Brunichild

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Brunihildi

Also Known As: "Brunhilda", "Brugenilda", "Brunchilde", "Brunehaut", "Brunekhilda", "Brünhaut", "Brunhild", "Brunhilde", "Brunichilde", "Brynhild"
Birthdate:
Death: Died in Renève-sur-Vingeanne, France
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Atanagildo I, rey de los visigodos and Gosvinta
Wife of Siegbert I, King of Austrasia and Mérovech de Soissons
Mother of Ingunda de Metz; Carloman of Landen; Childébert II, King of Austrasia & Burgundy; Clodesinde and N.N. d'Austrasie
Sister of Gosvinta

Occupation: Queen of The Franks, Reine, Brunhild, queen of the Frankish kingdom known as Austrasia (in present-day northeastern France and southwestern Germany), , Princesa de los Visigodos
Managed by: Jocelynn Elaine Oakes
Last Updated:

About Brunichild

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/VANDALS,%20SUEVI,%20VISIGOTHS.htm#BrunechildisVisigothdied613

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Brunhild Queen of Austrasia (1)

Born: 550 (1)

Marriage: Sigebert I of Metz on an unknown date (1)

Died: 613 at age 63 (1)

General Notes:

Brunhild, queen of the Frankish kingdom known as Austrasia (in present-day northeastern France and southwestern Germany), the daughter of Athanagild (reigned 554-67), king of the Visigoths in Spain. Brunhild was married to Sigebert I, the Merovingian king of Austrasia. Her sister Galswintha married Sigebert's brother Chilperic, ruler of the neighboring Frankish kingdom of Neustria. Fredegund, Chilperic's former concubine, caused Galswintha to be murdered; she then married Chilperic. Brunhild determined to avenge herself on Fredegund, and the annals of the next half century in Gaul are filled with the bloody deeds provoked by the enmity of the two women.

Brunhild and her husband were successful until Sigebert was murdered in 575 at the instigation of Fredegund. Brunhild herself was captured by Chilperic, but she escaped, returned to Austrasia, and governed as regent in the name of her son, Childebert II. After the death of her son, she ruled Austrasia in the name of her young grandson. Finally, the armies of Austrasia were overthrown in 613 by Clotaire II of Neustria, son of Fredegund; the aged queen herself was taken captive. For three days she was subjected to insult and torture, then bound to a wild horse and dragged to death.

Family Links

Spouses/Children:

Sigebert I of Metz

-1. Childebert II King of Austrasia and Burgundy+

Forrás / Source:

http://www.delmars.com/family/perrault/7371.htm

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Brunhilda of Austrasia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Brunhilda" redirects here. For the figure of Germanic legend, see Brynhildr.

Brunhilda[1] (c. 543 – 613) was a Frankish queen who ruled the eastern kingdoms of Austrasia and Burgundy in the names of her sons and grandsons. Initially known as a liberal ruler of great political acumen, she became notorious for her cruelty and avarice.

Contents [hide]

1 Life

1.1 First marriage

1.2 Second marriage

1.3 First regency

1.4 Relations with King Guntram

1.5 Second regency

1.6 Third regency

2 Religion

3 In legend

4 See also

5 Notes

6 Further reading

7 Sources

[edit]Life

She was possibly born about 543 in Toledo, the Visigothic capital, the daughter of the Visigoth king Athanagild and Goiswintha, his queen. She was the younger of his two daughters. She was only eleven years old when her father was elevated to the kingship (554). She was educated in Toledo as an Arian Christian.

[edit]First marriage

In 567, she was married to king Sigebert I of Austrasia (a grandson of Clovis I) who had sent an embassy to Toledo loaded with gifts. She joined him at Metz. Upon her marriage, she abjured Arianism and converted to orthodox Roman Catholicism.[2]

Sigebert's father, Clotaire I, had reunited the four kingdoms of the Franks, but when he died, Sigebert and his three brothers divided them again. According to historian and bishop Gregory of Tours, Sigebert's marriage to a Visigothic princess was a criticism of his brothers' choices in wives. Instead of marrying low-born and promiscuous women, Sigebert contracted a princess of education and morals.

In response to Sigebert's noble marriage, his brother King Chilperic of Soissons sent to Spain for Brunhilda's sister, Galswintha. Gregory of Tours suggests that he proposed because he envied his brother's marriage to Brunhilda.[3] However, Galswintha ordered him to purge his court of prostitutes and mistresses and he soon grew tired of her. He and his favourite mistress, one Fredegund, conspired to murder her within the year. He then married Fredegund.

Brunhilda so detested Fredegund for the death of her sister—and this hatred was so fiercely reciprocated—that the two queens persuaded their husbands to go to war.[4] Sigebert persuaded their other brother, the elder Guntram of Burgundy, to mediate the dispute between the queens. He decided that Galswintha's dower of Bordeaux, Limoges, Cahors, Béarn, and Bigorre should be turned over to Brunhilda in restitution. However, Chilperic did not easily give up the cities and Brunhilda did not forget the murder. Germanus, Bishop of Paris, negotiated a brief peace between them. Between 567 and 570, Brunhilda bore Sigebert three children: Ingund, Chlodosind, and Childebert.

The peace was then broken by Chilperic, who invaded Sigebert's dominions. Sigebert defeated Chilperic, who fled to Tournai. The people of Paris hailed Sigebert as a conqueror when he went there with Brunhilda and their children. Germanus wrote to Brunhilda, asking her to persuade her husband to restore the peace and to spare his brother. Chroniclers of Germanus' life say that she ignored this; certainly Sigebert set out to besiege Tournai. Fredegund responded to this threat to her husband by hiring two assassins, who killed Sigebert at Vitry with poisoned daggers (scramasaxi, according to Gregory). Brunhilda was captured and imprisoned at Rouen.

[edit]Second marriage

When, after disobeying his father's direct orders, Merovech, the son of Chilperic and his first wife Audovera, went to Rouen on pretext of visiting his mother Audovera, he decided to marry the widowed Brunhilda. Thus he strengthened his chances of becoming a king. His stepmother, Fredegund, was determined that only her sons should succeed as kings, and she eliminated her husband's sons by other women. They were married by the bishop Praetextatus, though the marriage was contrary to canon law, as Gregory is quick to note,[5] Brunhilda being Merovech's aunt. Quickly, Chilperic besieged them in the church of St Martin on the walls. Eventually he made peace with them, but he took Merovech away with him to Soissons.

In an effort to nullify the marriage, Chilperic had Merovech tonsured and sent to the monastery of Le Mans to become a priest. Merovech fled to the sanctuary of St Martin at Tours, the church of Gregory (who is thus an eyewitness to these events),[6] and later Champagne. He finally returned to Tours in 578, and when his bid for power failed, he asked his servant to kill him.[7]

[edit]First regency

Brunhilda now tried to seize the regency of Austrasia in the name of her son Childebert II, but she was resisted fiercely by her nobles and had to retire briefly to the court of Guntram of Burgundy before obtaining her goal. At that time, she ruled Austrasia as queen. Not being a fighter, she was primarily an administrative reformer, with a Visigothic education. She repaired the old Roman roads, built many churches and abbeys, constructed the necessary fortresses, reorganised the royal finances, and restructured the royal army. However, she antagonised the nobles by her continued imposition of royal authority wherever it was lax. To reinforce her positions and the crown's prestige and power, she convinced Guntram, newly heirless, to adopt Childebert as his own son and heir. This he did in 577.[8] In 579, she married her daughter Ingunda, then only thirteen, to the Visigothic prince Hermenegild, allying her house to that of the king of her native land. However, Hermenegild converted to Catholicism and he and his wife both died in the ensuing religious wars which tore apart the Visigothic kingdom in Spain.

Brunhilda ruled Austrasia until Childebert came of age in 583, at the traditional Merovingian majority of thirteen.

[edit]Relations with King Guntram

The conflict with Fredegund flared up once more upon the death of Chilperic. Now in the regency in Neustria, Fredegund was in a position to renew the war with her old enemy. Simultaneously, Brunhilda had to deal with her own internal enemies.

Many of the dukes strongly opposed her influence over her son Childebert, the king. Three of them—Rauching, Ursio, and Berthefrid—conspired to assassinate Childebert; however, their plot was found out. Rauching was killed and Ursio and Berthefrid fled to a fortress. Upon this, Guntram immediately begged for Childebert, Brunhilda, and Childebert's new sons to take refuge at his court. This they did and soon Ursio and Berthefrid were killed. In 587, Guntram, Childebert, and Brunhild settled the Pact of Andelot[9] securing for Childebert the Burgundian succession and a continuing alliance of the two realms of Austrasia and Burgundy for the rest of Guntram's life.

In that same year, King Reccared I of the Visigoths sent embassies to both Childebert and Guntram, the former accepting them and consolidating an alliance and the latter refusing to see them for some reason or another. Thus, when Brunhilda and Childebert negotiated a marriage for the king's sister Chlodosind with the king of Spain, it was rejected by Guntram and abandoned. In 592, Guntram died and Childebert, as per the treaty, succeeded to his kingdom, immediately making war on Clotaire II of Neustria.

[edit]Second regency

Upon Childebert's death in September or October 595, Brunhilda attempted to govern Austrasia and Burgundy in the name of her grandsons Theudebert II and Theuderic II, respectively. Though she attributed the death of Childebert to Fredegund, the latter died in 597 and the direct conflict between her and Brunhilda ended. Peace would elude the Franks, however, for many years more as the conflict raged between the two queens' descendants.

In 599, Brunhilda's eldest grandson, Theudebert, at whose court she was staying, exiled her. She was found wandering near Arcis in Champagne by a peasant, who brought her to Theuderic. The peasant was rewarded with the bishopric of Auxerre, as the legend goes. Theuderic welcomed her and readily fell under her influence, which was now inclined to vengeance against Theudebert. Soon the brothers were at war.

It is at this point that Brunhilda, now in her later 50's and having survived all the previous tribulations, begins to display that ruthlessness which led to her especially violent demise. Brunhilda first took herself Protadius as lover and, desiring to promote him to high office, conspired to have Berthoald, the mayor of the palace, killed. In 604, she convinced Theuderic to send Berthoald to inspect the royal villae along the Seine. Clotaire, probably alerted by men of Brunhilda's bidding, sent his own mayor Landric (ironically, a former paramour of Fredegund) to meet Berthoald, who had only a small contingent of men with him. Realising that he had been the victim of courtly plotting, Berthoald, in the ensuing confrontation, overchased the enemy until he was surrounded and killed. Protadius was promptly put in his place.

Brunhilda and Protadius soon persuaded Theuderic to return to war with Theudebert, but the mayor was murdered by his warriors, who did not wish to fight to assuage the ego of queen. The man who ordered Protadius' execution, Duke Uncelen, was soon arrested by Brunhilda and tortured and executed. He was not the first ducal victim of the queen's revenges.

It was also during these later regencies that Desiderius, Bishop of Vienne (later Saint Didier) publicly accused her of incest and cruelty. Desiderius finally enraged her with a pointed sermon on chastity preached in 612 before her and Theuderic, with whom she then hired three assassins to murder the bishop at the village now-called Saint-Didier-sur-Chalaronne.

In that year, at the battle of Tolbiac, Theuderic defeated and captured Theudebert, whom the queen[who?] was now claiming was in fact the son of a gardener, and brought him and his royal paraphernalia to Brunhilda, who subsequently had him put up in a monastery. She probably also then had him murdered (along with his son Merovech) to allow Theuderic to succeed to both thrones unhindered. This he did, shortly thereafter then dying of dysentery in his Austrasian capital of Metz, in late 613.

Third regency

The successor of Theuderic II was his bastard son Sigebert, a child. The mayor of the palace of Austrasia, Warnachar, fearing that at his young age he would fall under the influence of his great-grandmother, brought him before a national assembly, where he was proclaimed king by the nobles, who then did homage to him ruling over both his father's kingdoms. Nonetheless, he could not be kept out of the influence of Brunhilda. Thus, for the last time in a long life (now in her 70's), she was regent of the Franks, this time for her own great-grandson.

But Warnachar and Rado, mayor of the palace of Burgundy, along with Pepin of Landen and Arnulf of Metz, resentful of her regency, abandoned the cause of Brunhilda over the young king and joined with her old antagonist Clotaire II, promising not to rise in defence of the queen-regent and recognising Clotaire as rightful regent and guardian of Sigebert. Brunhilda, with Sigebert, met Clotaire's army on the Aisne, but the dukes yet again betrayed her: the Patrician Aletheus, Duke Rocco, and Duke Sigvald deserted her and she and her king had to flee. They fled as far as the Orbe, hoping to enlist the aid of certain German tribes, but Clotaire's minions caught up with them by Lake Neuchâtel. The young king and his brother Corbo were both killed: Thus ended the long and bloody feud between Austrasia and Neustria, and, reuniting the two kingdoms, Clotaire held the entire realm of the Franks.

Clotaire then accused Brunhilda of the death of ten kings of the Franks The identity of the ten kings comes from the Fourth Book of the Chronicle of Fredegar. It is usually said to include Sigebert I, Chilperic I, Theudebert II, Theuderic II, Sigebert II, Merovech (Chilperic's son), Merovech (Theuderic's son), Corbo (Theuderic's son), and Childebert (Theuderic's son) and the sons of Theudebert. along with many churchmen, including Desiderius. According to the Liber Historiae Francorum:

"Then the army of the Franks and Burgundians joined into one, all shouted together that death would be most fitting for the very wicked Brunhilda. Then King Clotaire ordered that she be lifted on to a camel and led through the entire army. Then she was tied to the feet of wild horses and torn apart limb from limb. Finally she died. Her final grave was the fire. Her bones were burnt."

One legend has her being dragged by a wild mare down the Roman road La Chaussée Brunehaut at Abbeville.

[edit]Religion

Brunhilda was raised as an Arian Christian, but upon her marriage to Sigebert, converted to Roman Catholicism. In general, she protected the church and treated Pope Gregory the Great with great respect. He wrote a series of positive letters to her; in 597 he wrote to her about interdicting pagan rites such as tree worship. Gregory of Tours was another favoured cleric; he was a trusted courtier to her and her son from 587 until his death. She also took a keen personal interest in the bishoprics and monasteries within her dominion. This brought her into conflict with Columbanus, abbot of Luxeuil, whom she eventually exiled to Italy, where he founded Bobbio. Brunhilda also played a role in perpetuating the diocese of Maurienne as a suffragan bishopric of the archdiocese of Vienne. In 576, Brunhilda's protector, Sigebert's brother Guntram, had founded the new bishopric at Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, separating the Maurienne Valley and the neighboring Susa Valley from the Diocese of Turin. The Bishop of Turin protested this to Brunhilda for more than twenty years, but even when Pope Gregory the Great supported his complaint in 599, Brunhilda dismissed it.

Brunhilda was buried in the Abbaye de St. Martin at Autun that she founded in 602 on the spot where the bishop of Tours had cut down a beech-tree that served as an object of pagan worship. The abbey was destroyed in 1793 and Brunhilda's sarcophagus is now in the Musée Lapidaire in Avignon.

Brunhilda commissioned the building of several churches and the abbey of St. Vincent at Laon (founded in 580). She is also credited with founding the castle of Bruniquel and having a Roman road resurfaced near Alligny-en-Morvan (where the name of a nearby hill Terreau Bruneau is believed to be derived from hers). The part of Mauves-sur-Loire known as la Fontaine Bruneau is named after Brunhilda who may have cooled herself with the fountain's water when she suffered heat exhaustion.

[edit]In legend

Many scholars have seen Brunhilda as inspiration for both Brunnhild and Kriemhild, two rival characters from the Nibelungenlied. Kriemhild married Siegfried, who in many respects resembles Sigebert, Brunhilda's husband. There is resemblance between a multitude of characters and events in the Nibelungenlied and those of the latter half of the sixth century in Merovingian Gaul. As Thomas Hodgkin remarks:

“ Treasures buried in long departed days by kings of old, mysterious caves, reptile guides or reptile guardians - are we not transported by this strange legend into the very atmosphere of the Niebelungen Lied? And if the good king Gunthram passed for the fortunate finder of the Dragon-hoard, his brothers and their queens, by their wars, their reconciliations and their terrible avengings, must surely have suggested the main argument of that most tragical epic, the very name of one of whose heroines, Brunichildis, is identical with the name of the queen of Austrasia.[10] ”

[edit]See also

Barberini ivory

Forrás / Source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunhilda_of_Austrasia

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Mrs-Carloman of the Palace of Austrasia *-6710 was born about 568 in of,Belgium. She married Carloman Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia *-6706.

[Notes]

They had the following children:

  M i Pepin de Landen Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia *-6715 

http://www.angelfire.com/fl/Sumter/pafg290.htm#8929

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunhilda_of_Austrasia

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http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brunegilda

Brunegilda o Brunequilda, a veces llamada Brunilda (Toledo, 543 – Renève, 613), princesa visigoda hija de Atanagildo y Gosuinda. Por matrimonio llegó a ser reina de Austrasia. Participó en los conflictos y guerras contra Neustria causados por el asesinato de su hermana Galswinta, también conocida como Galsuinda o Galesvinta. Fue regente en Austrasia y Borgoña.

Los primeros años [editar]

Brunegilda tenía 11 años de edad cuando su padre Atanagildo (510–567) fue elegido rey visigodo de Hispania. Era la menor de las dos hijas del matrimonio real.

La princesa Brunegilda fue educada en la corte de Toledo, capital del reino visigodo, que gozaba de cierto prestigio en la época, y profesaba la fe cristiana arriana.

Las difíciles relaciones políticas entre francos y visigodos habían mejorado y alrededor del año 565 Sigeberto I, rey de Austrasia solicitó a Brunegilda en matrimonio. Sigeberto I contaba 30 años de edad.

Este matrimonio beneficiaba los intereses de ambos reinos. Al visigodo Atanagildo lo libraba de los problemas con los francos y le permitía concentrar sus luchas contra bizantinos y suevos; y al merovingio Sigeberto I lo reforzaba en los conflictos con sus hermanos. Sigeberto I era uno de los cuatro hijos de Clotario I, cuyo reino había sido dividido a su muerte.

Brunegilda aceptó cambiar su fe arriana por la fe católica y, aportando una buena dote, celebró su matrimonio en la ciudad de Metz —capital del reino de Austrasia— el año 566.

Escribió el obispo Gregorio de Tours (539–594), cronista de la época merovingia: «Era una joven de modales elegantes, de hermosa figura, honesta y decente en sus costumbres, de buen consejo y agradable conversación».

Con su incorporación a la dinastía merovingia comenzó, para la ahora reina de Austrasia, una vida difícil, llena de conspiraciones y con un trágico final.

La primera víctima [editar]

Al año siguiente se celebró el matrimonio de la hermana de Brunegilda, Galswinta, con el hermano de Sigeberto I, Chilperico I rey de Neustria, aportando también ella una generosa dote.

Este rey ya estaba casado con Audovera, con quien había tenido cuatro hijos, pero logró anular su matrimonio para casarse con Galswinta. Sin embargo, no abandonó a su amante Fredegunda. El matrimonio fracasó rápidamente debido a la actitud de Chilperico I, quien se negó a abandonar su disipada vida.

Galswinta quiso entonces regresar a la corte visigoda, pero ese mismo año murió su padre Atanagildo, debilitándose así su posición política, lo que resultó en su asesinato, atribuido a Fredegunda. Un tiempo más tarde Chilperico I contrajo matrimonio con Fredegunda.

El asesinato de su hermana provocó en Brunegilda un profundo rencor hacia ambos. Exigió a Chilperico I la devolución de la dote que había aportado Galswinta, pero el rey de Neustria se negó a hacerlo.

Sigeberto I apeló a su otro hermano, Gontrán I de Borgoña, para que mediara en el conflicto. Gontran reunió a un consejo de nobles y se resolvió entregar en compensación a Brunegilda y a sus descendientes, las ciudades de Burdeos, Limoges, Cahors, Bearn y Bigorra, que había recibido Galswinta como regalo de bodas. Pero el problema no se resolvió. Chilperico I aceptó de malas ganas la devolución de las ciudades y Brunegilda no olvidó el asesinato de su hermana.

Comienza la guerra fratricida [editar]

Entre 567 y 570 nacieron los tres hijos de Sigeberto I y Brunegilda: Ingunda, Clodosinda y Childeberto II.

Las rencillas entre Sigeberto I y su hermano Chilperico I continuaron, esta vez atizadas por ambas reinas consortes, Brunegilda y Fredegunda. El obispo de París, San Germán, intentó apaciguar el conflicto y escribió una carta a Brunegilda solicitándole su influencia, sin lograrlo.

En 575 Chilperico I intentó recuperar las cinco ciudades por la fuerza y en la lucha muere su hijo Teodoberto, un hijo que había tenido con Audovera. Sigeberto I comenzó la ocupación de Neustria; pero en un acto de audacia y astucia, Fredegunda envió a dos sicarios, que lo asesinaron justo cuando estaba a punto de obtener una completa victoria. Gracias a ello Chilperico I pudo recuperarse de la desesperada situación en la que se encontraba e incluso reclamar la posesión del reino de Austrasia.

Brunegilda, ahora viuda, se encontraba con sus hijos en Paris —capital del reino de Neustria— y fueron hechos prisioneros por Chilperico I, pero Brunegilda logró hacer escapar a su pequeño hijo Childeberto II y reclamó el trono de Austrasia para él y la regencia para ella.

La nobleza de Austrasia reconoció los derechos del heredero, pero no la aceptó como regente, nombrando en este cargo a Gontran de Borgoña.

Chilperico I separó a Brunegilda de sus hijas y la relegó a un convento en Ruán.

En un acto insólito, otro hijo de Chilperico I y Audovera, Meroveo II, que había participado en la huida del niño, se presentó en Ruán y contrajo matrimonio con Brunegilda.

El príncipe contaba 19 años de edad, ella 32 años. La ceremonia fue efectuada por el obispo de Ruán, Pretextato. Este matrimonio le acarrearía a Brunegilda la acusación de incesto y lascivia.

Chilperico I logró anular el matrimonio. Enfurecido con Meroveo, le prohibió el uso de armas y lo hizo tonsurar y ordenar sacerdote a la fuerza —lo que implicaba la pérdida del derecho de sucesión al trono— pero el príncipe logró escapar. Brunegilda intentó por todos los medios procurarle asilo en Austrasia, pero los nobles austrasianos se opusieron denodadamente, argumentando que hacerlo atraería las iras de Chilperico I. Después de muchas desventuras, Meroveo II, tenazmente perseguido por su propio padre y por Fredegunda, murió en 577. Se dijo que se hizo matar por uno de sus hombres ante el temor de perecer en el suplicio. El obispo Pretextato fue asesinado en 586. Ambas muertes se atribuyeron a conspiraciones de Fredegunda, quien también intentó asesinar a Brunegilda después de la anulación del matrimonio.

Primera regencia [editar]

Brunegilda regresó a la corte de Austrasia, pero el rechazo de los nobles la obligó a buscar refugio en la corte de Gontran de Borgoña, retornando un tiempo después para asumir la regencia por su hijo.

Comenzó entonces a actuar como soberana de Austrasia, organizando y mejorando la estructura del reino. Reparó caminos, construyó iglesias, abadías y castillos, reformó las finanzas y reorganizó el ejército, pero los gastos afectaron los intereses de los nobles y éstos le mostraron su hostilidad.

Brunegilda reaccionó imponiendo la autoridad de la corona. Para reafirmar esta autoridad, solicitó a Gontran de Borgoña —que no tenía hijos vivos— la adopción de su hijo Childeberto II, lo que el rey de Borgoña aceptó en 577.

En 579 casó a su hija Ingunda, de 13 años de edad, con el príncipe visigodo Hermenegildo, acabando este matrimonio en tragedia al morir ambos como consecuencia de las conspiraciones y luchas entre arrianos, católicos y bizantinos en Hispania.

Su hijo Childeberto II comenzó a reinar como soberano alrededor de 583, cumplidos los 13 años de edad.

La mano de hierro de la reina abuela [editar]

En 584 murió asesinado Chilperico I de Neustria. Se atribuyó este crimen tanto a Brunegilda como a Fredegunda. Esta última asumió la regencia de Neustria por su hijo recién nacido, Clotario II, y atentó nuevamente contra la vida de Brunegilda.

En 586 nació Teodeberto II y al año siguiente Teoderico II (Thierry en francés), ambos hijos de Childeberto II y nietos de Brunegilda. Su enemiga Fredegunda atentó nuevamente contra la vida del rey, la reina regente y el primer nieto.

La reina regente no sólo tenía enemigos en la corte de Neustria. Algunos nobles de Austrasia se le oponían firmemente. Los duques Rauching, Ursio y Berthefried, que se habían enfrentado a la reina anteriormente y habían conspirado para asesinar a Childeberto II, fueron ejecutados por orden de Brunegilda en 587.

Las relaciones entre Gontran de Borgoña y Childeberto II se deterioraron y se inició una lucha que terminó el año 587 firmando ambos el Tratado de Andelot, en el cual, entre otros acuerdos, se estableció la herencia recíproca de los reinos en caso de fallecimiento de alguna de las partes.

También en el año 587, el rey visigodo Recaredo I estableció una alianza con el rey Childeberto II y solicitó además en matrimonio a Clodosinda, hermana del rey. Brunegilda accedió bajo la condición de que el matrimonio debería ser aceptado –por razones políticas— por Gontran I, pero el rey de Borgoña se negó a hacerlo.

En 593 murió Gontran I y Childeberto II subió al trono de Borgoña. El joven rey intentó una guerra contra el reino de Neustria, pero fracasó. Brunegilda participó personalmente en las decisiones políticas que se tomaron.

En 596 murió envenenado Childeberto II a los 26 años de edad. Se atribuyó el crimen a Fredegunda. Otras fuentes nombran a una conspiración de nobles de Austrasia, e incluso se sospechó de Brunegilda.

Brunegilda reaccionó con rapidez y asumió nuevamente la regencia, esta vez por sus dos pequeños nietos. Teodeberto II se convirtió en rey de Austrasia y Teoderico II de Borgoña.

En 597 murió por enfermedad la reina rival Fredegunda, al regreso de una expedición militar victoriosa contra Austrasia, en Laffaux o Latofao. Su hijo Clotario II, que contaba 13 años de edad, fue nombrado rey de Neustria. Brunegilda intentó derrocar a Clotario II y asumir el poder de todos los reinos francos, pero no recibió suficiente apoyo y el intento fracasó.

En 599 por instigación de la nobleza de Austrasia, su nieto Teodeberto II, de 13 años de edad, asumió el trono y apartó a su abuela del poder, expulsándola de la corte de Austrasia. Brunegilda se refugió en la corte de Borgoña, en la ciudad de Orleans, donde fue bien recibida por su otro nieto, Teoderico II.

Las relaciones con la Iglesia [editar]

El rey de Austrasia y su madre Brunegilda establecieron buenas relaciones con el papa Gregorio I Magno, elegido en 590.

Existen tres cartas del pontífice enviadas a Brunegilda. En la primera, el pontífice comienza alabándola por ser una madre y reina ejemplar, y le solicita su patrocinio para el presbítero Candidus. En la tercera epístola, el papa le solicita su patrocinio para San Agustín de Canterbury, en su camino a evangelizar al pueblo de los anglos.

El obispo de Autun, San Desiderio, elegido en 596, criticaba con dureza las costumbres de la corte de Teoderico II, y de igual manera lo hizo con Brunegilda. La reina escribió al papa Gregorio I quejándose de la actitud de San Desiderio hacia su familia.

El obispo fue suspendido, pero continuó el conflicto entre el obispo, los soberanos y la nobleza de Borgoña. Años después, durante un sermón, San Desiderio criticó públicamente a Teoderico II y a Brunegilda, lo que resultó en su asesinato en 608, cometido por incondicionales de Teoderico II.

El monje irlandés San Columbano de Lexehuil se había establecido en 590 en el reino de Borgoña y con la aprobación del rey Gontran fundó varios conventos. Su regla era muy estricta y se encontraba en conflicto con los obispos y nobles francos.

Llegado el momento, se opuso a que el rey Teoderico II viviera en concubinato y lo incitó a buscar una esposa. La elegida fue Ermenberta o Ermenberga, hija del rey visigodo Witerico (o Viterico), pero la princesa fue rechazada por Brunegilda, repudiada finalmente por el rey y devuelta a Hispania sin su dote.

San Columbano decidió en una ocasión visitar la corte de Teoderico II en Autun. Brunegilda lo recibió con respeto y le solicitó una bendición para sus bisnietos que la acompañaban, hijos de Teoderico II.

El religioso se negó a hacerlo, aduciendo el origen ilegítimo de los niños y profetizó que nunca reinarían. La reina, ofendida, logró su expulsión del reino de Borgoña en 610.

Los últimos años [editar]

Brunegilda, cumplidos ya los 60 años de edad, continuaba dirigiendo las luchas por el poder entre los reinos francos. Las relaciones entre Teoderico II y Teodeberto II eran muy inestables, pero los hermanos se unían ocasionalmente para combatir a otros.

En dos batallas, una en Dormelles en 600 y otra en Étampes en 604, lograron la victoria sobre Clotario II de Neustria. En esta última batalla, librada el 25 de diciembre de 604, Teoderico II estuvo cercano a capturar y derrotar definitivamente a Clotario II, pero la nobleza de Austrasia lo forzó a firmar un tratado de paz a cambio de territorios.

Las relaciones entre los hermanos se fueron deteriorando cada vez más. Teodeberto II estaba influenciado por la nobleza de Austrasia y Teoderico II se guiaba más por el consejo de Brunegilda que por el de los nobles de Borgoña. La manzana de la discordia fue una disputa por territorios.

Teoderico II de Borgoña y su abuela Brunegilda tenían en 612 una posición de poder, con grandes territorios conquistados, y resolvieron atacar a Teodeberto II. Este rey perdió la guerra rápidamente durante ese mismo año.

Fue tonsurado —supuestamente por órdenes de Brunegilda— lo cual según las costumbres de la época lo inhabilitaba para reasumir el trono al menos hasta que le volviera a crecer el pelo, y encerrado en un monasterio junto a su hijo, donde murieron el mismo año. Se atribuyeron estas muertes a Brunegilda quien las habría ordenado para convertir a su nieto preferido Teoderico II en indiscutido rey de Austrasía, aunque las órdenes bien pudieron partir directamente del propio Teoderico II.

Es importante señalar que después de la muerte de Gregorio de Tours —ocurrida en el año 594— los cronistas que escribieron sobre Brunegilda ni siquiera fueron contemporáneos de ella —a diferencia del gran historiador de los Francos— y redactaron sus crónicas muchos años después de ocurridos los hechos. Se presume que por razones políticas, lo hicieron desde una perspectiva poco objetiva e intencionadamente desfavorable a Brunegilda pero, desgraciadamente, no hay demasiadas fuentes históricas alternativas que narren estos acontecimientos.

Teoderico II tomó el trono de Austrasia, pero a poco enfermó de disentería y murió a los 26 años de edad en 613, justo cuando se preparaba para atacar a Clotario II.

Brunegilda, ya de 70 años, reclamó entonces la corona para su bisnieto Sigeberto II y la regencia para ella, pero la nobleza de Austrasia dirigida por Pipino de Landen y el obispo de Metz, San Arnulfo, la rechazó y acordó una alianza con Clotario II de Neustria quien, a invitación de ambos, invadió militarmente el reino de Austrasia. También fue traicionada por Warnachaire, mayordomo de palacio de Borgoña, quien al mando de los ejércitos de ese reino, en vez de combatir a Clotario II, pactó con él —luego sería nombrado mayordomo de palacio de por vida por Clotario II.

Brunegilda, al verse sin apoyo militar, buscó la ayuda de las tribus germánicas que vivían a orillas del Rin, pero en su huida fue descubierta y apresada en Orbe, Jura por Herbon, un terrateniente que en teoría le debía fidelidad pero que la entregó a Clotario II. Fue sometida a juicio en Renève, donde se la responsabilizó de la muerte de muchas personas importantes; varias de esas muertes, en realidad, habían sido asesinatos ordenados por Fredegunda, la madre de Clotario II, y dos por Clotario II mismo.

Según las crónicas, la anciana reina fue seguidamente sometida a tormentos de los que no se muere durante tres días; luego fue exhibida sobre un camello para la mofa del ejército de Clotario II y, finalmente, atada a la cola de un caballo que la arrastró hasta morir. Otras fuentes indican que fue desmembrada entre cuatro caballos, lo cual podría ser más probable dado que era una muerte más atroz y visto el odio de Clotario II hacia Brunegilda.

La reina Brunegilda murió el 13 de octubre de 613. Sus restos fueron incinerados y sus cenizas depositadas en un sarcófago en la abadía de San Martín en Autun, fundada por ella en 602. Hoy reposan en el Museo Rolin en Aviñón.

La derrota y el suplicio de Brunegilda, más que el triunfo de Clotario II, representaron la victoria de la aristocracia terrateniente de Austrasia y de Borgoña, con la cual Clotario II —que nunca hubiera podido ganar con sus menguadas fuerzas de Neustria— tuvo que pactar para que traicionaran a la reina. En razón de estos pactos, la monarquía merovingia, en teoría unida en la persona del hijo de Fredegunda, quedó seriamente debilitada, como lo prueba el hecho de que en el año 614 Clotario II tuviese que dar el Concilio de París, por el cual la corona autolimitaba sus facultades en provecho de los señores y el clero.

Es en esta época cuando el cargo de Mayordomo de Palacio cambia sutilmente su naturaleza: hasta aquí, había sido el representante del Rey ante los nobles, totalmente sujeto a la autoridad del monarca merovingio. El rey lo nombraba y podía destituirlo. A partir de 613, el Mayordomo de Palacio se va convirtiendo en el representante de los nobles ante el Rey y son aquellos los que le imponen al Rey su elección.

A Clotario II lo sucederá su hijo Dagoberto I, quien por unos años logrará retrasar la pérdida de poder de la dinastía reinante —disgustado con Pipino de Landen en 629, aún tuvo el poder de destituirlo sumariamente de la Mayordomía de Palacio de Austrasia— pero ya a su muerte ocurrida en 639 dejando dos hijos pequeños, el gobierno pasará a manos de los mayordomos de palacio, cargo por el que los nobles competirán entre sí. Uno de ellos, Pipino de Heristal, descendiente de aquel Pipino de Landen que traicionó a Brunegilda, estará llamado a acaudillar a los nobles de Austrasia, obtendrá una victoria decisiva contra el mayordomo de palacio de Neustria en la batalla de Tertry (687) y despojará a los merovingios de todo poder efectivo, dejándoles de reyes sólo el título y la larga cabellera.

Para ser objetivos, no se puede dejar de mencionar la interpretación alternativa de Montesquieu, quien en su obra El espíritu de las leyes describe los hechos de 613 como «revolución» contra Brunegilda y no como «traición». Para él, Brunegilda se había hecho odiosa al «pueblo» de Austrasia y Borgoña, entendido el «pueblo» en un sentido restrictivo, que sólo comprendía a los nobles terratenientes y al alto clero, que subsumían en sus dominios rurales a la inmensa mayoría de la población campesina. En efecto, los terratenientes odiaban a Brunequilda porque la reina quería organizar el Estado según un modelo de funcionamiento más centralizado, cobrar impuestos para poder hacer caminos, reparar fortalezas, realizar otras obras públicas y reorganizar el ejército, mientras que ellos ansiaban ser amos y señores independientes en sus respectivos latifundios.

Hay un hecho incontrastable: estos nobles pactaron con Clotario II, Rey de Neustria, reino que estaba enfrentado desde hacía muchos años con los reinos de Austrasia y Borgoña a los que esos nobles pertenecían. Ellos debían fidelidad a los hijos de Teoderico II pero, como parte del trato, los entregaron para que fueran asesinados por orden de Clotario II. Tuvieron la excusa de la bastardía de los pequeños, ya que eran hijos de Teoderico II con una concubina, y así se autocumplió la profecía de San Columbano de que nunca reinarían. Sin embargo, no era en absoluto extraño entre los Francos de aquella época, que un hijo bastardo pudiera reinar y, pruebas al canto, Teodorico I de Austrasia, hijo bastardo de Clodoveo I, heredó según el testamento de su padre, la porción más extensa de la partición realizada a la muerte del gran rey merovingio.

Por estas razones en lo sucesivo aquí se hablará de «traición» y no de «revolución», pero queda hecha la salvedad, en aras de la objetividad, de que existen otras interpretaciones.

En realidad, la traición de la aristocracia de Austrasia y de Borgoña contra Brunegilda y sus pequeños bisnietos, que Clotario II legitimó al servirse de ella para hacer perecer cruelmente a la reina, fue sólo el primer acto de la traición de dicha aristocracia contra la monarquía merovingia en general, la cual se perfeccionaría en 751 con la deposición del rey títere Childerico III y la toma de la corona por el carolingio Pipino el Breve.

Nótese que Pipino el Breve necesitó de la anuencia de la Iglesia Católica en la persona del Papa Zacarías para deponer a Childerico III, y ello fue porque con el bautismo de Clodoveo I el 25 de diciembre de 496, al que siguió el de 3.000 de sus guerreros, la Iglesia Católica había legitimado que sólo los descendientes de Clodoveo podían reinar sobre los Francos. Entonces, para abjurar de esta arraigada tradición que llevaba dos siglos y medio de duración, fue necesaria la dispensa de la propia Iglesia, a pesar de que Pipino el Breve era ya rey en los hechos, salvo de nombre.

Es engañoso el rótulo de «reyes holgazanes» que se les ha dado a los últimos merovingios. La realidad es que nada podían hacer aunque quisieran. Así es como a algunos de los descendientes de Clotario II —Childerico II, Dagoberto II— cuando pretenden ejercer alguna autoridad efectiva, simplemente se los asesina, tal es la pérdida de respeto por la monarquía en que se ha caído. A Chilperico II, por ejemplo, que fue rey entre 715 y 717 y entre 719 y 721, se lo vio personalmente al frente de sus ejércitos junto al fiel duque Eudes de Aquitania, e intentó ejercer la autoridad que le correspondía, pero fue vencido por el gran Mayordomo de Palacio Carlos Martel, hijo bastardo de Pipino de Heristal, padre de Pipino el Breve y abuelo del gran Carlomagno.

En el fondo, el mayor error de Brunegilda ha sido, entonces, el querer imponer un gobierno centralizado al estilo romano a unos terratenientes que buscaban hacerse independientes del poder central, en una época en que las ciudades estaban en total decadencia; de ahí su triste final.

Otra paradoja del suplicio de Brunegilda es que, siendo el triunfo de Clotario II en teoría el de Neustria sobre Austrasia, se dio en condiciones tales que asoció firmemente a los pipínidos a la mayordomía de palacio de Austrasia, en un momento en el que la monarquía autolimitó su poder, por lo que la victoria de Clotario II fue aparentemente completa, pero en verdad pírrica, porque sembró las semillas del posterior predominio absoluto de Austrasia sobre Neustria.

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FUENTES:

-http://www.abcgenealogia.com/Godos00.html

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Brunhilda[1] (c. 543 – 613) was a Frankish queen who ruled the eastern kingdoms of Austrasia and Burgundy in the names of her sons and grandsons. Initially known as a liberal ruler of great political acumen, she became notorious for her cruelty and avarice. -------------------- Brunhilda (c. 543 – 613) was a Visigothic princess, married to king Sigebert I of Austrasia who ruled the eastern kingdoms of Austrasia and Burgundy in the names of her sons and grandsons. Initially known as a liberal ruler of great political acumen, she became notorious for her cruelty and avarice. -------------------- b. c. 534

d. 613, Renève, Burgundy [now in France]

also spelled BRUNHILDA, BRUNHILDE, OR BRUNECHILDIS, French BRUNEHAUT,queen of the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia, daughter of the Visigothic king Athanagild, and one of the most forceful figures of the Merovingian Age.

In 567 Brunhild married Sigebert I, king of Austrasia, changing her religion from Arianism to Roman Catholicism. In the same year, her sister Galswintha married Sigebert's half brother Chilperic I, king of the western part of the Frankish territory, but in 567 or 568, at the instigation of his concubine Fredegund, Chilperic had Galswintha murdered. Prompted by Brunhild, Sigebert then exacted Galswintha's marriage settlement (Bordeaux, Limoges, Quercy, Béarn, and Bigorre) as retribution from Chilperic. When Chilperic tried to recover this territory, war broke out between him and Sigebert (573). At first it ran in Sigebert's favour, but in 575 he was assassinated and Brunhild was imprisoned at Rouen. There, however, Merovech, one of Chilperic's sons, went through a form of marriage with her (576). Chilperic soon had this union dissolved, but Brunhild was allowed to go to Metz in Austrasia,where her young son Childebert II had been proclaimed king. There she was to assert herself against the Austrasian magnates for the next 30 years.

After Childebert's death (595 or 596), Brunhild failed to set herself up as guardian over Childebert's elder son, Theodebert II of Austrasia, and thus stirred up against him his brother Theodoric II, who had succeeded to Burgundy. Theodebert was finally overthrown in 612, but Theodoric died soon afterward (613), whereupon Brunhild tried to make the latter's eldest son, the 12-year-old Sigebert II, king of Austrasia. The Austrasian magnates, reluctant to endure her tyrannous regency, appealed to Chlotar II of Neustria against her. Brunhild tried in vain to enlist the help of the tribes east of the Rhine, then fled to Burgundy, but was handed over to Chlotar at Renève (northeast of Dijon). She was tortured for three days, bound on to a camel and exposed to the mockery of the army, and finally dragged to death at a horse's tail (autumn 613).

Copyright c 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- Brunhilda[1] (c. 543 – 613) was a Frankish queen who ruled the eastern kingdoms of Austrasia and Burgundy in the names of her sons and grandsons. Initially known as a liberal ruler of great political acumen, she became notorious for her cruelty and avarice. -------------------- Brunechildis the Visigoth1

b. 543, d. 13 October 613

Father Athanagildus, rex Gotthorum1,2,3 b. circa 510, d. 567

Mother Goiswinth (?)1 b. circa 514

    Brunechildis the Visigoth was born in 543 at Tolèdo.3 She was the daughter of Athanagildus, rex Gotthorum and Goiswinth (?).1,2,3 Brunechildis the Visigoth married Sigibertus I, rex Austrasii, son of Chlothacharius I, gracia Dei Francorum rex and Ingundis (?), in 566 at Metz, Austrasia; "Brunhild married Sigebert I, king of Austrasia, changing her religion from Arianism to Roman Catholicism."4,1,5 Brunechildis the Visigoth was a witness where Chilpericus I, rex Francorum, vir inluster murdered his first wife Galswintha in order to marry her maid, Fredegund, and his brother, husband of Galswintha's sister, was obliged to seek revenge, and a terrible civil war broke out between the brothers in 568. Brunechildis the Visigoth witnessed the death of Sigibertus I, rex Austrasii in November 575 at Vitry, France; Assassinated in a family blood-fued by his brother Chilperic. Chilperic had his wife, Galswintha, murdered so he could marry her maid. Sigebert was married to Brunhild, sister of Galswintha. On Sigebert's death, Brunhild continued seeking revenge.6,3 Brunechildis the Visigoth was was imprisoned by Chilperic after November 575 at Rouen, France. She married Subking Merovech des Francs, son of Chilpericus I, rex Francorum, vir inluster and Audovère (?), in 576 at Rouen, France; After her husband Sigebert was assassinated by his brother Chilperic who had married and murdered her sister, and she imprisoned by him, Merovech, the son of Chilperic by an earlier wife, married her. This marriage was shortlived but Brunhild was freed to go to Metz.1,3 Brunechildis the Visigoth witnessed the engagement of Childeberthus II, King of Austrasia and Burgundy and Theodelinde, Langobardenkönigin circa 587; Betrothed to Childebert, but his mother, Brunhild, convinced him to reject the marriage. Brunechildis the Visigoth was was involved in a succession dispute in 596. This dispute would lead ultimately to her death. After Childebert's death, Brunhild failed to set herself up as guardian over Childebert's elder son, Theodebert II of Austrasia, and thus stirred up against him his brother Theodoric II, who had succeeded to Burgundy.4 She witnessed the marriage contract of Theudericus II, King of Austrasia and Burgundy and Ermenberga the Visigoth in 606; This would have been his 2nd, but Brunhild, his grandmother, and her granddaughter Theudila, his own sister, prevented it's consummation.1,7 Brunechildis the Visigoth remained involved in the bitter dispute of the Merovingian family in 612. Now the dispute is clearly of her own making. Theodebert, the King she was supporting, was finally overthrown in 612, but Theodoric, the successor, died soon afterward in 613, whereupon Brunhild tried to make the latter's eldest son, the 12-year-old Sigebert II, king of Austrasia. The Austrasian magnates, reluctant to endure her tyrannous regency, appealed to Chlotar II of Neustria against her. Brunhild tried in vain to enlist the help of the tribes east of the Rhine, then fled to Burgundy, but was handed over to Chlotar at Renève, northeast of Dijon. It was here she would meet her end.4 She died on 13 October 613 at Renève, Burgundy, France, at age 70 years. She was tortured for three days, bound on to a camel and exposed to the mockery of the army, and finally dragged to death at a horse's tail.4,2,3

Family 1

Sigibertus I, rex Austrasii b. 535, d. November 575

Children

Ingonde des Francs+ b. c 5591,8

Chlodoswinthe des Francs+ b. 5691,3

Childeberthus II, King of Austrasia and Burgundy+ b. 570, d. 5961,2,3

Family 2

Subking Merovech des Francs b. 558, d. 577

Citations

[S231] Ian Wood, The Merovingian Kings, Prosopography, pg. 350-363.

[S269] C. W. Previté-Orton sCMH I, pg. 154, genealogy table 5 (a)..

[S467] GdRdF, online http://jeanjacques.villemag.free.fr/

[S172] Various Encyclopaedea Britannica.

[S1196] Historia Francorum, online http://hbar.phys.msu.su/gorm/chrons/georflor.htm, LVII.

[S440] Léon van der Essen, Deux Mille, Gen Table I.

[S467] GdRdF, online http://jeanjacques.villemag.free.fr/, Though this makes it seem she was the only wife, and mother of his children..

[S1405] Various EB CD 2004, Leovigild.

-------------------- Frankish queen, wife of Sigebert I of the East Frankish kingdom of Austrasia; daughter of Athanagild, the Visigothic king of Spain. After the murder (567) of her sister Galswintha, who was the wife of Sigebert's brother Chilperic I of the West Frankish kingdom of Neustria, and Chilperic's marriage to his mistress Fredegunde, Brunhilda was the major instigator in the war against Neustria. The struggle continued between Brunhilda and Fredegunde after the death (575) of Sigebert and the murder (584) of Chilperic. Throughout the reigns of her son, Childebert II, and of two grandsons, Brunhilda was the actual ruler of Austrasia and of Burgundy, when by her design that country was united with Austrasia after the death (592) of King Guntram. She was endowed with the gifts of a great statesman, but her unscrupulousness in the execution of her plans earned her the fierce hatred of the nobles, whom she nonetheless controlled. She was finally betrayed by them to Fredegunde's son, Clotaire II of Neustria. He put her to a horrible death.

Brunchildis ("Brunhild"): "After the death of her husband, Brunhild, regent for her five-year-old son, Childebert, began

her twenty-eight year career as deputy ruler of Austrasia and later Burgundy...." - "The Birth of France...," Katharine

Scherman (NY: Random House, 1987), p. 178. She incited her husband to war against Chilperic, king of Neustria, who

had murdered his wife (Galeswintha, Brunhild's sister) in order to marry his mistress (Fredegund, who later had Sigibert

killed!). -------------------- b. c. 534

d. 613, Renève, Burgundy [now in France]

also spelled BRUNHILDA, BRUNHILDE, OR BRUNECHILDIS, French BRUNEHAUT,queen of the Frankish kingdom of Austrasia, daughter of the Visigothic king Athanagild, and one of the most forceful figures of the Merovingian Age.

In 567 Brunhild married Sigebert I, king of Austrasia, changing her religion from Arianism to Roman Catholicism. In the same year, her sister Galswintha married Sigebert's half brother Chilperic I, king of the western part of the Frankish territory, but in 567 or 568, at the instigation of his concubine Fredegund, Chilperic had Galswintha murdered. Prompted by Brunhild, Sigebert then exacted Galswintha's marriage settlement (Bordeaux, Limoges, Quercy, Béarn, and Bigorre) as retribution from Chilperic. When Chilperic tried to recover this territory, war broke out between him and Sigebert (573). At first it ran in Sigebert's favour, but in 575 he was assassinated and Brunhild was imprisoned at Rouen. There, however, Merovech, one of Chilperic's sons, went through a form of marriage with her (576). Chilperic soon had this union dissolved, but Brunhild was allowed to go to Metz in Austrasia,where her young son Childebert II had been proclaimed king. There she was to assert herself against the Austrasian magnates for the next 30 years.

After Childebert's death (595 or 596), Brunhild failed to set herself up as guardian over Childebert's elder son, Theodebert II of Austrasia, and thus stirred up against him his brother Theodoric II, who had succeeded to Burgundy. Theodebert was finally overthrown in 612, but Theodoric died soon afterward (613), whereupon Brunhild tried to make the latter's eldest son, the 12-year-old Sigebert II, king of Austrasia. The Austrasian magnates, reluctant to endure her tyrannous regency, appealed to Chlotar II of Neustria against her. Brunhild tried in vain to enlist the help of the tribes east of the Rhine, then fled to Burgundy, but was handed over to Chlotar at Renève (northeast of Dijon). She was tortured for three days, bound on to a camel and exposed to the mockery of the army, and finally dragged to death at a horse's tail (autumn 613).

Copyright c 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- RAINHA DA AUSTRÁSIA-LORENA, em França

view all 11

Brunichild's Timeline

545
545
550
550
Age 5
Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, Austrasia
550
Age 5
Landen, Liege, Belgium
566
566
Age 21
Metz, 57463, Moselle, Lorraine, France,
570
March 6, 570
Age 25
Metz,Moselle,Lorraine,France
575
575
Age 30
576
576
Age 31
Rouen, 76540, Seine Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France,
590
590
Age 45
France
613
613
Age 68
Renève-sur-Vingeanne, France
????