Branimir Marjan Domagojević (c.860 - c.892)

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About Branimir Marjan Domagojević

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branimir_of_Croatia

Branimir (died 892) was a ruler of Dalmatian Croatia who reigned as Knez from 879 to 892. He was recognized by Pope John VIII as the Duke of the Croats (Dux Chroatorum).[1] During his reign, Croatia retained its sovereignty from both Frankish and Byzantine rule, and became a fully recognized state.[2][3]


The inscription of duke Branimir, c. 880Branimir was brought to the throne of Croatia by the Anti-Byzantine coalition under the Roman Pope. In 879 Branimir had Zdeslav, a supporter of the Byzantine Empire, killed near Knin in a rebellion that he led. Approval from the Holy See was brought about by Branimir's own actions to bring the Croats further away from the influence of Byzantium and closer to Rome. Duke Branimir wrote to Pope John VIII affirming this split from Byzantine and commitment to the Roman Papacy.

During the solemn divine service in St. Peter's church in Rome in 879, Pope John VIII gave his blessing to the duke and the whole Croatian people, about which he informed Branimir in his letters. Pope John VIII brought the very decision on May 21, 879, and confirmed it in his letter from June 7, 879.[3] This was the first time that the Croatian state was officially recognized (at that time the international legitimacy was given by the Pope).

In Branimir's time Venetians had to pay taxes to the Croatian state for their ships traveling along the Croatian coast.

[edit] Brainimir's reign and Croatian Church During Brainimir's reign, the Croatian Bishop of Nin recognized the supreme ecclesiastical authority of the Roman Bishop, unlike the Archbishop of Split, who recognized the supremacy of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Duke Branimir promoted the Croatian Bishop of Nin to the Archbishop of Split, after the Archbishop's death in the Patriarchate of Aquileia without knowledge of the Holy See, which worsened his relations with the Pope. Under the influence of Methodus' baptising missions in 882 who made a stop in Croatia on his way from Moravia to Constantinople, Branimir endorsed parallel usage of Latin and Slavic in the Ecclesiastical service, which was not like by the new Pope, Stephen V. Throughout his life, Duke Branimir worked on increasing Croatian independence.

Branimir died in 892. He was succeeded by Trpimir's third son, Muncimir.

[edit] House of Domagojević Unlike his predecessor and successor (both Trpimirović), some historians impose that Branimir might be a member of the House of Domagojević, particularly, one of his sons. His name is an old Slavic name, and could be translated as "defender of the realm", or "defender of peace", as the word "mir" means peace in Slavic languages.

[edit] Legacy and honors Today, we have several historical monuments (mostly altar beams from old Croatian churches) that bear the name of Prince Branimir. Also, his name is also found in Evangelistar from Cividale together with the name of his (probably) wife Mariosa (Croatian: Maruša or Marija)

Currently, Croatia's government presents the Order of Duke Branimir as one of its highest state honours.

[edit] References 1.^ John V.A. Fine, Jr., The Late Medieval Balkans 2.^ Hrvatski leksikon (1996-1997) (Croatian) 3.^ a b Stjepan Antoljak, Pregled hrvatske povijesti, Split 1993., str. 43.

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http://krk.fcpages.com/hr/vladari/bra.html

Knez BRANIMIR

   Nakon što je uz pomoć Bizanta protjerao Domagojeve sinove i tako postao pravi bizantski igrač, razočarani i nezadovoljni hrvatski narod odlučuje god. 879. kneza Zdeslava srušiti s prijestolja, te dovesti kneza Branimira koji će potom odmah vratiti stvari na svoje mjesto.
   Knez Branimir se tako odmah odlučno odijelio od Bizanta, te je zajedno s ninskim biskupom Teodozijem poslao pismo papi Ivanu VIII., u kojem su mu obojica u svoje i u ime hrvatskog naroda, izrazili odanost i povratak prijestolju sv. Petra Apostola. Zajedničko pismo kneza Branimira i biskupa Teodozija veoma je razveselilo papu.
   Na blagdan Uzašašća Gospodnjega 21. svibnja 879., papa Ivan VIII. služio je svetu misu u kojoj je podigao ruke k nebu i blagoslovio Branimira, sav hrvatski narod i svu njegovu zemlju. Tom svetom misom papa Ivan VIII. priznao je nezavisnost hrvatske države, što je u to doba predstavljalo međunarodno priznanje. Hrvatski narod je tada zauvijek potvrdio vjernost katoličkoj crkvi i vjeru u Boga, koji će im kasnije u teškim i krvavim ratovima s Turcima dati snagu da postanu predziđe kršćanstva "Antemurale Christianitatis".
   Mlečanima je smetala jaka i nezavisna Hrvatska pa su je pokušali ratom slomiti, ali su ih god. 887. Neretvani razbili kod Makarske i u boju ubili dužda Petra Candiana. Nakon tog poraza Mlečani su morali plaćati godišnji danak (tributum pacis) Hrvatima i Neretvanima za slobodnu plovidbu i trgovinu. "Danak mira" plaćali su i dalmatinski gradovi i otoci, a Hrvatska se je snažno razvijala u miru i dobrim susjedskim odnosima. Tako je Split plaćao 200, Zadar 110, a Trogir, Osor, Rab i Cres po 100 zlatnika
   Jaka Hrvatska je tako pružila utočište Metodovim učenicima, koji su bili protjerani iz Moravske. Otada se u crkvama Dalmatinske Hrvatske pored latinskog jezika, širio slavenski crkveni jezik i slavensko pismo glagoljica. Metodovi učenici su tako utjecali i na razvoj hrvatske narodne kulture, osobito u krajevima zapadne Hrvatske.
   U doba kneza Branimira mnogo se je gradilo. Tako je ostalo sačuvano pet njegovih natpisa: u Gornjem Muću gdje je dao sagraditi crkvu na čast majke Božje djevice Marije (ulomak grede dužine 87 cm i visine 27 cm), Šoputu kraj Benkovca, Ninu, Ždrapanju kraj Skradina i Otresu kraj Bribira. Na gredi iz Šopota kod Benkovca zabilježen je latinskim jezikom "BRANIMIR" najstariji spomen hrvatskog imena u narodnom obliku, a na zabatu natpis "DUX CRUATORUM"
   O prvom utemeljitelju hrvatske nezavisnosti knezu Branimiru, postoje nekakve teorije da je mogao biti jedan od Domagojevih sinova. Zna se sigurno da je imao ženu po imenu Maruša (Mariosa cometissa), s kojom je bio na hodočašću u talijanskom gradu Cividale (16 km. istočno od grada Udine), a dokaz tome su njihova upisana imena u Evanđelju sv. Marka.
   Kneza Branimira naslijedio je 892. knez Muncimir, najmlađi sin kneza Trpimira i otac kralja Tomislava.