Bolesław III "Krzywousty" Piast, książę - King of Poland

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About Bolesław III 'Wrymouth/Crooked Mouth' Piast, książę - King of Poland

http://finnholbek.dk/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I12437&tree=2

Пять лет брака Владислава I и Юдите Чешской не приносили им детей, что вынудило князя сначала признать наследником бастарда Збигнева, а затем жившего в Венгрии племянника Мешко. Лишь после принесения богатых даров бенедиктинскому монастырю святого Эгидия, среди которых была золотая фигура младенца в натуральную величину, княгиня забеременела. 20 августа 1086 г. на свет появился их первенец Болеслав, а через три месяца Юдита умерла. Владислав женился вторично и начал избавляться от остальных наследников: Мешко был отравлен, а Збигнев сослан в Кведлинбургское аббатство, где его должны были постричь в монахи.

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_III_Krzywousty

Bolesław III Krzywousty (ur. 20 sierpnia 1086, zm. 28 października 1138) – książę małopolski, śląski i sandomierski w latach 1102–1107, książę Polski w latach 1107–1138. Pochodził z dynastii Piastów, był synem Władysława I Hermana i Judyty czeskiej, córki króla Czech Wratysława II, oraz ojcem książąt: Władysława II Wygnańca, Bolesława IV Kędzierzawego, Mieszka III Starego, Henryka Sandomierskiego i Kazimierza II Sprawiedliwego. Bolesław rozpoczął panowanie w latach 90. XI wieku, gdy władza centralna w Księstwie Polskim znacznie osłabła. Władysław Herman podzielił swoje księstwo, pozostawiając sobie formalnie władzę zwierzchnią, lecz realnie popadł w zależność polityczną od swojego palatyna, Sieciecha. Bolesław i jego brat Zbigniew po kilkuletnich walkach w 1101 wygnali z kraju komesa wspieranego przez Hermana. Po śmierci Władysława w 1102 powstały dwa niezależne organizmy państwowe, podległe Bolesławowi i Zbigniewowi. Dążenie Bolesława do podbicia Pomorza wywołało konflikt zbrojny między braćmi, w następstwie którego Zbigniew musiał uchodzić z kraju i szukać pomocy militarnej na dworze niemieckim. Bolesław skutecznie odparł zbrojną interwencję króla niemieckiego Henryka V w 1109 i ukarał Zbigniewa oślepieniem, wskutek którego tenże zmarł. Wymierzona bratu kara wywołała oburzenie wśród zwolenników Zbigniewa, którego następstwem był kryzys polityczny w Polsce. Krzywousty zażegnał go, odprawił publiczną pokutę i odbył pielgrzymkę do klasztoru swego patrona, św. Idziego, na Węgrzech. Bolesław układał się z Rusią i Węgrami w celu zerwania zależności politycznej od Niemiec i ich wasala, króla Czech, któremu Polska w momentach słabości politycznych była zmuszona do płacenia daniny ze Śląska. Zawarte na wschodzie sojusze pozwoliły księciu polskiemu skutecznie obronić państwo przed najazdem Henryka V w 1109. Kilka lat później, umiejętnie wykorzystując spory dynastyczne w Czechach, Bolesław zdołał zapewnić pokój na granicy południowo-zachodniej. Drugą połowę rządów Bolesław poświęcił na podbój Pomorza. W początkowym okresie samodzielnego panowania w Księstwie Polskim granica północna, przebiegająca wzdłuż rzek Warty i Noteci, nie stanowiła dostatecznej ochrony państwa. W 1113 Bolesław, opanowując północne twierdze wzdłuż Noteci, umocnił granicę z Pomorzanami. W kolejnych latach książę przedsięwziął kroki w kierunku podboju Pomorza. Zażegnanie konfliktów ze Świętym Cesarstwem Rzymskim umożliwiło Bolesławowi wcielenie do Księstwa Pomorza Gdańskiego i podporządkowanie Pomorza Zachodniego. Wyprawy wojenne Bolesława, prowadzone w trzech etapach, zakończyły się w latach 20. XII w. militarnym i politycznym sukcesem. Integrację nowo przyłączonych terenów z pozostałymi ziemiami Bolesława Krzywoustego miała umożliwić chrystianizacja Pomorza i organizacja na tych terenach struktur kościelnych. W latach 30. XII w. Bolesław uwikłał się w spór dynastyczny na Węgrzech. Przegrał z koalicją procesarską i został zmuszony do układów z Niemcami. W 1135 doszło do zjazdu w Merseburgu, na którym poruszono kwestię Pomorza, Śląska (prawdopodobnie także Polski) i ówczesnego zwierzchnictwa arcybiskupstwa magdeburskiego nad Kościołem w Polsce. Bolesław był żonaty dwa razy. Małżeństwo z Rusinką, Zbysławą, dawało mu pretekst do interwencji zbrojnej w sprawy wewnętrzne rozbitej dzielnicowo Rusi. Po śmierci Zbysławy Bolesław ożenił się z Niemką, Salomeą, co poniekąd było przyczyną zmiany w polityce zagranicznej Polski: w drugiej połowie swoich rządów książę dążył do odbudowania stosunków dyplomatycznych z zachodnim sąsiadem[2]. Swoim testamentem Bolesław określił zasady dziedziczenia i sprawowania władzy w państwie po swojej śmierci, czym zapoczątkował rozbicie dzielnicowe Polski. Bolesław Krzywousty został uznany przez historiografię za obrońcę ówczesnej Polsk. Większość swojego życia poświęcił polityce pomorskiej i chrystianizacji tych ziem. Książę utrzymał również niezależność polskiego Kościoła, pomimo chwilowego niepowodzenia w latach 30. XII wieku. Krzywousty, mimo osiągnięć, popełniał także błędy. Zbrodnia na przyrodnim bracie Zbigniewie i późniejsza pokuta wyrażała jego wielkie ambicje i umiejętność znajdowania kompromisu. http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_III_Krzywousty

Född 1085-08-20. Död 1138-10-28. Boleslav III var kung av Polen. Han var son till Vladislav I Herman av Polen och Judyta av Böhmen. Han gifte sig 1087 med Zbyslava av Kiev. De fick ett barn, Vladislav II av Polen, som även han kom att bli kung av Polen. I andra äktenskapet med Salome av Berg fick han åtta barn: Rikissa av Polen, född 12 april 1116, gift med furste Volodar av Minsk. Boleslav IV av Polen, född 1125, kung av Polen. Mieszko III, född cirka 1126, hertig av Polen. Dobronega, född 1128, gift med markis Dietrich av Niederlausitz. Judyta, född cirka 1132, gift med Otto I av Brandenburg. Henryk, född 1127, hertig. Agnieszka, född 1137, gift år 1161 med hertig Mstislav II av Kiev. Kasimierz II, född 1138, gift med prinsessan Elena av Kiev. Den här artikeln är hämtad från http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boleslav_III_av_Polen -------------------- Bolesław III Wrymouth (Bolesław III Krzywousty); 1085 – 1138) was Duke of Poland from 1102. He was the son of Duke Władysław I Herman and Judith of Bohemia, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia.

Bolesław Wrymouth defeated the Pomeranians at the Battle of Nakło (1109) and took control of Pomerania (1119-1123), thus regaining Polish access to the Baltic Sea. The local government of the Pomeranians was left in place.

Bolesław also defeated Emperor Henry V (1109) in the Battles of Głogów and Psie Pole (the latter also known, in German translation, as the Battle of Hundsfeld). In the years 1113-1119 he had taken control over Pomerania.[1] In 1135, Bolesław gave a tribute to Emperor Lothair II (Lothar von Supplinburg) and the emperor received from Boleslaw parts of Western Pomerania and Rügen as fiefs.

Bolesław also campaigned in Hungary 1132 – 1135, but to little effect.

Before his death in 1138, Bolesław Wrymouth published his testament (Bolesław Wrymouth's testament) dividing his lands among four of his sons. The "senioral principle" established in the testament stated that at all times the eldest member of the dynasty was to have supreme power over the rest and was also to control an indivisible "senioral part": a vast strip of land running north-south down the middle of Poland, with Kraków its chief city. The Senior's prerogatives also included control over Pomerania, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. The "senioral principle" was soon broken, leading to a period of nearly 200 years of Poland's feudal fragmentation.

Family and issue With his first wife, Zbyslava, daughter of Grand Duke Sviatopolk II of Kiev, Bolesław had one son:

Vladislav II Wygnaniec, born 1105, Prince of Poland.


Piast Eagle Coat of Arms.Bolesław subsequently married Salome von Berg-Schelklingen, by whom he had 14 children (six sons and eight daughters), of whom six sons and five daughters are known:

Leszek (born 1115); Casimir the Older (d. 1131); Bolesław IV the Curly (born 1125); Mieszko III the Old (born 1126); Henryk of Sandomierz (born 1127); Casimir II the Just (born 1138); Rikissa of Poland (born 1116), who married firstly Magnus the Strong, pretender of Sweden and Denmark; secondly Volodar of Polatsk, Prince of Minsk; and thirdly king Sverker I of Sweden Dobronega of Poland (born 1128), who married Marquis Dietrich of Niederlausitz; Gertruda of Poland; Judith of Poland (born 1130-1135), who married Otto I of Brandenburg; and Agnes of Poland (born 1137), who married Mstislav II Kyjevský.

The Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty was a political act of Bolesław III Krzywousty, High Duke of Poland, in which he established rules for governance of the Kingdom of Poland by his sons after his death. By issuing it, Bolesław planned to guarantee that his heirs would not fight among themselves, and would preserve the unity of his lands under the House of Piast. However, he failed; soon after his death his sons fought each other, and Poland entered a period of fragmentation lasting about 200 years.

Bolesław issued the document around 1115-1118 (between the birth of his son Mieszko and the rebellion of Skarbimir); it would be enacted upon his death in 1138.

Poland and subdivided into provinces among the sons of BolesławBolesław divided the country into five principalities:

the Seniorate Province (or Duchy of Kraków), composed of Eastern Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Western Kuyavia, Łęczyca Land (assigned to Bolesław's wife, Salomea of Berg) and Sieradz Land. It was assigned to Bolesław's eldest son, Władysław II the Exile, the Silesian Province (or Duchy of Silesia), composed of Silesia, assigned also to Władysław II the Exile the Masovian Province (or Duchy of Masovia), composed of Mazovia with eastern Kuyavia. It was assigned to Bolesław IV the Curly, the Greater Poland Province (or Duchy of Greater Poland), composed of Western Greater Poland. It was assigned to Mieszko III the Old, the Sandomir Province (or Duchy of Sandomierz), composed of territories centered around the city of Sandomierz. It was assigned to Henry of Sandomierz. Casimir II the Just was not assigned any province; it is speculated that he was born after Bolesław's death, or he was destined for a religious career.

The senioral principle established in the testament stated that at all times the eldest member of the dynasty (the Senior Prince, the Princeps, the High Duke) was to have supreme power over the rest (Dux, the Dukes) and was also to control an indivisible "seniorate province" (Mazovia): a vast strip of land running north-south down the middle of Poland, with Kraków (the Kingdom of Poland's capital) its chief city. The Senior's prerogatives also included control over Pomerania, a fief. The Senior was tasked with defense of borders, the right to have troops in provinces of other Dukes, carrying out foreign policy, supervision over the clergy (including the right to nominate bishops and archbishops), and minting of currency.

The senioral principle was soon broken, with Władysław attempting to increase his power and the rest of the Dukes opposing him. After initial success (taking over the Łęczyca Land after the death of Salomea), he was eventually defeated, and only with the help of the Holy Roman Empire managed to retain his Silesian Province, losing the Seniorate. This lead to a period of nearly 200 years of Poland's feudal fragmentation; deepening after the disastrous battle of Legnica in 1241. Once Władysław I Łokietek was crowned King of Poland in 1320 he would reign on a smaller dominium, with Pomerania and Silesia mostly outside Polish sphere of influence.

-------------------- http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p365.htm#i7471 Also called Herzog von Polen Boleslaw III Schiefmund von Polen German.4 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska was the son of Wladyslaw I Herman, ruler of Poland, and Judith of Bohemia.5 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska also went by the name of Boleslav III "the Wrymouthed" of Poland Krzywousty = the Wrymouthed. He was born on 20 August 1085.1,3,5 He was the son of Wladislaw I Herman, Królewicz Polska and Judith, Knezna Ceská.1,3 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska was drove his illegitimate elder half-brother, Zbigniew, out of the country on the death of their father in 1102.3 Prince of Poland between 1102 and 1138. He married Sbislava Svyatopolkovna, daughter of Svyatopolk II Mikhail Izyaslavich, Prince of Novgorod, Turov, and Kiev and N. N. , a concubine, on 15 November 1102; His 1st.6,7 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska exiled his illegitimate half-brother, Zbigniew, and gained control of the entire country in 1107.5 He was a witness where Królewicz Polska Zbigniew Piast exiled by his younger, but legitimate, brother, Boleslaw III in 1107.5 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska was a witness where Heinrich IV, Kaiser der Römisches Reich attempted to invade Silesia but was repelled by Prince Boleslaw III in 1109.5 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska repelled an invasion of Silesia by the German king Henry V in 1109.5 He recalled his brother, Zbigniew, in 1112.5 He was a witness where Królewicz Polska Zbigniew Piast recalled by his brother, Boleslaw III, in 1112.5 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska accused his brother, Zbigniew, of treason and had him blinded after 1112.5 He was a witness where Królewicz Polska Zbigniew Piast accused by his brother Boleslaw III of treason and blinded after 1112.5 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska sought control of Poland's former province of Pomerania between 1113 and 1135.5 He married Salome von Berg-Schelklingen, daughter of Heinrich I, Graf von Berg and Adelheid von Mochental, in 1115; His 2nd.8,9,4 Boleslaw III Krzywousty, Królewicz Polska conquered Eastern Pomerania in 1122.5 He did not secure Western Pomerania until he had sworn fealty to the Holy Roman emperor Lothair II in 1135.5 He sent missionaries into Pomerania, converted the pagan tribes there to Christianity, and integrated the people into the Polish state after 1135.5 He left a will; He shattered the precarious unity of Poland by dividing the realm between his sons. He enacted legislation to secure Pomerania and Silesia for his eldest son and lesser provinces for his younger sons.10,5 He died on 28 October 1138 at age 53 years, 2 months and 8 days.

Father Wladislaw I Herman, Królewicz Polska1,3 b. circa 1043, d. 4 June 1102 Mother Judith, Knezna Ceská1 b. circa 1059, d. 25 December 1085

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_III_Wrymouth

Bolesław III Wrymouth (Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty; b. 20 August 1086[1][2][3] – d. 28 October 1138), Duke of Poland from 1102 until 1138. He was the only child of Duke Władysław I Herman and his first wife Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia.

Bolesław spent his early adulthood fighting his older half-brother Zbigniew for domination and most of his rule attending to the policy of unification of Polish lands and maintaining full sovereignty of the Polish state in the face of constant threat from expansionist eastern policy of the Holy Roman Empire and her allies, most notably Bohemia. Boleslaw III, like Boleslaw II the Bold, based his foreign policy on maintaining good relations with neighboring Hungary and Kievan Rus, with whom he forged strong links through marriage and military cooperation. Another foreign policy goal was the gain and conversion of Pomerania, which he accomplished by adding most of Pomerania to his domains by 1102-1122. Boleslaw III also upheld the independence of the Polish archbishopric of Gniezno. He strengthened the international position of Poland by his victory over the German Empire in the Polish-German War of 1109. He was also able to enlarge the country's territory. Despite undoubted successes, Bolesław III Wrymouth has committed serious political errors, such as the crime committed against Zbigniew. The crime against his half-brother and his penance for it show Bolesław’s great ambition as well as his ability to find political compromise. His last, and perhaps the most momentous act, was his will and testament known as "The Succession Statute" in which he divided the country among his sons, leading to almost 200 years of feudal fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom. Nevertheless, Bolesław became a symbol of Polish political aspirations until well into 19th century. Birth and childhood

In 1086 the coronation of Vratislav II as King of Bohemia and his alignment with László I, King of Hungary, threatened the position of the Polish ruler, Duke Władysław I Herman.[4][5] Therefore that same year Władysław I was forced to recall from Hungarian banishment the only son of Bolesław II the Bold and a rightful heir to the Polish throne, Mieszko Bolesławowic. Upon his return young Boleslawowic accepted the over-lordship of his uncle and gave up his hereditary claim to the crown of Poland in exchange for becoming first in line to succeed him.[6] In return, Duke Wladyslaw I Herman granted his nephew the district of Kraków.[7] The situation was further complicated for Władysław I Herman by a lack of a legitimate male heir, as his first-born son Zbigniew came from a union not recognized by the church.[8][9] With the return of Mieszko Bolesławowic to Poland, Władysław I normalized his relations with the kingdom of Hungary as well as Kievan Rus (the marriage of Mieszko Boleslawowic to a Kievan princess was arranged in 1088).[10] These actions allowed Herman to strengthen his authority and alleviate further tensions in the international affairs.[11]

Lack of a legitimate heir, however, remained a concern for Władysław I and in 1085 he and his wife Judith of Bohemia sent rich gifts, among which was a life size statue of a child made of gold, to the Benedictine Sanctuary of Saint Giles[12] in Saint-Gilles, Provance begging for offspring.[13][14] The Polish envoys were led by the personal chaplain of Duchess Judith, Piotr.[15]

By 1086 Bolesław was born. Three months after his birth, on 25 December, his mother died. In 1089 Władysław I Herman married Judith of Swabia who was renamed Sophia in order to distinguish herself from Władysław I's first wife. Judith of Swabia was a daughter of Emperor Henry III and widow of Solomon of Hungary. Through this marriage Bolesław gained three or four half-sisters, and as a consequence he remained the only legitimate son and heir.

Following Bolesław’s birth the political climate in the country changed. The position of Bolesław as an heir to the throne was threatened by the presence of Mieszko Bolesławowic who was already seventeen at the time and was furthermore, by agreement with Herman himself, the first in line to succeed. In all likelihood it was this situation that precipitated the young prince Mieszko’s demise in 1089.[16] In that same year Wladyslaw I Herman’s first-born son Zbigniew was sent out of the country to a convent in Quedlinburg, Saxony. This suggests that Wladyslaw I Herman intended to be rid of Zbigniew, make him a monk, and therefore deprive him of any chance of succession.[17][18] This eliminated two pretenders to the Polish throne, secured young Bolesław’s inheritance as well as diminished the growing opposition to Wladyslaw I Herman among the nobility.[19] Shortly after his ascension, however, Władysław I Herman was forced by the barons to give up the de facto reigns of government to Count Palatine Sieciech. This turn of events was likely due to the fact that Herman owed the throne to the barons, the most powerful of whom was Sieciech.[20] It is believed that Judith of Swabia was actively aiding Sieciech in his schemes to take over the country, it is also theorized that she was a mistress of the Count Palatine.[20][21]

In 1090 Polish forces under Sieciech's command, managed to gain control of Gdańsk Pomerania, albeit for a short time. Major towns were garrisoned by Polish troops, the rest were burned in order to thwart any future resistance. Several months later, however, a rebellion of native elites led to the restoration of the region’s independence from Poland.[22] The following year a punitive expedition was organized, in order to recover Gdańsk Pomerania. The campaign was decided at the battle of the Wda River, where the Polish knights suffered a defeat despite the assistance of Bohemian troops.[23] Reception of Jews in Poland in 1096, Painting by Jan Matejko

Prince Bolesław’s childhood happened at a time when a massive political migration out of Poland was taking place,[24] due to Sieciech’s political repressions.[25][26] Most of the elites who became political refugees found safe haven in Bohemia. Another consequence of Sieciech’s political persecution was the kidnapping of Zbigniew by Sieciech’s enemies and his return from abroad in 1093.[26] Zbigniew took refuge in Silesia, a stronghold of negative sentiment for both Sieciech as well as his nominal patron Władysław I Herman.[26][27] In the absence of Sieciech and Bolesław, who were captured by Hungarians and kept captive, Duke Władysław I then undertook a penal expedition to Silesia, which was unsuccessful and he was subsequently obliged to recognize Zbigniew as a legitimate heir.[26] In 1093 Władysław I signed an Act of Legitimization which granted Zbigniew the rights of descent from his line. Zbigniew was also granted the right to succeed to the throne. Following Sieciech and Boleslaw’s escape from Hungary an expedition against Zbigniew was mounted by the Count Palatine. It’s aim was to nullify the Act of Legitimization. The contestants met at the battle of Goplo in 1096, where Sieciech’s forces annihilated the supporters of Zbigniew. Zbigniew himself was taken prisoner, but regained his freedom a year later, in May 1097, due to the intervention of the bishops.[28][29] At the same time his rights, guaranteed by the Act of Legitimization, were reinstated.[30]

Simultaneously a great migration of Jews from Western Europe to Poland began circa 1096, around the time of the First Crusade. The tolerant rule of Władysław I Herman attracted the Jews who were permitted to settle throughout the entire kingdom without restrictions. The Polish prince, took great care of the Hebrew Diaspora, as he understood its positive influence on the growth of the country’s economy.[31] The new Jewish citizens soon gained trust of the gentiles during the rule of Bolesław III. [edit] Fight against Sieciech Prince Zbigniew

In view of his father’s disapproval, and after discovering the plans of Sieciech and Duchess Judith-Sophia to take over the country Zbigniew gained an ally in the young prince Bolesław. Both brothers demanded that the reigns of government should be handed over to them. It is difficult to believe, however, that Boleslaw was making independent decisions at this point as he was only 12 years of age. It is stipulated that at this stage he was merely a pawn of the Baron’s power struggle. Władysław I Herman, however, agreed to divide the realm between the brothers,[32] each to be granted his own province while the Duke - Władysław I himself – kept control of Mazovia and its capital at Plock. Władysław also retained control of the most important cities i.e. Wroclaw, Krakow and Sandomierz.[33][34] Zbigniew’s province encompassed Greater Poland including Gniezno, Kuyavia, Leczyca Land and Sieradz Land. Boleslaw’s territory included Lesser Poland, Silesia and Lubusz Land.[35]

The division of the country and allowing Boleslaw and Zbigniew to co-rule greatly alarmed Sieciech, who then began to prepare to dispose of the brothers altogether. Sieciech understood that the division of the country will undermine his position.[36] He began preparations for a military settlement of the issue and he gained the Duke’s support for it. The position of Herman is seen as ambiguous as he chose to support Sieciech’s cause instead of his sons.[37] In response to Sieciech’s preparations Boleslaw and Zbigniew entered into an alliance. This took place at a popular assembly or Wiec organized in Wroclaw by a magnate named Skarbmir. There it was decided to remove the current guardian of Boleslaw, a noble named Wojslaw – who was a relative of Sieciech – and arrange for an expedition against the Palatine. Subsequently, in 1099, the armies of Count Palatine and Duke Herman encountered the forces of Zbigniew and Boleslaw near Zarnowiec by the river Pilica. There the Rebel forces of Boleslaw and Zbigniew defeated Sieciech's army, and Władysław I Herman was obliged to permanently remove Sieciech from the position of Count Palatine.

The rebel forces were then further directed towards Sieciechów, where the Palatine took refuge. Unexpectedly, Duke Władysław came to the aid of his besieged favorite with a small force. At this point, the Princes decided to depose their father. The opposition sent Zbigniew with an armed contingent to Masovia, where he was to take control of Płock, while Boleslaw was directed to the South. The intention was the encirclement of their father, Duke Władysław I. The Duke predicted this maneuver and send his forces back to Masovia. In the environs of Płock the battle was finally joined and the forces of Władysław I were defeated. The Duke was thereafter forced to exile Sieciech from the country. The Palatine left Poland around 1100/1101. He was known to sojourn in the German lands. However, he eventually returned to Poland , but did not play any political role again. He may have been blinded. On the other hand, Władysław I Herman died on 4 June 1102. [edit] Duke of Poland [edit] Struggle for the Dominion (1102-1106) Division of poland between Boleslaw (red) and Zbigniew (green)

Following Duke Władysław I Herman’s death the country was divided into two provinces each administered by one of the late duke’s sons. The extent of each province closely resembled the provinces that the princes were granted by their father three years earlier, the only difference being that Zbigniew also controlled Mazovia with its capital at Płock, effectively ruling the northern part of the kingdom, while his younger half-brother Bolesław, ruled it’s southern portion [38]. In this way two virtually separate states were created.[39] They conducted separate policies; internally as well as externally. They each sought alliances, and sometimes they were enemies of one another. Such was the case with Pomerania, towards which Boleslaw aimed his ambitions. Zbigniew, whose country bordered Pomerania, wished to maintain good relations with his northern neighbor. Bolesław eager to expand his dominion, organized several raids into Pomerania and Prussia[40]. In Autumn of 1102 Boleslaw organized a war party into Pomerania during which his forces sacked Białogard[41]. As reprisal the Pomeranians would send retaliatory war parties into Polish territory, but as Pomerania bordered Zbigniew’s territory these raids ravaged the lands of the prince who was not at fault. Therefore in order to put pressure on Bolesław, Zbigniew allied himself with Borivoj II of Bohemia, to whom he promised to pay tribute in return for his help[42]. By aligning himself with Boleslaw’s southern neighbor Zbigniew wished to compel Bolesław to cease his raids into Pomerania. Boleslaw, on the other hand, allied himself with Kievan Rus and Hungary. His marriage to Zbyslava, the daughter of Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich in c.1103, was to seal the alliance between himself and the prince of Kiev. However, Boleslaw's first diplomatic move was to recognize the pope Paschal II, which put him in strong opposition of the Holy Roman Empire, later visit of papal legate Gwalo bishop of Beauvais brought the church matters into order,it also increased Boleslaw's influence[43]. Boleslaw III Wrymouth, painting by J.B. Jacobi (1828)

Zbigniew saw the marriage of Bolesław to a Russian princess and an alliance with Kiev as a serious threat. He therefore, prevailed upon his ally, Borivoj II of Bohemia, to invade Bolesław’s province, Bolesław retaliated with expeditions into Pomerania in 1104-1105, which brought the young prince not only loot, but also effectively disintegrated the alliance of Pomeranians and Zbigniew[44] Bolesław’s partnership with king Coloman of Hungary, whom he aided in gaining the throne, bore fruit in 1105 when they successfully invaded Bohemia. Also in 1105, Bolesław entered into an agreement with his stepmother Judith of Swabia, the so called Tyniec Accord. According to their agreement, in exchange for a generous grant, the prince was guaranteed Judith's neutrality in his political contest with Zbigniew[45].

In 1106 Boleslaw managed to bribe Borivoj II of Bohemia and have him join his side of the contest against Zbigniew. In that same year Bolesław formally allied himself with Coloman of Hungary. During a popular assembly, attended by both princes, it was agreed that none of the brothers will conduct war nor sign peace treaties or enter into alliances without the agreement of the other. This created a very unfavorable situation for Boleslaw, and in effect it led to civil war, with over-lordship of entire country at stake. With the help of his Kievan and Hungarian allies Bolesław attacked Zbigniew’s territory. The allied forces of Boleslaw, easily took control of most important cities including Kalisz, Gniezno, Spycimierz and Łęczyca, in effect taking control of half of Zbigniew’s lands. Peace treaty was signed at Łęczyca, in which Zbigniew officially recognized Bolesław as High Duke of all Poland. However he was allowed to retain Masovia as a fief[46]. [edit] Sole Ruler of Poland

In 1107 Boleslaw III along with his ally Coloman king of Hungary, invaded Bohemia in order to aid Svatopluk the Lion of Bohemia in gaining the Czech throne. The intervention in the Czech succession was meant to secure Polish interests to the south. The expedition was a full success. On 14 May 1107 Svatopluk was made Duke of Bohemia, in Prague[47].

Later that year Bolesław undertook a punitive expedition against his brother Zbigniew. The reason for this was that Zbigniew did not follow the orders of Boleslaw III and did not burn down the fort of Kurów[48]. Another reason was that Zbigniew did not keep his duty as a vassal and did not provide military aid to his lord, Boleslaw III, for a campaign against the Pomeranians. In the winter of 1107-1108 with the help of Kievan and Hungarian allies, Bolesław III began a final campaign to rid himself of Zbigniew. His forces attacked Mazovia, and quickly forced Zbigniew to surrender. Following this Zbigniew was banished from the country altogether. From then forward Bolesław III was the sole lord of the Polish lands, though in fact his over-lordship began in 1107 when Zbigniew paid him homage as his feudal lord.

Later on in 1108, Boleslaw III, once again attacked Bohemia, as his ally king Coloman of Hungary was under attack by the combined forces of Holy Roman Empire and Bohemia. Another reason for the expedition was the fact that Svatopluk, who owed Boleslaw III his throne, did not honor his accord in which he promised to return Silesian cities seized from Poland (Raciborz, Kamieniec, Kozle among others) by his predecessors. Boleslaw III began to back Borivoj II of Bohemia and aimed to bring him back in power. This attempt was not successful. Battle of Hundsfeld, from The Polish Chronicle of Marcin Bielski (1597)

In response to Bolesław’s aggressive foreign policy, German king and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V undertook a punitive expedition against Poland in 1109. In the resulting Polish–German War, German Forces were assisted by Czech warriors provided by Svatopluk the Lion, Duke of Bohemia. The alleged reason for war was the issue of Zbigniew and his pretensions to the Polish throne. The military operations mainly took place in the south-western Poland, in Silesia , where Henry V’s army laid siege to major strongholds of Głogów, Wrocław and Bytom Odrzanski. The heroic defense of towns, where Polish children were used as human shields by the Germans, in large measure contributed to the German inability to succeed. At this time along with the defense of towns, Bolesław III Wrymouth was conducting a highly effective guerilla war against the Holy Roman Emperor and his allies, and eventually he defeated the German Imperial forces at the Battle of Hundsfeld on 24 August 1109. In the end Henry V was forced to withdraw from Silesia and Poland altogether.

A year later in 1110 Boleslaw III undertook an armed expedition against the German ally, Bohemia. His intention was to install yet another pretender on the Czech throne, Sobeslaus I. During the campaign Bolesław won a decisive victory against the Czechs at the Battle of Trutina. However following the battle he ordered his forces to withdraw further attack against Bohemia. The reason for this is speculated to be the unpopularity of Sobeslaus I among Czechs as well as Bolesław’s unwillingness to further deteriorate his relations with the Holy Roman Empire. In 1111 a truce between Poland and the Holy Roman Empire was signed which stipulated that Sobeslaus I will be able to return to Bohemia while Zbigniew will be able to return to his native Poland. That same year Zbigniew was received back in Poland and furnished with a grant. A year later in 1112 he was blinded on Boleslaw’s orders. [edit] Excommunication Archbishop of Gniezno, Martin I

Blinding of Zbigniew caused a strong negative reaction among Boleslaw's subjects. It should be noted that unlike, for instance in Russia, blinding in medieval Poland was not accompplished by burning the eyes out with a red hot iron rod or knife, but a much more brutal technique was employed. The condemned man's eyes were pried out using special pliers. The convict was made to open his eyes and if he did not do so, his eyelids were torn out along with his eyeballs. Learning of Boleslaw's act Martin I, Archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland, who was a strong supporter of Zbigniew, excommunicated Boleslaw III Wrymouth for committing the crime against his half-brother. Archbischop Martin also exempted all of his subjects from the obligation of obedience to Duke Boleslaw III. The Duke was faced with a real possibility of uprising, of the sort that deposed Boleslaw the Bold. Seeing his precarious situation Boleslaw III sought the customary penance that would reconcile the high priesthood. According to Gallus Anonymus, Boleslaw first fasted for forty days, replaced his fine clothes with a hair cloth and slept "in ashes"[49]. He also sought and received forgiveness from his brother Zbigniew. This however, was not enough to convince the high echelons of the church and lift the excommunication. The Duke was compelled to undertake a pilgrimage to Hungary to the monasteries of Saint Giles and Saint Stephen I in Székesfehérvár. It must be noted that the pilgrimage to the Abbey of Saint Giles also had a political goal; Boleslaw strengthened his ties of friendship and alliance with the Arpad dynasty the ruling house of Hungary. Following his return to Poland, Boleslaw III traveled to Gniezno to pay further penance at the tomb of Saint Adalbert. He also bestowed numerous costly gifts on the poor and clergy throughout his penance. Due to his dedication the excommunication was finally lifted. [edit] Conquest and conversion of Pomerania Main articles: Pomerania during the High Middle Ages, Duchy of Pomerania, and Conversion of Pomerania Map of Pomerania including the island of Rugia (17th century)

The issue of conquest of Pomerania has been a life long pursuit for Boleslaw III Wrymouth. His political goals were twofold; first - to strengthen the Polish border on the Noteć river line, second - to subjugate Pomerania with Polish political overlordship but without actually incorporating it into the country with the exception of Gdansk Pomerania and a southern belt north of river Noteć which were to be absorbed by Poland. By 1113 the northern border has been strengthened. The fortified border cities included: Santok, Wieleń, Nakło, Czarnków, Ujście and Wyszogród. Some sources report that the border began at the mouth of river Warta and Oder in the west, ran along the river Noteć all the way to the Vistula river. [50]

Before Boleslaw III began to expand in the Pomerelia, he normalized his relations with his southern Bohemian neighbors. This took place in 1114 at a great convention on the border river Nysa Kłodzka. Participants included Bolesław III himself, as well as Bohemian dukes of the Premyslid line: Vladislaus I, Otto II the Black and Sobeslaus I. The pact was sealed by marriage of the then widower Bolesław III with the sister of the wife of Vladislaus I, Salomea of Berg.

In 1119 Bolesław III recaptured the territories of Gdansk Pomerania. During his Pomeranian campaign a rebellion by count palatine Skarbmir of the Abdaniec clan began. The rebellion was quelled by the prince in 1117 and the mutinous nobleman was blinded as punishment. He was replaced as count palatine by Piotr Wlostowic of the Labedz clan. In 1121 combined forces of Pomeranian princes Wartislaw I and Swantopolk I were defeated by Poles at the battle of Niekładź. From then on Boleslaw ravaged Pomerania, he destroyed native strongholds, and forced thousands of Pomeranians to resettle deep into Polish territory. The Duke’s further expansion was aimed towards Szczecin. The Polish ruler realized that Szczecin was a strong fort, well defended by the natural barrier of the Oder river as well as by well-built fortifications. The only way to approach the walls was through the frozen waters of a nearby swamp. Taking advantage of element of surprise Boleslaw III launched his assault from precisely that direction, and took control of the city. Much of the population was put to the sword which motivated the remaining populace to subordinate to the Polish monarch. [51] In the years 1121-1122 Pomerania became a Polish fief and a local strongman, Duke Wartislaw I swore feudal allegiance to the Polish monarch and undertook to pay a yearly tribute of 500 marks of silver to Poland[52](One mark of silver was equal to 240 denarii[53].) Wartislaw I also promised military aid to Poland at Boleslaw’s request. In the subsequent years the tribute was decreased to 300 marks. St.Otto of Bamberg

In order to make Polish and Pomeranian ties stronger, Bolesław III organized a mission to Christianize the newly acquired territory. The Polish monarch understood that the Christianization of the conquered territory will be an effective means of strengthening his authority there. At the same time the Boleslaw III wished to subordinate Pomerania to the Gniezno archbishopric. Unfortunately first attempts made by unknown missionaries did not make the desired progress. Another attempt, officially sponsored by the Polish prince, and led by Bernard the Spaniard who traveled to Wolin, has ended in another failure.[54] The next two missions were carried out in 1124-1125 and 1128 by bishop Otto of Bamberg. Following an accord made between Duke Bolesław and Wartislaw I, Otto set out on a first stage of Christianization of the region. He was accompanied throughout his mission by the Pomeranian duke Wartislaw I, who greeted the missionary on the border of his domain, in the environs of the city of Sanok. At Stargard the pagan prince promised Otto his assistance in the Pomeranian cities as well as help during the journey. He also assigned 500 armored knights to act as guard for the bishop’s protection. Primary missionary activities were aimed in the direction of Pyrzyce, then the towns of Kamien, Wolin, Szczecin and once again Wolin.[55] At Szczecin and Wolin which were important centers of Slavic paganism, opposition to conversion was particularly strong, among the pagan priests and populace alike. Conversion was finally accepted only after Bolesław III lowered the annual tribute he imposed on the Pomeranians. Four great pagan temples were torn down and churches were built in their places, as was the usual custom of the Catholic Church.

In 1127 first pagan rebellions began to take place. These were due to both the large tribute imposed by Poland as well as a plague that descended on Pomerania and which was blamed on Christianity. The rebellions were largely instigated by the old pagan priests, who had not come to terms with their new circumstances. Duke Wartislaw I confronted these uprisings with some success, but was not able to prevent several insurgent raids into Polish territory. Because of this Polish Duke Boleslaw III was preparing a massive penal expedition that may have spoiled all the earlier accomplishments of missionary work by bishop Otto. Thanks to Otto’s diplomacy direct confrontation was avoided and in 1128 he embarked on another mission to Pomerania. This time more stress was applied to the territories west of Oder river, i.e. Usedom, Wolgast and Gützkow, which were not under Polish suzerainity.[56][57] The final stage of the mission retuned to Stettin (Szczecin), Wollin (Wolin) and Kammin (Cammin, Kamien). The Christianization of Pomerania is considered one of the greatest accomplishments of Boleslaw’s III Pomeranian policy.

Once the missionary activities of Otto of Bamberg took root Boleslaw III began to implement an ecclesiastical organization of Pomerania. Pomerelia was added to the Diocese of Włocławek, known at the time as the Kujavian Diocese. A strip of borderland north of Notec was split between the Diocese of Gniezno and Diocese of Poznan. The bulk of Pomerania was however made an independent Pomeranian bishoporic, set up in the territory of the Duchy of Pomerania in 1140, after Boleslaw had died in 1138 and the duchy had broken away from Poland.[56]

In 1135, Boleslaw had accepted overlordship of Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and in turn received his Pomeranian gains as well as the still undefeated Principality of Rügen as a fief.[56][58][59][60] Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania also accepted the Emperor as his overlord.[56] With Boleslaw's death in 1138, Polish overlordship ended,[61] triggering competition of the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark for the area.[56] [edit] Church Fundations Sarcophagus Boleslaw III in Plock Cathedral

Duke Boleslaw III was not only a predatory warrior, and a cunning politician and a diplomat. He was also a patron of cultural developments in his realm. Like most medieval monarchs he founded several churches and monasteries most important of which are; the monastery of Canons regular of St. Augustinein Trzemeszno founded in the 1100s and a Benedictine monastery of Holy Cross atop the Łysa Góra which was founded in place of an ancient pagan temple. Also the first major Polish chronicle written by one Gallus Anonymus dates back to the reign of duke Boleslaw III. [edit] Last Years

In 1135, Boleslaw finally gave his belated oath of allegiance to the new Emperor Lothair II (Lothar von Supplinburg), and paid twelve years past due tribute. The emperor granted Boleslaw parts of Western Pomerania and Rügen as fiefs, however the emperor was not in control of these areas and Bolesław also failed to subdue them.

Boleslaw also campaigned in Hungary 1132– 1135, but to little effect. [edit] Statute of Succession

Before his death in 1138, Boleslaw Wrymouth published his testament dividing his lands among four of his sons. The "Senioral Principle" established in the testament stated that at all times the eldest member of the dynasty was to have supreme power over the rest and was also to control an indivisible "senioral part": a vast strip of land running north-south down the middle of Poland, with Kraków its chief city. The Senior's prerogatives also included control over Pomerania, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. The "senioral principle" was soon broken, leading to a period of nearly 200 years of Poland's feudal fragmentation. [edit] Marriages and Issue

By 16 November 1102 Boleslaw married firstly with Zbyslava (b. ca. 1085/90 - d. ca. 1112), daughter of Grand Duke Sviatopolk II of Kiev. They had three children:

  1. Władysław II the Exile (b. 1105 - d. Altenburg, 30 May 1159).
  2. A son (b. ca. 1108 - d. aft. 1109).
  3. A daughter [Judith?] (b. ca. 1111 - d. aft. 1124), married in 1124 to Vsevolod Davidovich, Prince of Murom.

Between March and July of 1115, Boleslaw married secondly with Salomea (b. bef. 1101 - d. 27 July 1144), daughter of Henry, Count of Berg-Schelklingen. They had thirteen children:

  1. Leszek (b. 1115 - d. 26 August bef. 1131).
  2. Ryksa (b. 1116/17 - d. aft. 25 December 1156), married firstly ca. 1127 to Magnus the Strong, King of Västergötland; secondly on 18 June 1136 to Volodar Glebovich, Prince of Minsk and Hrodno; and thirdly by 1148 to King Sverker I of Sweden.
  3. A daughter (b. bef. 1119 - d. aft. 1131), married in 1131 to Conrad, Count of Plötzkau and Margrave of Nordmark.
  4. Sophie (b. 1120 - d. 10 October 1136).
  5. Casimir (b. 9 August 1122 - d. 19 October 1131).
  6. Gertruda (b. 1123/24 - d. 7 May 1160), a nun at Zwiefalten (1139).
  7. Bolesław IV the Curly (b. ca. 1125 - d. 3 April 1173).
  8. Mieszko III the Old (b. 1126/27 - d. Kalisz, 13 March 1202).
  9. Dobroniega (b. 1129 - d. by 1160), married ca. 1142 to Dietrich I, Margrave of Lusatia.
 10. Judith (b. 1130 - d. 8 July 1175), married on 6 January 1148 to Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg.
 11. Henry (b. 1131 - d. 18 October 1166).
 12. Agnes (b. 1137 - d. aft. 1182), married in 1151 to Mstislav II, Prince of Pereyaslavl and Grand Prince of Kiev since 1168.
 13. Casimir II the Just (b. 1138 - d. 5 May 1194).

-------------------- Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland (1) M, #112856, b. 1085, d. 1138 Last Edited=30 Jul 2005

    Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland was born in 1085. (2) He was the son of Wladislaw I Herman, Duke of Poland and Judith of Bohemia. (2) He married, firstly, Zbyslawa of Kiev, daughter of Svyatopolk I, Grand Duke of Kiev and unknown daughter (?), in 1103. (2) He married, secondly, Salome von Berg, daughter of Heinrich Graf von Berg-Schalklingen, in 1115. (2) He died in 1138. (2)
    Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland was a member of the House of Piast. (3) Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland also went by the nick-name of Boleslaw 'Wrymouth'. (3) He gained the title of Duke of Poland in 1102. (2)

Child of Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland -1. Adelheid of Poland (4) Child of Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland and Zbyslawa of Kiev -1. Wladislaw II, Duke of Poland+ b. 1105, d. 11592 Children of Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland and Salome von Berg -1. Heinrich, Duke of Sandomir d. 11662 -2. Richza of Poland+ b. 1116, d. a 1155 (1) -3. Boleslaw IV, Duke of Cracow b. 1125, d. 11732 -4. Mieszko III, Duke of Poland+ b. 1126, d. 12022 -5. Dobronega of Poland+ b. c 1128, d. a 26 Oct 1147 -6. Casimir II, Duke of Cracow+ b. 1138, d. 11942

Forrás / Source: http://thepeerage.com/p11286.htm#i112856 -------------------- Prince of Poland -------------------- Bolesław III den skjevmunnede (polsk Bolesław III Krzywousty, født 20. august 1085, død 18. oktober 1138) var hertug av Polen fra 1102 – 1138. Han var sønn av Władysław I Herman og Judita av Böhmen.

Bolesław seiret over pommeranerne i 1109 og tok kontroll over Pommern, slik at Polen igjen fikk tilgang til Østersjøen. Han seiret også over keiser Henrik V av det tysk-romerske rike i slaget ved Głogów. I 1138 avla han ed til Lothair III av den tysk-romerske rike, og keiseren fikk deler av Vest-Pommern og Rügen i len.

Før sin død i 1138 innførte Bolesław senioratet i sitt testamente som delte det polske riket mellom hans fire sønner. Ifølge senioratprinsippet skulle den eldste arvingen (seniorhertugen) få kongetittelen og Lille-Polen med Kraków, mens resten av landet ble delt mellom de øvrige arvingene. Senioratprinsippet ble imidlertid snart brutt, noe som ledet til den polske oppløsningstiden som varte nesten 200 år. -------------------- Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland (1) M, #112856, b. 1085, d. 1138 ast Edited=8 Jan 2010

    Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland was born in 1085. (2) He was the son of Wladislaw I Herman, Duke of Poland and Judith of Bohemia. (2) He married, firstly, Zbyslawa of Kiev, daughter of Svyatopolk I, Grand Duke of Kiev and unknown daughter (?), in 1103. (2) He married, secondly, Salome von Berg, daughter of Heinrich Graf von Berg-Schalklingen, in 1115. (2) 

He died in 1138. (2)

    Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland was a member of the House of Piast. (3) Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland also went by the nick-name of Boleslaw 'Wrymouth'. (3) He gained the title of Duke of Poland in 1102. (2)

Child of Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland -1. Adelheid of Poland (4)

Children of Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland and Zbyslawa of Kiev -1. Wladislaw II, Duke of Poland+ (2) b. 1105, d. 1159 -2. Richza of Poland (5) b. 12 Apr 1116, d. 16 Jun 1185

Children of Boleslaw III, Duke of Poland and Salome von Berg -1. Heinrich, Duke of Sandomir (2) d. 1166 -2. Richza of Poland+ (1) b. 1116, d. a 1155 -3. Boleslaw IV, Duke of Cracow (2) b. 1125, d. 1173 -4. Mieszko III, Duke of Poland+ (2) b. 1126, d. 1202 -5. Dobronega of Poland+ b. c 1128, d. a 26 Oct 1147 -6. Casimir II, Duke of Cracow+ (2) b. 1138, d. 1194

Forrás / Source: http://www.thepeerage.com/p11286.htm#i112856

-------------------- Bolesław III Wrymouth From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bolesław III Wrymouth (Bolesław III Krzywousty); 1085 – 1138) was Duke of Poland from 1102. He was the son of Duke Władysław I Herman and Judith of Bohemia, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia. Bolesław Wrymouth defeated the Pomeranians at the Battle of Nakło (1109) and took control of Pomerania (1119-1123), thus regaining Polish access to the Baltic Sea. The local government of the Pomeranians was left in place. Bolesław also defeated Emperor Henry V (1109) in the Battles of Głogów and Psie Pole (the latter also known, in German translation, as the Battle of Hundsfeld). In the years 1113-1119 he had taken control over Pomerania.[1] In 1135, Bolesław gave a tribute to Emperor Lothair II (Lothar von Supplinburg) and the emperor received from Boleslaw parts of Western Pomerania and Rügen as fiefs. Bolesław also campaigned in Hungary 1132 – 1135, but to little effect. Before his death in 1138, Bolesław Wrymouth published his testament (Bolesław Wrymouth's testament) dividing his lands among four of his sons. The "senioral principle" established in the testament stated that at all times the eldest member of the dynasty was to have supreme power over the rest and was also to control an indivisible "senioral part": a vast strip of land running north-south down the middle of Poland, with Kraków its chief city. The Senior's prerogatives also included control over Pomerania, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. The "senioral principle" was soon broken, leading to a period of nearly 200 years of Poland's feudal fragmentation. [edit]Family and issue

With his first wife, Zbyslava, daughter of Grand Duke Sviatopolk II of Kiev, Bolesław had one son: Vladislav II Wygnaniec, born 1105, Prince of Poland.

Bolesław subsequently married Salome von Berg-Schelklingen, by whom he had 14 children (six sons and eight daughters), of whom six sons and five daughters are known: Leszek (born 1115); Casimir the Older (d. 1131); Bolesław IV the Curly (born 1125); Mieszko III the Old (born 1126); Henryk of Sandomierz (born 1127); Casimir II the Just (born 1138); Rikissa of Poland (born 1116), who married firstly Magnus the Strong, pretender of Sweden and Denmark; secondly Volodar of Polatsk, Prince of Minsk; and thirdly king Sverker I of Sweden Dobronega of Poland (born 1128), who married Marquis Dietrich of Niederlausitz; Gertruda of Poland; Judith of Poland (born 1130-1135), who married Otto I of Brandenburg; and Agnes of Poland (born 1137), who married Mstislav II Kyjevský.

-------------------- Bolesław III Wrymouth (Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty; b. 20 August 1086 – d. 28 October 1138), Duke of Poland from 1102 until 1138. He was the only child of Duke Władysław I Herman and his first wife Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia.

Bolesław spent his early adulthood fighting his older half-brother Zbigniew for domination and most of his rule attending to the policy of unification of Polish lands and maintaining full sovereignty of the Polish state in the face of constant threat from expansionist eastern policy of the Holy Roman Empire and her allies, most notably Bohemia. Boleslaw III, like Boleslaw II the Bold, based his foreign policy on maintaining good relations with neighboring Hungary and Kievan Rus, with whom he forged strong links through marriage and military cooperation. Another foreign policy goal was the gain and conversion of Pomerania, which he accomplished by adding most of Pomerania to his domains by 1102-1122. Boleslaw III also upheld the independence of the Polish archbishopric of Gniezno. He strengthened the international position of Poland by his victory over the German Empire in the Polish-German War of 1109. He was also able to enlarge the country's territory. Despite undoubted successes, Bolesław III Wrymouth has committed serious political errors, such as the crime committed against Zbigniew. The crime against his half-brother and his penance for it show Bolesław’s great ambition as well as his ability to find political compromise. His last, and perhaps the most momentous act, was his will and testament known as "The Succession Statute" in which he divided the country among his sons, leading to almost 200 years of feudal fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom. Nevertheless, Bolesław became a symbol of Polish political aspirations until well into 19th century.

                 

Life Birth and childhood

In 1086 the coronation of Vratislav II as King of Bohemia and his alignment with László I, King of Hungary, threatened the position of the Polish ruler, Duke Władysław I Herman. Therefore that same year Władysław I was forced to recall from Hungarian banishment the only son of Bolesław II the Bold and a rightful heir to the Polish throne, Mieszko Bolesławowic. Upon his return young Boleslawowic accepted the over-lordship of his uncle and gave up his hereditary claim to the crown of Poland in exchange for becoming first in line to succeed him. In return, Duke Wladyslaw I Herman granted his nephew the district of Kraków. The situation was further complicated for Władysław I Herman by a lack of a legitimate male heir, as his first-born son Zbigniew came from a union not recognized by the church. With the return of Mieszko Bolesławowic to Poland, Władysław I normalized his relations with the kingdom of Hungary as well as Kievan Rus (the marriage of Mieszko Boleslawowic to a Kievan princess was arranged in 1088). These actions allowed Herman to strengthen his authority and alleviate further tensions in the international affairs. Lack of a legitimate heir, however, remained a concern for Władysław I and in 1085 he and his wife Judith of Bohemia sent rich gifts, among which was a life size statue of a child made of gold, to the Benedictine Sanctuary of Saint Giles in Saint-Gilles, Provance begging for offspring. The Polish envoys were led by the personal chaplain of Duchess Judith, Piotr.

By 1086 Bolesław was born. Three months after his birth, on 25 December, his mother died. In 1089 Władysław I Herman married Judith of Swabia who was renamed Sophia in order to distinguish herself from Władysław I's first wife. Judith of Swabia was a daughter of Emperor Henry III and widow of Solomon of Hungary. Through this marriage Bolesław gained three or four half-sisters, and as a consequence he remained the only legitimate son and heir.

Following Bolesław’s birth the political climate in the country changed. The position of Bolesław as an heir to the throne was threatened by the presence of Mieszko Bolesławowic who was already seventeen at the time and was furthermore, by agreement with Herman himself, the first in line to succeed. In all likelihood it was this situation that precipitated the young prince Mieszko’s demise in 1089. In that same year Wladyslaw I Herman’s first-born son Zbigniew was sent out of the country to a convent in Quedlinburg, Saxony. This suggests that Wladyslaw I Herman intended to be rid of Zbigniew, make him a monk, and therefore deprive him of any chance of succession. This eliminated two pretenders to the Polish throne, secured young Bolesław’s inheritance as well as diminished the growing opposition to Wladyslaw I Herman among the nobility. Shortly after his ascension, however, Władysław I Herman was forced by the barons to give up the de facto reigns of government to Count Palatine Sieciech. This turn of events was likely due to the fact that Herman owed the throne to the barons, the most powerful of whom was Sieciech. It is believed that Judith of Swabia was actively aiding Sieciech in his schemes to take over the country, it is also theorized that she was a mistress of the Count Palatine.

In 1090 Polish forces under Sieciech's command, managed to gain control of Gdańsk Pomerania, albeit for a short time. Major towns were garrisoned by Polish troops, the rest were burned in order to thwart any future resistance. Several months later, however, a rebellion of native elites led to the restoration of the region’s independence from Poland. The following year a punitive expedition was organized, in order to recover Gdańsk Pomerania. The campaign was decided at the battle of the Wda River, where the Polish knights suffered a defeat despite the assistance of Bohemian troops.

Prince Bolesław’s childhood happened at a time when a massive political migration out of Poland was taking place, due to Sieciech’s political repressions. Most of the elites who became political refugees found safe haven in Bohemia. Another consequence of Sieciech’s political persecution was the kidnapping of Zbigniew by Sieciech’s enemies and his return from abroad in 1093. Zbigniew took refuge in Silesia, a stronghold of negative sentiment for both Sieciech as well as his nominal patron Władysław I Herman. In the absence of Sieciech and Bolesław, who were captured by Hungarians and kept captive, Duke Władysław I then undertook a penal expedition to Silesia, which was unsuccessful and he was subsequently obliged to recognize Zbigniew as a legitimate heir. In 1093 Władysław I signed an Act of Legitimization which granted Zbigniew the rights of descent from his line. Zbigniew was also granted the right to succeed to the throne. Following Sieciech and Boleslaw’s escape from Hungary an expedition against Zbigniew was mounted by the Count Palatine. It’s aim was to nullify the Act of Legitimization. The contestants met at the battle of Goplo in 1096, where Sieciech’s forces annihilated the supporters of Zbigniew. Zbigniew himself was taken prisoner, but regained his freedom a year later, in May 1097, due to the intervention of the bishops. At the same time his rights, guaranteed by the Act of Legitimization, were reinstated.

Simultaneously a great migration of Jews from Western Europe to Poland began circa 1096, around the time of the First Crusade. The tolerant rule of Władysław I Herman attracted the Jews who were permitted to settle throughout the entire kingdom without restrictions. The Polish prince, took great care of the Hebrew Diaspora, as he understood its positive influence on the growth of the country’s economy. The new Jewish citizens soon gained trust of the gentiles during the rule of Bolesław III. Fight against Sieciech Prince Zbigniew

In view of his father’s disapproval, and after discovering the plans of Sieciech and Duchess Judith-Sophia to take over the country Zbigniew gained an ally in the young prince Bolesław. Both brothers demanded that the reigns of government should be handed over to them. It is difficult to believe, however, that Boleslaw was making independent decisions at this point as he was only 12 years of age. It is stipulated that at this stage he was merely a pawn of the Baron’s power struggle. Władysław I Herman, however, agreed to divide the realm between the brothers, each to be granted his own province while the Duke - Władysław I himself – kept control of Mazovia and its capital at Plock. Władysław also retained control of the most important cities i.e. Wroclaw, Krakow and Sandomierz. Zbigniew’s province encompassed Greater Poland including Gniezno, Kuyavia, Leczyca Land and Sieradz Land. Boleslaw’s territory included Lesser Poland, Silesia and Lubusz Land.

The division of the country and allowing Boleslaw and Zbigniew to co-rule greatly alarmed Sieciech, who then began to prepare to dispose of the brothers altogether. Sieciech understood that the division of the country will undermine his position.[36] He began preparations for a military settlement of the issue and he gained the Duke’s support for it. The position of Herman is seen as ambiguous as he chose to support Sieciech’s cause instead of his sons. In response to Sieciech’s preparations Boleslaw and Zbigniew entered into an alliance. This took place at a popular assembly or Wiec organized in Wroclaw by a magnate named Skarbmir. There it was decided to remove the current guardian of Boleslaw, a noble named Wojslaw – who was a relative of Sieciech – and arrange for an expedition against the Palatine. Subsequently, in 1099, the armies of Count Palatine and Duke Herman encountered the forces of Zbigniew and Boleslaw near Zarnowiec by the river Pilica. There the Rebel forces of Boleslaw and Zbigniew defeated Sieciech's army, and Władysław I Herman was obliged to permanently remove Sieciech from the position of Count Palatine.

The rebel forces were then further directed towards Sieciechów, where the Palatine took refuge. Unexpectedly, Duke Władysław came to the aid of his besieged favorite with a small force. At this point, the Princes decided to depose their father. The opposition sent Zbigniew with an armed contingent to Masovia, where he was to take control of Płock, while Boleslaw was directed to the South. The intention was the encirclement of their father, Duke Władysław I. The Duke predicted this maneuver and send his forces back to Masovia. In the environs of Płock the battle was finally joined and the forces of Władysław I were defeated. The Duke was thereafter forced to exile Sieciech from the country. The Palatine left Poland around 1100/1101. He was known to sojourn in the German lands. However, he eventually returned to Poland , but did not play any political role again. He may have been blinded. On the other hand, Władysław I Herman died on 4 June 1102. Duke of Poland Struggle for the Dominion (1102-1106) Division of Poland between Boleslaw (red) and Zbigniew (green)

Following Duke Władysław I Herman’s death the country was divided into two provinces each administered by one of the late duke’s sons. The extent of each province closely resembled the provinces that the princes were granted by their father three years earlier, the only difference being that Zbigniew also controlled Mazovia with its capital at Płock, effectively ruling the northern part of the kingdom, while his younger half-brother Bolesław, ruled it’s southern portion . In this way two virtually separate states were created. They conducted separate policies; internally as well as externally. They each sought alliances, and sometimes they were enemies of one another. Such was the case with Pomerania, towards which Boleslaw aimed his ambitions. Zbigniew, whose country bordered Pomerania, wished to maintain good relations with his northern neighbor. Bolesław eager to expand his dominion, organized several raids into Pomerania and Prussia. In Autumn of 1102 Boleslaw organized a war party into Pomerania during which his forces sacked Białogar. As reprisal the Pomeranians would send retaliatory war parties into Polish territory, but as Pomerania bordered Zbigniew’s territory these raids ravaged the lands of the prince who was not at fault. Therefore in order to put pressure on Bolesław, Zbigniew allied himself with Borivoj II of Bohemia, to whom he promised to pay tribute in return for his help. By aligning himself with Boleslaw’s southern neighbor Zbigniew wished to compel Bolesław to cease his raids into Pomerania. Boleslaw, on the other hand, allied himself with Kievan Rus and Hungary. His marriage to Zbyslava, the daughter of Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich in c.1103, was to seal the alliance between himself and the prince of Kiev. However, Boleslaw's first diplomatic move was to recognize the pope Paschal II, which put him in strong opposition of the Holy Roman Empire, later visit of papal legate Gwalo bishop of Beauvais brought the church matters into order,it also increased Boleslaw's influence[ Boleslaw III Wrymouth, painting by J.B. Jacobi (1828)

Zbigniew saw the marriage of Bolesław to a princess from Rus' and an alliance with Kiev as a serious threat. He therefore, prevailed upon his ally, Borivoj II of Bohemia, to invade Bolesław’s province, Bolesław retaliated with expeditions into Pomerania in 1104-1105, which brought the young prince not only loot, but also effectively disintegrated the alliance of Pomeranians and Zbigniew Bolesław’s partnership with king Coloman of Hungary, whom he aided in gaining the throne, bore fruit in 1105 when they successfully invaded Bohemia. Also in 1105, Bolesław entered into an agreement with his stepmother Judith of Swabia, the so called Tyniec Accord. According to their agreement, in exchange for a generous grant, the prince was guaranteed Judith's neutrality in his political contest with Zbigniew.

In 1106 Boleslaw managed to bribe Borivoj II of Bohemia and have him join his side of the contest against Zbigniew. In that same year Bolesław formally allied himself with Coloman of Hungary. During a popular assembly, attended by both princes, it was agreed that none of the brothers will conduct war nor sign peace treaties or enter into alliances without the agreement of the other. This created a very unfavorable situation for Boleslaw, and in effect it led to civil war, with over-lordship of entire country at stake. With the help of his Kievan and Hungarian allies Bolesław attacked Zbigniew’s territory. The allied forces of Boleslaw, easily took control of most important cities including Kalisz, Gniezno, Spycimierz and Łęczyca, in effect taking control of half of Zbigniew’s lands. Peace treaty was signed at Łęczyca, in which Zbigniew officially recognized Bolesław as High Duke of all Poland. However he was allowed to retain Masovia as a fief. Sole Ruler of Poland

In 1107 Boleslaw III along with his ally Coloman king of Hungary, invaded Bohemia in order to aid Svatopluk the Lion of Bohemia in gaining the Czech throne. The intervention in the Czech succession was meant to secure Polish interests to the south. The expedition was a full success. On 14 May 1107 Svatopluk was made Duke of Bohemia, in Prague.

Later that year Bolesław undertook a punitive expedition against his brother Zbigniew. The reason for this was that Zbigniew did not follow the orders of Boleslaw III and did not burn down the fort of Kurów. Another reason was that Zbigniew did not keep his duty as a vassal and did not provide military aid to his lord, Boleslaw III, for a campaign against the Pomeranians. In the winter of 1107-1108 with the help of Kievan and Hungarian allies, Bolesław III began a final campaign to rid himself of Zbigniew. His forces attacked Mazovia, and quickly forced Zbigniew to surrender. Following this Zbigniew was banished from the country altogether. From then forward Bolesław III was the sole lord of the Polish lands, though in fact his over-lordship began in 1107 when Zbigniew paid him homage as his feudal lord.

Later on in 1108, Boleslaw III, once again attacked Bohemia, as his ally king Coloman of Hungary was under attack by the combined forces of Holy Roman Empire and Bohemia. Another reason for the expedition was the fact that Svatopluk, who owed Boleslaw III his throne, did not honor his accord in which he promised to return Silesian cities seized from Poland (Raciborz, Kamieniec, Kozle among others) by his predecessors. Boleslaw III began to back Borivoj II of Bohemia and aimed to bring him back in power. This attempt was not successful. Battle of Hundsfeld, from The Polish Chronicle of Marcin Bielski (1597)

In response to Bolesław’s aggressive foreign policy, German king and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V undertook a punitive expedition against Poland in 1109. In the resulting Polish–German War, German Forces were assisted by Czech warriors provided by Svatopluk the Lion, Duke of Bohemia. The alleged reason for war was the issue of Zbigniew and his pretensions to the Polish throne. The military operations mainly took place in the south-western Poland, in Silesia , where Henry V’s army laid siege to major strongholds of Głogów, Wrocław and Bytom Odrzanski. The heroic defense of towns, where Polish children were used as human shields by the Germans, in large measure contributed to the German inability to succeed. At this time along with the defense of towns, Bolesław III Wrymouth was conducting a highly effective guerilla war against the Holy Roman Emperor and his allies, and eventually he defeated the German Imperial forces at the Battle of Hundsfeld on 24 August 1109. In the end Henry V was forced to withdraw from Silesia and Poland altogether.

A year later in 1110 Boleslaw III undertook an armed expedition against the German ally, Bohemia. His intention was to install yet another pretender on the Czech throne, Sobeslaus I. During the campaign Bolesław won a decisive victory against the Czechs at the Battle of Trutina. However following the battle he ordered his forces to withdraw further attack against Bohemia. The reason for this is speculated to be the unpopularity of Sobeslaus I among Czechs as well as Bolesław’s unwillingness to further deteriorate his relations with the Holy Roman Empire. In 1111 a truce between Poland and the Holy Roman Empire was signed which stipulated that Sobeslaus I will be able to return to Bohemia while Zbigniew will be able to return to his native Poland. That same year Zbigniew was received back in Poland and furnished with a grant. A year later in 1112 he was blinded on Boleslaw’s orders. Excommunication Archbishop of Gniezno, Martin I

Blinding of Zbigniew caused a strong negative reaction among Boleslaw's subjects. It should be noted that unlike, for instance in th east, blinding in medieval Poland was not accompplished by burning the eyes out with a red hot iron rod or knife, but a much more brutal technique was employed. The condemned man's eyes were pried out using special pliers. The convict was made to open his eyes and if he did not do so, his eyelids were torn out along with his eyeballs. Learning of Boleslaw's act Martin I, Archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland, who was a strong supporter of Zbigniew, excommunicated Boleslaw III Wrymouth for committing the crime against his half-brother. Archbischop Martin also exempted all of his subjects from the obligation of obedience to Duke Boleslaw III. The Duke was faced with a real possibility of uprising, of the sort that deposed Boleslaw the Bold. Seeing his precarious situation Boleslaw III sought the customary penance that would reconcile the high priesthood. According to Gallus Anonymus, Boleslaw first fasted for forty days, replaced his fine clothes with a hair cloth and slept "in ashes." He also sought and received forgiveness from his brother Zbigniew. This however, was not enough to convince the high echelons of the church and lift the excommunication. The Duke was compelled to undertake a pilgrimage to Hungary to the monasteries of Saint Giles and Saint Stephen I in Székesfehérvár. It must be noted that the pilgrimage to the Abbey of Saint Giles also had a political goal; Boleslaw strengthened his ties of friendship and alliance with the Arpad dynasty the ruling house of Hungary. Following his return to Poland, Boleslaw III traveled to Gniezno to pay further penance at the tomb of Saint Adalbert. He also bestowed numerous costly gifts on the poor and clergy throughout his penance. Due to his dedication the excommunication was finally lifted. Conquest and conversion of Pomerania Main articles: Pomerania during the High Middle Ages, Duchy of Pomerania, and Conversion of Pomerania The issue of conquest of Pomerania has been a life long pursuit for Boleslaw III Wrymouth. His political goals were twofold; first - to strengthen the Polish border on the Noteć river line, second - to subjugate Pomerania with Polish political overlordship but without actually incorporating it into the country with the exception of Gdansk Pomerania and a southern belt north of river Noteć which were to be absorbed by Poland. By 1113 the northern border has been strengthened. The fortified border cities included: Santok, Wieleń, Nakło, Czarnków, Ujście and Wyszogród. Some sources report that the border began at the mouth of river Warta and Oder in the west, ran along the river Noteć all the way to the Vistula river.

Before Boleslaw III began to expand in the Pomerelia, he normalized his relations with his southern Bohemian neighbors. This took place in 1114 at a great convention on the border river Nysa Kłodzka. Participants included Bolesław III himself, as well as Bohemian dukes of the Premyslid line: Vladislaus I, Otto II the Black and Sobeslaus I. The pact was sealed by marriage of the then widower Bolesław III with the sister of the wife of Vladislaus I, Salomea of Berg.

In 1119 Bolesław III recaptured the territories of Gdansk Pomerania. During his Pomeranian campaign a rebellion by count palatine Skarbmir of the Abdaniec clan began. The rebellion was quelled by the prince in 1117 and the mutinous nobleman was blinded as punishment. He was replaced as count palatine by Piotr Wlostowic of the Labedz clan. In 1121 combined forces of Pomeranian princes Wartislaw I and Swantopolk I were defeated by Poles at the battle of Niekładź. From then on Boleslaw ravaged Pomerania, he destroyed native strongholds, and forced thousands of Pomeranians to resettle deep into Polish territory. The Duke’s further expansion was aimed towards Szczecin. The Polish ruler realized that Szczecin was a strong fort, well defended by the natural barrier of the Oder river as well as by well-built fortifications. The only way to approach the walls was through the frozen waters of a nearby swamp. Taking advantage of element of surprise Boleslaw III launched his assault from precisely that direction, and took control of the city. Much of the population was put to the sword which motivated the remaining populace to subordinate to the Polish monarch. In the years 1121-1122 Pomerania became a Polish fief and a local strongman, Duke Wartislaw I swore feudal allegiance to the Polish monarch and undertook to pay a yearly tribute of 500 marks of silver to Poland (One mark of silver was equal to 240 denarii.) Wartislaw I also promised military aid to Poland at Boleslaw’s request. In the subsequent years the tribute was decreased to 300 marks. St.Otto of Bamberg

In order to make Polish and Pomeranian ties stronger, Bolesław III organized a mission to Christianize the newly acquired territory. The Polish monarch understood that the Christianization of the conquered territory will be an effective means of strengthening his authority there. At the same time the Boleslaw III wished to subordinate Pomerania to the Gniezno archbishopric. Unfortunately first attempts made by unknown missionaries did not make the desired progress. Another attempt, officially sponsored by the Polish prince, and led by Bernard the Spaniard who traveled to Wolin, has ended in another failure. The next two missions were carried out in 1124-1125 and 1128 by bishop Otto of Bamberg. Following an accord made between Duke Bolesław and Wartislaw I, Otto set out on a first stage of Christianization of the region. He was accompanied throughout his mission by the Pomeranian duke Wartislaw I, who greeted the missionary on the border of his domain, in the environs of the city of Sanok. At Stargard the pagan prince promised Otto his assistance in the Pomeranian cities as well as help during the journey. He also assigned 500 armored knights to act as guard for the bishop’s protection. Primary missionary activities were aimed in the direction of Pyrzyce, then the towns of Kamien, Wolin, Szczecin and once again Wolin. At Szczecin and Wolin which were important centers of Slavic paganism, opposition to conversion was particularly strong, among the pagan priests and populace alike. Conversion was finally accepted only after Bolesław III lowered the annual tribute he imposed on the Pomeranians. Four great pagan temples were torn down and churches were built in their places, as was the usual custom of the Catholic Church.

In 1127 first pagan rebellions began to take place. These were due to both the large tribute imposed by Poland as well as a plague that descended on Pomerania and which was blamed on Christianity. The rebellions were largely instigated by the old pagan priests, who had not come to terms with their new circumstances. Duke Wartislaw I confronted these uprisings with some success, but was not able to prevent several insurgent raids into Polish territory. Because of this Polish Duke Boleslaw III was preparing a massive penal expedition that may have spoiled all the earlier accomplishments of missionary work by bishop Otto. Thanks to Otto’s diplomacy direct confrontation was avoided and in 1128 he embarked on another mission to Pomerania. This time more stress was applied to the territories west of Oder river, i.e. Usedom, Wolgast and Gützkow, which were not under Polish suzerainity. The final stage of the mission retuned to Stettin (Szczecin), Wollin (Wolin) and Kammin (Cammin, Kamien). The Christianization of Pomerania is considered one of the greatest accomplishments of Boleslaw’s III Pomeranian policy.

Once the missionary activities of Otto of Bamberg took root Boleslaw III began to implement an ecclesiastical organization of Pomerania. Pomerelia was added to the Diocese of Włocławek, known at the time as the Kujavian Diocese. A strip of borderland north of Notec was split between the Diocese of Gniezno and Diocese of Poznan. The bulk of Pomerania was however made an independent Pomeranian bishoporic, set up in the territory of the Duchy of Pomerania in 1140, after Boleslaw had died in 1138 and the duchy had broken away from Poland.

In 1135, Boleslaw had accepted overlordship of Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and in turn received his Pomeranian gains as well as the still undefeated Principality of Rügen as a fief. Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania also accepted the Emperor as his overlord. With Boleslaw's death in 1138, Polish overlordship ended, triggering competition of the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark for the area. Church Fundations

Duke Boleslaw III was not only a predatory warrior, and a cunning politician and a diplomat. He was also a patron of cultural developments in his realm. Like most medieval monarchs he founded several churches and monasteries most important of which are; the monastery of Canons regular of St. Augustinein Trzemeszno founded in the 1100s and a Benedictine monastery of Holy Cross atop the Łysa Góra which was founded in place of an ancient pagan temple. Also the first major Polish chronicle written by one Gallus Anonymus dates back to the reign of duke Boleslaw III. Last Years

In 1135, Boleslaw finally gave his belated oath of allegiance to the new Emperor Lothair II (Lothar von Supplinburg), and paid twelve years past due tribute. The emperor granted Boleslaw parts of Western Pomerania and Rügen as fiefs, however the emperor was not in control of these areas and Bolesław also failed to subdue them.

Boleslaw also campaigned in Hungary 1132– 1135, but to little effect. Statute of Succession

Before his death in 1138, Boleslaw Wrymouth published his testament dividing his lands among four of his sons. The "Senioral Principle" established in the testament stated that at all times the eldest member of the dynasty was to have supreme power over the rest and was also to control an indivisible "senioral part": a vast strip of land running north-south down the middle of Poland, with Kraków its chief city. The Senior's prerogatives also included control over Pomerania, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. The "senioral principle" was soon broken, leading to a period of nearly 200 years of Poland's feudal fragmentation. [edit] Marriages and Issue

By 16 November 1102 Boleslaw married firstly with Zbyslava (b. ca. 1085/90 - d. ca. 1112), daughter of Grand Duke Sviatopolk II of Kiev. They had three children:

  1. Władysław II the Exile (b. 1105 - d. Altenburg, 30 May 1159).
  2. A son (b. ca. 1108 - d. aft. 1109).
  3. A daughter [Judith?] (b. ca. 1111 - d. aft. 1124), married in 1124 to Vsevolod Davidovich, Prince of Murom.

Between March and July of 1115, Boleslaw married secondly with Salomea (b. bef. 1101 - d. 27 July 1144), daughter of Henry, Count of Berg-Schelklingen. They had thirteen children:

  1. Leszek (b. 1115 - d. 26 August bef. 1131).
  2. Ryksa (b. 1116/17 - d. aft. 25 December 1156), married firstly ca. 1127 to Magnus the Strong, King of Västergötland; secondly on 18 June 1136 to Volodar Glebovich, Prince of Minsk and Hrodno; and thirdly by 1148 to King Sverker I of Sweden.
  3. A daughter (b. bef. 1119 - d. aft. 1131), married in 1131 to Conrad, Count of Plötzkau and Margrave of Nordmark.
  4. Sophie (b. 1120 - d. 10 October 1136).
  5. Casimir (b. 9 August 1122 - d. 19 October 1131).
  6. Gertruda (b. 1123/24 - d. 7 May 1160), a nun at Zwiefalten (1139).
  7. Bolesław IV the Curly (b. ca. 1125 - d. 3 April 1173).
  8. Mieszko III the Old (b. 1126/27 - d. Kalisz, 13 March 1202).
  9. Dobroniega (b. 1129 - d. by 1160), married ca. 1142 to Dietrich I, Margrave of Lusatia.
 10. Judith (b. 1130 - d. 8 July 1175), married on 6 January 1148 to Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg.
 11. Henry (b. 1131 - d. 18 October 1166).
 12. Agnes (b. 1137 - d. aft. 1182), married in 1151 to Mstislav II, Prince of Pereyaslavl and Grand Prince of Kiev since 1168.
 13. Casimir II the Just (b. 1138 - d. 5 May 1194).

-------------------- Wikipedia: Bolesław III Wrymouth (Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty; b. 20 August 1086 – d. 28 October 1138), Duke of Poland from 1102 until 1138. He was the only child of Duke Władysław I Herman and his first wife Judith, daughter of Vratislaus II of Bohemia.

Bolesław spent his early adulthood fighting his older half-brother Zbigniew for domination and most of his rule attending to the policy of unification of Polish lands and maintaining full sovereignty of the Polish state in the face of constant threat from expansionist eastern policy of the Holy Roman Empire and her allies, most notably Bohemia. Boleslaw III, like Boleslaw II the Bold, based his foreign policy on maintaining good relations with neighboring Hungary and Kievan Rus, with whom he forged strong links through marriage and military cooperation. Another foreign policy goal was the gain and conversion of Pomerania, which he accomplished by adding most of Pomerania to his domains by 1102-1122. Boleslaw III also upheld the independence of the Polish archbishopric of Gniezno. He strengthened the international position of Poland by his victory over the German Empire in the Polish-German War of 1109. He was also able to enlarge the country's territory. Despite undoubted successes, Bolesław III Wrymouth has committed serious political errors, such as the crime committed against Zbigniew. The crime against his half-brother and his penance for it show Bolesław’s great ambition as well as his ability to find political compromise. His last, and perhaps the most momentous act, was his will and testament known as "The Succession Statute" in which he divided the country among his sons, leading to almost 200 years of feudal fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom. Nevertheless, Bolesław became a symbol of Polish political aspirations until well into 19th century.

                 

Life Birth and childhood

In 1086 the coronation of Vratislav II as King of Bohemia and his alignment with László I, King of Hungary, threatened the position of the Polish ruler, Duke Władysław I Herman. Therefore that same year Władysław I was forced to recall from Hungarian banishment the only son of Bolesław II the Bold and a rightful heir to the Polish throne, Mieszko Bolesławowic. Upon his return young Boleslawowic accepted the over-lordship of his uncle and gave up his hereditary claim to the crown of Poland in exchange for becoming first in line to succeed him. In return, Duke Wladyslaw I Herman granted his nephew the district of Kraków. The situation was further complicated for Władysław I Herman by a lack of a legitimate male heir, as his first-born son Zbigniew came from a union not recognized by the church. With the return of Mieszko Bolesławowic to Poland, Władysław I normalized his relations with the kingdom of Hungary as well as Kievan Rus (the marriage of Mieszko Boleslawowic to a Kievan princess was arranged in 1088). These actions allowed Herman to strengthen his authority and alleviate further tensions in the international affairs. Lack of a legitimate heir, however, remained a concern for Władysław I and in 1085 he and his wife Judith of Bohemia sent rich gifts, among which was a life size statue of a child made of gold, to the Benedictine Sanctuary of Saint Giles in Saint-Gilles, Provance begging for offspring. The Polish envoys were led by the personal chaplain of Duchess Judith, Piotr.

By 1086 Bolesław was born. Three months after his birth, on 25 December, his mother died. In 1089 Władysław I Herman married Judith of Swabia who was renamed Sophia in order to distinguish herself from Władysław I's first wife. Judith of Swabia was a daughter of Emperor Henry III and widow of Solomon of Hungary. Through this marriage Bolesław gained three or four half-sisters, and as a consequence he remained the only legitimate son and heir.

Following Bolesław’s birth the political climate in the country changed. The position of Bolesław as an heir to the throne was threatened by the presence of Mieszko Bolesławowic who was already seventeen at the time and was furthermore, by agreement with Herman himself, the first in line to succeed. In all likelihood it was this situation that precipitated the young prince Mieszko’s demise in 1089. In that same year Wladyslaw I Herman’s first-born son Zbigniew was sent out of the country to a convent in Quedlinburg, Saxony. This suggests that Wladyslaw I Herman intended to be rid of Zbigniew, make him a monk, and therefore deprive him of any chance of succession. This eliminated two pretenders to the Polish throne, secured young Bolesław’s inheritance as well as diminished the growing opposition to Wladyslaw I Herman among the nobility. Shortly after his ascension, however, Władysław I Herman was forced by the barons to give up the de facto reigns of government to Count Palatine Sieciech. This turn of events was likely due to the fact that Herman owed the throne to the barons, the most powerful of whom was Sieciech. It is believed that Judith of Swabia was actively aiding Sieciech in his schemes to take over the country, it is also theorized that she was a mistress of the Count Palatine.

In 1090 Polish forces under Sieciech's command, managed to gain control of Gdańsk Pomerania, albeit for a short time. Major towns were garrisoned by Polish troops, the rest were burned in order to thwart any future resistance. Several months later, however, a rebellion of native elites led to the restoration of the region’s independence from Poland. The following year a punitive expedition was organized, in order to recover Gdańsk Pomerania. The campaign was decided at the battle of the Wda River, where the Polish knights suffered a defeat despite the assistance of Bohemian troops. Reception of Jews in Poland in 1096, Painting by Jan Matejko

Prince Bolesław’s childhood happened at a time when a massive political migration out of Poland was taking place, due to Sieciech’s political repressions. Most of the elites who became political refugees found safe haven in Bohemia. Another consequence of Sieciech’s political persecution was the kidnapping of Zbigniew by Sieciech’s enemies and his return from abroad in 1093. Zbigniew took refuge in Silesia, a stronghold of negative sentiment for both Sieciech as well as his nominal patron Władysław I Herman. In the absence of Sieciech and Bolesław, who were captured by Hungarians and kept captive, Duke Władysław I then undertook a penal expedition to Silesia, which was unsuccessful and he was subsequently obliged to recognize Zbigniew as a legitimate heir. In 1093 Władysław I signed an Act of Legitimization which granted Zbigniew the rights of descent from his line. Zbigniew was also granted the right to succeed to the throne. Following Sieciech and Boleslaw’s escape from Hungary an expedition against Zbigniew was mounted by the Count Palatine. It’s aim was to nullify the Act of Legitimization. The contestants met at the battle of Goplo in 1096, where Sieciech’s forces annihilated the supporters of Zbigniew. Zbigniew himself was taken prisoner, but regained his freedom a year later, in May 1097, due to the intervention of the bishops. At the same time his rights, guaranteed by the Act of Legitimization, were reinstated.

Simultaneously a great migration of Jews from Western Europe to Poland began circa 1096, around the time of the First Crusade. The tolerant rule of Władysław I Herman attracted the Jews who were permitted to settle throughout the entire kingdom without restrictions. The Polish prince, took great care of the Hebrew Diaspora, as he understood its positive influence on the growth of the country’s economy. The new Jewish citizens soon gained trust of the gentiles during the rule of Bolesław III. Fight against Sieciech Prince Zbigniew

In view of his father’s disapproval, and after discovering the plans of Sieciech and Duchess Judith-Sophia to take over the country Zbigniew gained an ally in the young prince Bolesław. Both brothers demanded that the reigns of government should be handed over to them. It is difficult to believe, however, that Boleslaw was making independent decisions at this point as he was only 12 years of age. It is stipulated that at this stage he was merely a pawn of the Baron’s power struggle. Władysław I Herman, however, agreed to divide the realm between the brothers, each to be granted his own province while the Duke - Władysław I himself – kept control of Mazovia and its capital at Plock. Władysław also retained control of the most important cities i.e. Wroclaw, Krakow and Sandomierz. Zbigniew’s province encompassed Greater Poland including Gniezno, Kuyavia, Leczyca Land and Sieradz Land. Boleslaw’s territory included Lesser Poland, Silesia and Lubusz Land.

The division of the country and allowing Boleslaw and Zbigniew to co-rule greatly alarmed Sieciech, who then began to prepare to dispose of the brothers altogether. Sieciech understood that the division of the country will undermine his position.[36] He began preparations for a military settlement of the issue and he gained the Duke’s support for it. The position of Herman is seen as ambiguous as he chose to support Sieciech’s cause instead of his sons. In response to Sieciech’s preparations Boleslaw and Zbigniew entered into an alliance. This took place at a popular assembly or Wiec organized in Wroclaw by a magnate named Skarbmir. There it was decided to remove the current guardian of Boleslaw, a noble named Wojslaw – who was a relative of Sieciech – and arrange for an expedition against the Palatine. Subsequently, in 1099, the armies of Count Palatine and Duke Herman encountered the forces of Zbigniew and Boleslaw near Zarnowiec by the river Pilica. There the Rebel forces of Boleslaw and Zbigniew defeated Sieciech's army, and Władysław I Herman was obliged to permanently remove Sieciech from the position of Count Palatine.

The rebel forces were then further directed towards Sieciechów, where the Palatine took refuge. Unexpectedly, Duke Władysław came to the aid of his besieged favorite with a small force. At this point, the Princes decided to depose their father. The opposition sent Zbigniew with an armed contingent to Masovia, where he was to take control of Płock, while Boleslaw was directed to the South. The intention was the encirclement of their father, Duke Władysław I. The Duke predicted this maneuver and send his forces back to Masovia. In the environs of Płock the battle was finally joined and the forces of Władysław I were defeated. The Duke was thereafter forced to exile Sieciech from the country. The Palatine left Poland around 1100/1101. He was known to sojourn in the German lands. However, he eventually returned to Poland , but did not play any political role again. He may have been blinded. On the other hand, Władysław I Herman died on 4 June 1102. Duke of Poland Struggle for the Dominion (1102-1106) Division of Poland between Boleslaw (red) and Zbigniew (green)

Following Duke Władysław I Herman’s death the country was divided into two provinces each administered by one of the late duke’s sons. The extent of each province closely resembled the provinces that the princes were granted by their father three years earlier, the only difference being that Zbigniew also controlled Mazovia with its capital at Płock, effectively ruling the northern part of the kingdom, while his younger half-brother Bolesław, ruled it’s southern portion . In this way two virtually separate states were created. They conducted separate policies; internally as well as externally. They each sought alliances, and sometimes they were enemies of one another. Such was the case with Pomerania, towards which Boleslaw aimed his ambitions. Zbigniew, whose country bordered Pomerania, wished to maintain good relations with his northern neighbor. Bolesław eager to expand his dominion, organized several raids into Pomerania and Prussia[40]. In Autumn of 1102 Boleslaw organized a war party into Pomerania during which his forces sacked Białogar. As reprisal the Pomeranians would send retaliatory war parties into Polish territory, but as Pomerania bordered Zbigniew’s territory these raids ravaged the lands of the prince who was not at fault. Therefore in order to put pressure on Bolesław, Zbigniew allied himself with Borivoj II of Bohemia, to whom he promised to pay tribute in return for his help. By aligning himself with Boleslaw’s southern neighbor Zbigniew wished to compel Bolesław to cease his raids into Pomerania. Boleslaw, on the other hand, allied himself with Kievan Rus and Hungary. His marriage to Zbyslava, the daughter of Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich in c.1103, was to seal the alliance between himself and the prince of Kiev. However, Boleslaw's first diplomatic move was to recognize the pope Paschal II, which put him in strong opposition of the Holy Roman Empire, later visit of papal legate Gwalo bishop of Beauvais brought the church matters into order,it also increased Boleslaw's influence[ Boleslaw III Wrymouth, painting by J.B. Jacobi (1828)

Zbigniew saw the marriage of Bolesław to a princess from Rus' and an alliance with Kiev as a serious threat. He therefore, prevailed upon his ally, Borivoj II of Bohemia, to invade Bolesław’s province, Bolesław retaliated with expeditions into Pomerania in 1104-1105, which brought the young prince not only loot, but also effectively disintegrated the alliance of Pomeranians and Zbigniew[44] Bolesław’s partnership with king Coloman of Hungary, whom he aided in gaining the throne, bore fruit in 1105 when they successfully invaded Bohemia. Also in 1105, Bolesław entered into an agreement with his stepmother Judith of Swabia, the so called Tyniec Accord. According to their agreement, in exchange for a generous grant, the prince was guaranteed Judith's neutrality in his political contest with Zbigniew.

In 1106 Boleslaw managed to bribe Borivoj II of Bohemia and have him join his side of the contest against Zbigniew. In that same year Bolesław formally allied himself with Coloman of Hungary. During a popular assembly, attended by both princes, it was agreed that none of the brothers will conduct war nor sign peace treaties or enter into alliances without the agreement of the other. This created a very unfavorable situation for Boleslaw, and in effect it led to civil war, with over-lordship of entire country at stake. With the help of his Kievan and Hungarian allies Bolesław attacked Zbigniew’s territory. The allied forces of Boleslaw, easily took control of most important cities including Kalisz, Gniezno, Spycimierz and Łęczyca, in effect taking control of half of Zbigniew’s lands. Peace treaty was signed at Łęczyca, in which Zbigniew officially recognized Bolesław as High Duke of all Poland. However he was allowed to retain Masovia as a fief. [edit] Sole Ruler of Poland

In 1107 Boleslaw III along with his ally Coloman king of Hungary, invaded Bohemia in order to aid Svatopluk the Lion of Bohemia in gaining the Czech throne. The intervention in the Czech succession was meant to secure Polish interests to the south. The expedition was a full success. On 14 May 1107 Svatopluk was made Duke of Bohemia, in Prague.

Later that year Bolesław undertook a punitive expedition against his brother Zbigniew. The reason for this was that Zbigniew did not follow the orders of Boleslaw III and did not burn down the fort of Kurów[48]. Another reason was that Zbigniew did not keep his duty as a vassal and did not provide military aid to his lord, Boleslaw III, for a campaign against the Pomeranians. In the winter of 1107-1108 with the help of Kievan and Hungarian allies, Bolesław III began a final campaign to rid himself of Zbigniew. His forces attacked Mazovia, and quickly forced Zbigniew to surrender. Following this Zbigniew was banished from the country altogether. From then forward Bolesław III was the sole lord of the Polish lands, though in fact his over-lordship began in 1107 when Zbigniew paid him homage as his feudal lord.

Later on in 1108, Boleslaw III, once again attacked Bohemia, as his ally king Coloman of Hungary was under attack by the combined forces of Holy Roman Empire and Bohemia. Another reason for the expedition was the fact that Svatopluk, who owed Boleslaw III his throne, did not honor his accord in which he promised to return Silesian cities seized from Poland (Raciborz, Kamieniec, Kozle among others) by his predecessors. Boleslaw III began to back Borivoj II of Bohemia and aimed to bring him back in power. This attempt was not successful. Battle of Hundsfeld, from The Polish Chronicle of Marcin Bielski (1597)

In response to Bolesław’s aggressive foreign policy, German king and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V undertook a punitive expedition against Poland in 1109. In the resulting Polish–German War, German Forces were assisted by Czech warriors provided by Svatopluk the Lion, Duke of Bohemia. The alleged reason for war was the issue of Zbigniew and his pretensions to the Polish throne. The military operations mainly took place in the south-western Poland, in Silesia , where Henry V’s army laid siege to major strongholds of Głogów, Wrocław and Bytom Odrzanski. The heroic defense of towns, where Polish children were used as human shields by the Germans, in large measure contributed to the German inability to succeed. At this time along with the defense of towns, Bolesław III Wrymouth was conducting a highly effective guerilla war against the Holy Roman Emperor and his allies, and eventually he defeated the German Imperial forces at the Battle of Hundsfeld on 24 August 1109. In the end Henry V was forced to withdraw from Silesia and Poland altogether.

A year later in 1110 Boleslaw III undertook an armed expedition against the German ally, Bohemia. His intention was to install yet another pretender on the Czech throne, Sobeslaus I. During the campaign Bolesław won a decisive victory against the Czechs at the Battle of Trutina. However following the battle he ordered his forces to withdraw further attack against Bohemia. The reason for this is speculated to be the unpopularity of So

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Bolesław III "Krzywousty" Piast, książę - King of Poland's Timeline

1085
August 20, 1085
Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
1103
November 16, 1103
Age 18
Kiev, Kiev, Ukraine
1105
1105
Age 19
Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
1108
1108
Age 22
1110
1110
Age 24
Of,Kraków,Kraków,Poland
1115
March 1115
Age 29
1115
Age 29
Of,Kraków,Kraków,Poland
1116
April 12, 1116
Age 30
Krakow, Lodzkie, Polen
1120
1120
Age 34
Kraków, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
1123
1123
Age 37