no different, and shortly after the death of Mieszko I (25 May 992 ), he banished his stepmother Oda and his two half-brothers, as they had to be considered competitors to the throne, especially in light of the Dagome Iudex. The exact circumstances of Bolesław I’s ascension to the Ducal throne are unknown, but it is known that by June, he was the unquestioned ruler of Poland - as Otto III asked for his military aid in the summer of 992. Also immediately after gaining the full control over Poland, Bolesław I quelled the opposition of the Barons by blinding two of their leaders, the magnates Odylen and Przybywoj. As cruel a sentence as this was, it proved most effective as it triggered such obedience of his subjects that from that point on there was no mention of any challenge of his position whatsoever.

Extent of his domains

Bolesław I inherited from his father a realm that was close in dimensions to modern-day Poland. It centered on the core of Polanian country, the later Greater Poland (Polish : Wielkopolska). Greater Poland encompassed the valley of river Warta , stretched to the north to the Notec river and to the south it encompassed Kalisz . Outside of this core the nascent Poland included the surrounding areas subdued by Bolesław I's father, Mieszko I which included: parts of Pomerania to the north, including Kolobrzeg in the west and Gdansk in the east, Mazovia with its capital at Plock to the east and Silesia to the south-west. It is disputed whether Lesser Poland , centered around Kraków , was incorporated into the Polish realm by Mieszko I before 992 or whether it was added by Bolesław I in 999. Either way by the year 1000 Bolesław I was the lord of a domain larger than contemporary England , Denmark , León or Burgundy .

Duke of Poland

First years (992-1000)

It appears, from the lack of any record of international activity, that Bolesław I spent the first years as ruler more concerned about gaining the throne and remaining on it than trying to increase the size of his dominion. It is during this period of consolidation of power that he allied himself with Otto III , the Emperor of Germany, when in 995 he aided the Holy Roman Emperor in his expedition against the Lusatians.

Endeavoring to extend his influence to the territory of the Prussians , Bolesław I encouraged Christianizing missions in the Prussian lands. Most famous of those was the mission of Vojtech from the Bohemian princely Slavník clan, former bishop of Prague . Known as Adalbert of Prague upon the death of Adalbert of Magdeburg in 981, Adalbert's mission took place in 997 and ended in the missionary’s martyrdom at the hands of the pagan Prussians , which occurred in April 997 on the Baltic Sea coast in the vicinity of Truso (a medieval emporia near modern city of Elblag ). The remains of the missionary were held for ransom by the Prussians and Bohemian Premyslid rulers refused to pay for Adalbert's (Vojtech) body, consequently it was purchased by Duke Bolesław I for its weight in gold , and buried in Gniezno . In 999 Bishop Adalbert was canonized as Saint Adalbert by Pope Sylvester II . He was later made the patron saint of Bohemia , Poland , Hungary , and Prussia . Canonization of Vojtech increased the prestige of the Polish church in Europe and the prestige of Polish state on the international arena.

Congress of Gniezno and alliance with the Holy Roman Empire (1000-1002)

By the year 1000, Bolesław I had consolidated his position as Duke (Dux ) of Poland. Not only did he not meet any internal opposition, but he furthermore had gained the respect of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (980-1002). Consequently in the year 1000, Otto III visited Poland under the pretext of a pilgrimage to the grave of his friend, the recently canonized Bishop Adalbert (Vojtěch). In addition to the religious motivation, Otto III’s voyage also carried a strong political agenda : he had intentions to renew the Holy Roman Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum". Within the federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire.

The Emperor needed to assess Poland’s strength and establish its status within the Holy Roman Empire . The ensuing Congress of Gniezno where Bolesław I entertained his distinguished guest, is one of the most famous episodes of medieval Polish history . During the time the emperor spent in Poland, Bolesław I did not hide the wealth of his country, in fact he showed off its affluence at every step as he tried to dazzle the emperor. Among other gifts the Polish ruler presented to Otto III were 300 armored knights, while the Emperor responded with a gift of a copy of the lance of Saint Maurice .Evidently Otto III was impressed with what he saw and he decided that Poland should be treated as a kingdom on par with Germany and Italy, not merely as a tributary duchy like Bohemia. Since Otto III had intentions to renew the Empire based on a federal concept he called "Renovatio Imperii Romanorum”, and within that federal framework, Polish and Hungarian duchies were to be upgraded to eastern federati of the empire it was towards this end that the Emperor placed his Imperial crown on Bolesław I’s brow and invested him with the titles frater et cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire") and populi Romani amicus et socius.[9] He also raised Bolesław I to the dignity of patricius or "elder of the Roman nation". This episode has long been a subject of hot debate among historians. Some historians see this as an act of favor between an Emperor and his vassal, others as a gesture of friendship between equals. Could placing of the Imperial crown on Bolesław’s head mean that the Emperor crowned the Polish Duke? . Most modern historians agree that it could not. Though it was undoubtedly a sign of Otto’s respect for the Polish ruler, it could not truly mean Bolesław I was King as only the Pope had the authority to invest a prince with the crown and elevate his realm to a status of a kingdom . According to one source afterwards Bolesław I traveled with the Emperor to Aix-la-Chapelle where Otto III had the tomb of Charlemagne opened. From there Otto III is reputed to have removed the Imperial throne itself and presented it to the Polish Duke.

Other political talks took place as well. Otto III decided that Poland will no longer be required to pay tribute to the Empire. Gniezno was confirmed as an Archbishopric and a Metropolitan See for the Polish area. Three new Bishoprics were created and confirmed with papal consent. They were placed at Krakow , Wroclaw and Kolobrzeg . The Poznan missionary Bishopric was confirmed as subject directly to the Vatican . Bolesław I and his heirs gained the right of investiture of bishops . The future marriage of Bolesław I’s son Mieszko to Richeza (Polish : Rycheza), niece of Otto III , was also probably agreed upon at this point.

The untimely death of Otto III at age 22 in 1002 upset the ambitious renovatio plans, which were never fully implemented. Henry II , Otto III's less idealistic successor, and an opponent of Otto's policies, reversed the course of Imperial policy towards the east.

Occupation of Meissen, Lusatia, Bautzen and the intervention in Bohemia (1002-1003)

The excellent relations of Poland and Germany enjoyed during the Reign of Otto III, quickly deteriorated following his death. Bolesław I supported Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen , for the German throne. When Eckard was assassinated in April, Bolesław I lent his support to Henry IV, Duke of Bavaria , and helped him ascend to the German throne as Henry II. Bolesław I took advantage of internal strife following the Emperor's death and occupied important areas to the west of the Oder : Margraviate of Meissen and March of Lusatia , including strongholds Budziszyn and Strzala. Bolesław I claimed an hereditary right to Meissen </wiki/Meissen> as a relative of its former ruler Margrave Rikdag (only through marriage; he was the former husband of his daughter). Henry II accepted Bolesław I’s gains and he allowed the Polish Duke to keep Lusatia as a fief . The one exception was Meissen, which Bolesław I was not allowed to keep. Though at this point Polish–German relations were normalized, soon thereafter Henry II organized a failed assassination attempt </wiki/Assassination> on Bolesław I's life and relations between the two countries were severed.

In the same year (1003) Bolesław I became entangled in Bohemian affairs when the Duke Vladivoj died earlier in that year. Following this Bolesław I aided a pretender, Boleslav III the Red , in gaining the throne. Later Boleslav III undermined his own position by ordering a massacre of his leading nobles, the Vršovci, at Vyšehrad . Those nobles who survived the massacre secretly sent messengers to Bolesław I and entreated him to come to their aid. The Polish Duke willingly agreed, and invited Boleslav III to visit him at his castle in Kraków. There, Boleslav III was trapped, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying in captivity some thirty years later. Bolesław I, claiming the Ducal throne for himself, invaded Bohemia in 1003 and took Prague without any serious opposition, ruling as Boleslav IV for a little over a year. It is also likely that Polish forces took control of Moravia and Slovakia in 1003 as well.

Polish-German War (1002-1018)

Once the relations with Henry II soured, Bolesław I expected Germany to revert to the policy of constant invasions into Polish territory. Being conscious of the western threat the Polish prince took a preemptive action and took control of marches of Lusatia , Sorbian Meissen , and the cities of Budziszyn (Bautzen) and Meissen in 1002, and refused to pay the tribute to the Empire from the conquered territories.

Henry II answered with an offensive a year later. Though the first attack wasn't successful, already in the autumn of 1004 the German forces deposed Bolesław I from the Bohemian throne. Bolesław I did manage to keep Moravia and Slovakia , however, over which he exercised control until 1018. During the next part of the offensive Henry II retook Meissen and in 1005 his army advanced as far into Poland as the city of Poznan where a peace treaty was signed. According to the peace treaty Bolesław I lost Lusatia and Meissen and likely gave up his claim to the Bohemian throne . Also in 1005, a pagan rebellion in Pomerania overturned Boleslaw's rule and resulted in the destruction of the just implemented local bishopric . In 1007 Henry II denounced the Peace of Poznań, resulting in Bolesław I’s attack on the Archbishopric of Magdeburg as well as re-occupation of marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen including the city of Bautzen . The German counter-offensive began three years later, in 1010. It was of no significant consequence, beyond some pillaging in Silesia . In 1012 a five year peace was signed.

Bolesław I broke the peace however, and once again invaded Lusatia . Bolesław I’s forces pillaged and burned the city of Lubusz (Lebus). In 1013 a peace accord was signed at Merseburg . As part of peace Bolesław I payed homage to Henry II , in exchange for which he received the marks of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as fiefs . Also, was performed the marriage of his son Mieszko with Richeza of Lotharingia , daughter of the Count Palatine </wiki/Count_Palatine> Ezzo of Lotharingia </wiki/Lotharingia> and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II .

In 1014 Bolesław I sent his son Mieszko to Bohemia </wiki/Bohemia> in order to form an alliance with duke Oldrich against Emperor Henry II . Bolesław I also refused to aid the Emperor militarily in his Italian expedition. This led to imperial intervention in Poland and so in 1015 a war erupted once again. The war started out well for the Emperor as he was able to defeat the Polish forces at Ciani. Once the imperial forces crossed the river Oder , Bolesław I sent a detachment of Moravian knights in a diversionary < attack against the Eastern March of the empire. Soon thereafter the German army retreated from Poland without making any permanent gains. Following this Bolesław I’s forces took the initiative. The Margrave of Meissen , Gero II , was defeated and killed during a clash with the Polish forces late in 1015.

Later that year, Bolesław I’s son Mieszko was sent to plunder Meissen . His attempt at conquering the city however, failed. In 1017 Bolesław I defeated Margrave Henry V of Bavaria . In 1017 with Czech and Wendish support Henry II once again invaded Poland, however, once again to very little effect. He did besiege cities of Glogow and Niemcza , but was unable to take them. Taking advantage of Czech troops’ involvement, Bolesław I ordered his son to invade Bohemia , where Mieszko met very little resistance. On 30 January 1018 the Peace of Bautzen (which made Bolesław I a clear winner), was signed. The Polish ruler was able to keep the contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen not as fiefs, but as part of Polish territory, and also received military aid in his expedition against Kievan Rus . Also, Bolesław I (then a widower) reforced his dynastic bonds with the German nobility through his marriage with Oda </wiki/Oda_of_Meissen>, daughter of Margrave Eckard I of Meissen. The wedding took place four days later, on 3 February in the castle (German : Burg) of Cziczani (also Sciciani, at the site of either modern Groß-Seitschen or Zützen.

Intervention in the Kievan Succession (1015-1019)

Bolesław I organized his first expedition against his eastern neighbor in 1015, but the decisive engagements were to take place in 1018 after the peace of Budziszyn was already signed. At the request of his son-in-law Sviatopolk I of Kiev, the Polish duke invaded Kievan Rus with an army of between 2,000–5,000 Polish warriors, in addition to Thietmar 's reported 1,000 Pechenegs , 300 German knights, and 500 Hungarian mercenaries . After collecting his forces during June, Boleslaw led his troops to the border in July and on 23 July at the banks of the Western Bug River , near Wielen , he defeated the forces of Yaroslav the Wise prince of Kiev , in what became known as the Battle at Bug river . All primary sources agree that the Polish prince was victorious in battle. Yaroslav retreated north to Novgorod , rather than to Kiev . The victory opened the road to Kiev, already under harassment from Boleslaw’s Pecheneg allies. The city, which suffered from fires caused by the Pecheneg siege, surrendered upon seeing the main Polish force on 14 August . The entering army, led by Bolesław I, was ceremonially welcomed by the local archbishop and the family of Vladimir I of Kiev. Bolesław I may have deployed his troops in the capital of Rus for no more than six months (see Kiev Expedition of 1018) but had to recall them eventually due to popular uprising against the Poles. According to popular legend Bolesław I notched his sword (Szczerbiec) hitting the Golden Gate of Kiev. During this campaign Poland re-annexed the Red Strongholds , later called Red Ruthenia , lost by Bolesław I's father in 981.

In 1015 Bolesław I sent a detachment of Polish horsemen to aid his nephew Canute the Great , son of his sister Swietoslawa , in his conquest of England.

Coronation and Death (1025)

After Henry's death in 1024, Bolesław I took advantage of the interregnum in Germany and crowned himself king in 1025, thus raising Poland to the rank of a kingdom before its neighbor Bohemia. He was the first Polish king (rex ), his predecessors having been unable to attain the honor, they were therefore considered dukes (dux ) by the Holy Roman Empire as well as the papacy, the usual arbiters in these matters. The exact place and date of the coronation are unknown. Bolesław I died not long after the coronation, due most likely to an illness.

The whereabouts of Boleslaw's burial are uncertain. It is believed that recently discovered remains of a double tomb in Poznan cathedral may be the burial places of the first two Polish Rulers: Boleslaw I and his father Mieszko. Bolesław I's son, Mieszko II , crowned himself king immediately after his father died in Poznan .

Bolesław I's Legacy

Military

At the time of his death Bolesław I left Poland larger than he inherited her, adding to its domains the long contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen as well as Red Ruthenia and possibly Lesser Poland . Militarily, at the time, Poland was unquestioningly a considerable power as Bolesław I was able to fight successful campaigns against both Holy Roman Empire and the Kievan Rus . On the other hand it must be highlighted that his long-term involvement in the war against Germany allowed Western Pomerania to gain independence from the Polish aegis . Another negative side of Bolesław I’s drawn out military campaigns was a damaging influence on the economy of his kingdom . With the passing of each year, Bolesław I needed an ever increasing amounts to finance his wars, especially when fought on two fronts; in Germany and Kiev . Unceasing war had placed ever increasing fiscal obligations on the shoulders of his subjects, which in turn caused negative sentiment, sentiment that was to increase throughout his reign, and that would erupt into popular revolt soon after his death.

Economy

Bolesław I was a gifted and organized administrator. He was largely responsible for fully implementing the “Prince’s Law” throughout the Polish lands. The Prince's Law created a sort of nationalized economy , controlled by the state, whose sole duty it was to finance the prince's spending needs. These needs were considerable, as the Duke was responsible for all manner of building projects. The foundation of the “Prince's Law” lay in a network of fortified towns called grody (Slavic_settlement), but the ruler also commissioned the building of churches , monasteries , roads , bridges, etc, in short the development of an infrastructure . The building projects were financed by collecting taxes in money or goods . Also peasants </wiki/Peasant> were required to house the monarch or provide the prince with different manner of goods and services which included communications, hunting, military or others. To produce necessary goods Bolesław I organized a network of service settlements that specialized each in manufacturing about 30 different goods, such as: barrels, arches, metal wares, spears, as well as settlements responsible for animal husbandry , i.e., swine, horses or cattle. Hundreds of villages were thus specialized and named to reflect their particular job. To this day one may find scores of settlements in Poland with names left over from that era, such as: Szewce, Kuchary or Kobylniki. This quite impressive system functioned well enough to support Bolesław I throughout his 33 year reign.

Political

Increasing both the internal and external strength of the realm was of paramount importance to Bolesław I, especially in the face of increasing pressure from the magnates . The magnates demanded a larger share in the administration of the country while Bolesław I sought to strengthen the central authority of the ruler. Bolesław I’s coronation, sometime in 1025, was aimed precisely to reinforce his leading position. In general an overall integration of the country took place during his reign.

Bolesław I was able to establish an independent Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno , with papal and imperial sanction. His work laid a foundation for the use of designation “Poland ” that was to unite all regions of the realm, as well as for the use of one symbol to represent the supreme authority of the prince. The symbol was a sign of Gniezno’s knightly class: the white eagle.

Marriages and Issue

First marriage: 984 - 985

An unknown daughter of Rikdag , Margrave of Meissen , probably named Hunilda or Oda. After Rikdag's death in 985, she was repudiated by her husband and sent away.

Issue:

A daughter (b. ca. 985 - d. aft. 997), married ca. 996/97 to an undentified Prince of Pomerania.[22]

Second marriage: 986 - 987/89

An unknown Hungarian princess formerly believed to be Judith , daughter of Géza, Grand Duke of Hungary . Around 987, as a consequence of the deterioration in the political relations between Poland and Hungary, she was repudiated.

Issue:

Bezprym (b. ca. 986 - d. 1032).

Third marriage: 987/89 - 1013

Emnilda , daughter of Dobromir , prince of Lusatia

Issue:

A daughter (b. 988 - d. aft 1013), a nun.

Regelinda (b. 989 - d. 21 March aft. 1014 ), married by 30 April 1002 to Herman I, Margrave of Meissen

Mieszko II Lambert (b. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034 ).

A daughter (b. ca. 991 - d. aft. 14 August 1018 ), married bef. 15 July 1015 to Sviatopolk I, Grand Prince of Kiev .

Otto (b. 1000 - d. 1033).

Fourth marriage: 1018 - 1025

Oda </wiki/Oda_of_Meissen> (b. ca. 996 - d. aft. 1025), daughter of Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen .

Issue:

Matilda (b. aft. 1018 - d. aft. 1036), betrothed (or married) on 18 May < 1035 </wiki/1035> to Otto of Schweinfurt , since 1048 Duke Otto III of Swabia

-------------------- Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif". In Skandinavian : Burizleif kongen av Vendland

Jarl Vendland is not a name but a title as he is mention in Norwegian historic books. Jarl

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Bolesław I 'Chrobry - the Brave', King of Poland's Timeline

967
967
Poznań, Wielkopolskie, Polska
986
986
Age 19
Poland
986
Age 19
Lasted for 1 year

Boleslaw remarried already again in 985 with a Hungarian princess who probably was named Judith and was a daughter of Grand Duke of Hungary. She gave birth to a son Bezprym but the marriage ended too, this time because of poor political relations between Poland and Hungary, she was also disowned.

988
988
Age 21
Lasted for 25 years

He married in 987 or 989 with Emnilda, a daughter of Dobromir, a Slavic prince of Lusatia. Boleslaw and Emnildas marriage lasted to 1013, when she probably died, but they have 5 children, one of them is Mieszko, the later Mieszko II.

989
989
Age 22
Poland
990
990
Age 23
Poznań, Wielkopolskie, Poland
992
992
- 1025
Age 25
995
995
Age 28
Poland
1000
1000
Age 33
Poland
1000
Age 33
Bohemia - aka Boleslav "The Mighty"