Luis Martín Serrano, II (1628 - c.1697) MP

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Birthplace: Santa Cruz de la Cañada, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
Death: Died in Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
Managed by: Ric Dickinson
Last Updated:

About Luis Martín Serrano, II

Luis Martin Serrano, II born c. 1631 at Nuevo México, Nueva España

Luis Martin Serrano II, son of the Alcalde Mayor, and born sometime between 1629 and 1633, moved his family up the Santa Cruz Valley, following the river to a spot that he felt would provide good farming land upon which he and his growing family could subsist. He is described as having a slender physique, dark complexion, black hair and beard, and a mole on the left cheek.

Luis fled the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 with twelve children, four of whom were males of military age. Charles Wilson Hackett and Clair Charmion Shelby’s book "Revolt of the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Otermin’s Attempted Reconquest 1680-1682" states that the conditions among the Martín Serrano survivors were very poor. The report stated that many in the family had no provisions or cornfields, were indecent in dress and that many of the children were almost naked. The family of Captain Luis Martín Serrano II arrived at El Paso del Norte with his family (which consisted of seven persons) with only the clothing on their backs. His brother, Pedro Martín Serrano y Salazar, and family, which consisted of ten family members, was like the rest--poorly provisioned and clothed. Even the military leaders were lacking in provisions and clothing. After the Spaniards had assembled, a junta de guerra (council of war) was convened, with all the senor military rank participating, including Captain Luis Martín Serrano II. Luis was of the opinion that a retaliatory strike should occur if adequate supplies--horses, ammunition, and food--could be obtained. But Otermin approached the task badly prepared and under the impression the Pueblos would be penitent for having revolted, and, tired of Apache raids, would welcome the Spanish back. Instead, he discovered the Pueblos would not easily give up their newfound freedom. As Otermin's expedition retreated, the Spanish burned the Pueblo of Isleta and took with them nearly four hundred of its inhabitants, who were resettled at what is today known as Isleta del Sur, near El Paso. The Spanish settled down, planted crops, and took steps to maintain themselves indefinitely. In 1690, Diego de Vargas Zapata Lujan Ponce de Leon was appointed Governor of New Mexico. When he assumed office at El Paso del Norte the following year, his assignment for the reconquest of New Mexico consisted of two parts. He was to first make a preliminary entry to determine the condition of the province, and obtain the surrender of the rebellious pueblos, peacefully, if possible, but by force if necessary. When this was accomplished, he was to recolonize New Mexico's abandoned settlements and reestablish the destroyed missions.

By October of 1693, de Vargas was on his way with one hundred soldiers, seventy families, eighteen Franciscan friars, and a number of Tlaxlacan allies to begin the recolonization of New Mexico. In addition to the personnel, several thousand horses and mules and almost a thousand head of livestock followed the main force of the expedition. Six wagons and eighty mules hauled supplies, including three cannon.

When the capture of Santa Fe was complete, De Vargas divided the stores of corn, beans, and other foodstuffs among the Spanish families, and the colonists then occupied the houses vacated by the defeated natives. Afterwards, seventy Pueblo defenders were executed and several hundred captured men, women, and children sentenced to ten years servitude. From 1681 to 1692 the Spaniards that were gathered in El Paso and Isleta del Sur managed to settle down and to raise their families. From the census taken in 1692 at Isleta, which was a distance of four leagues north of El Paso del Norte we find six Martín Serrano families listed as residents. Included in this list was Captain Luis Martín Serrano II and his family which consisted of his wife, Melchora de Los Reyes Gonzales, and some of his children. Excerpts from "Sabino’s Map (SM): Life in Chimayo’s Old Plaza", by Donald J. Usner:

"Because of the presence of the angry Tanos, the Santa Cruz Valley posed particularly vexing problems for Vargas as he proceeded to oversee settlement of the reclaimed province. He knew that Tanos had claimed the valley. Riding through during his campaign of reconquest in 1692, Vargas had taken pains to note that the Indians were using fields and ditches that the Spanish settlers had built before the Pueblo Revolt. ...A few years before Vargas’ reconquest, most of the Tanos had moved into the Santa Cruz Valley, where they took over fields abandoned by the Spanish settlers." SM pg. 43

"In the fall of 1694, Vargas visited the two Santa Cruz Valley pueblos and assigned a priest to minister to both. By the next spring, Vargas faced a need to find a suitable land for settlers arriving from Mexico. He announced plans to settle the entire Santa Cruz Valley, but peacefully evicting the Tanos from the land that had once belonged to Spanish citizens proved to be more than Vargas could accomplish." SM pg. 44

"People were already rebuilding their prerevolt farms. (While) Granillo (was) reconnoiter(ing) the Santa Cruz Valley… he noted the presence of at least twelve farms in the valley. He remarked on the Martinez estancia at a distance of about half of a league (one and a half miles) from the Tano grant.... The Martinez family had returned from exile in El Paso to reestablish farms in the Santa Cruz Valley. Granillo wrote in 1695 that the home consisted of standing walls only and that five families were living in the ruins. These people were Luis Martin, who had lived on the land prior to the Revolt, and his married children." SM pg. 48 Santa Fe, at the beginning of 1694, was the lone outpost of Spain in New Mexico. Continual battles between the Spanish and the natives kept the Spaniards in Santa Fe from planting crops. Starvation was a real possibility. The arrival of two hundred and thirty additional colonists from Mexico City in June simply exacerbated the situation. De Vargas attacked the pueblos to gain their stores but in doing so also forced their capitulation. By January of the following year, de Vargas could claim that most of the Rio Grande valley was under the domination of the Spanish. The reconstituted colony began to grow as more colonists arrived from Mexico. The villa at Santa Cruz, was founded by Vargas in 1695, specifically to accommodate the families recruited at Mexico City.

Rebellion by the Indians broke out in Santa Cruz a year later on June 4, 1696. Five missionaries and twenty-one other Spaniards were killed. Hostile Pueblo forces burned the missions, and the people of the pueblos in revolt fled into the mountains.

During the rebellion, The Tano from San Cristobal (near Chimayo) assembled in the mountains, where they had stockpiled most of their corn, clothing, and weapons of war and had set traps (Rio de las Trampas ?) at the entrances to their mountain stronghold "to make themselves invincible." (The local priest) had overheard mutterings of a planned major rebellion and feared for his life.

The rebels of San Cristobal staged their long-planned attack, joining in the Indian uprising. Fulfilling "the priest’s" worst premonitions, they murdered him and a visiting priest and left their disrobed bodies laying face up in front of the church at San Cristobal. The corpses were laid across each other to form the shape of a cross – a grisly mockery of the Catholic faith they so resented.

Unlike the Revolt of 1680, this rebellion was poorly planned, and the rebels divided into several distinct factions. One powerful faction was under the command of a Cochiti named Lucas Naranjo. In late July, de Vargas left Santa Fe with Spanish soldiers and native troops from Pecos in search of Naranjo and his group, finding them hidden in the slopes of a canyon awaiting the arrival of the Spanish. During the battle, Naranjo was killed by a harquebus shot to the Adam's apple by a Spanish soldier who then beheaded him. Said de Vargas, "It gave me great pleasure to see the said rebel apostate dog in that condition. A pistol shot that was fired into his right temple had blown out his brains leaving the said head hollow." The remaining rebels fled and the allies from Pecos were given Naranjo's severed head as a trophy of war.

After the fall of Naranjo, the rebellion began to collapse. The most active rebels in the central Rio Grande valley were destroyed. Those who had fled their pueblos to the mountains were leaderless and in desperate circumstance. The Spanish had appropriated stores of food after each victory, and the people remaining in the mountains faced the choice of either returning to their pueblos and accepting Spanish governance or starving.

The Pueblo occupation of the Chimayo area ended with the departure of the Tanos, who by the end of their ordeal must have been reduced to a starving, ragged band. It was in this perilous time that Francisco Xavier Martin was born to Francisco Martin Serrano and Juana Garcia.

He passed muster at La Salineta on September 29, 1680, at La Punta del Ancon de Jiménez on September 11, 1681, and on October 12 in El Paso. He and thirteen other family members passed muster in El Paso in September, 1684. His first wife, Antonia de Miranda, was still alive in 1685, but had died by 1690. She bore him the following children: Antonio, Luis III, Hernando, Francisco, Sebastiana, Catalina, Maria, and Antonia. Maria married Domingo de Herrera in 1683; Hernando wed Maria Montaño, a widow of Juan de Moraga, in 1685; Antonia married Juan Roque Gutiérrez in 1690; and Francisco, widower of Inés de Ledesma, underwent prenuptial investigations to wed Josefa Dominguez in 1696, but married Maria de Carvajal, widow of José Cortés, in 1698, and, after her death, Gertrudis Fresqui in 1725.

Luis's second wife was Melchora de los Reyes Gonzalez, with whom he had at least six children: Catalina, Diego, Manuel, Sebastian, Polonia, and Maria Rosa. Catalina married Alonso Fernandez in 1695, Diego married Josefa de Torres in 1716, Polonia wed Domingo Laureano Goméz in 1722, and Manuel married Maria Josefa Candelaria Montaño in 1730. Maria Rosa was married to Nicolas Lopez.

He appeared on the Don Diego de Vargas census 22 Dec 1692 to 2 Jan 1693 in El Paso del Norte, Nuevo México, Nueva España.

Twelfth household, three sons, five daughters

Capt. Luis Martin, married to Melchora de los Reyes, with three sons and, likewise, daughters named Francisco Martin, twenty; Manuel, nine; Sebastian, six; Sebastiana, twenty; Catalina, fifteen; Maria de la Rosa, twelve; Catalina, nine; and Polonia, three. He says that, as a loyal vassal of his majesty, he is ready to enter immediately, as soon as I, the governor and captain general, enter to settle this kingdom.

To The Royal Crown Restored, pg. 41

In May 1697, the Luis Martin Serrano family included two children, Magdalena and Petrona, for whom the mother cannot be determined, although they were likely the offspring of the second marriage. Diego de Vargas, Distribution of supplies and livestock, Santa Fe, May 1, 1697.

Notes

Kessell, John L. and Hendricks, Rick, editors, To The Crown Restored, The Journals of Don Diego de Vargas, New Mexico, 1692-1694, University of New Mexico Press. 1995, ISBN 0-8263-1559-3

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Capitán Luis Martín Serrano's Timeline

1628
1628
Santa Cruz de la Cañada, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
1633
1633
Age 5
La Canada, Rio Arriba, New Mexico, United States
1644
1644
Age 16
Santa Fé, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
1652
1652
Age 24
Santa Fé, Provincia de Nuevo México, Virreinato de Nueva España
1655
1655
Age 27
Santa Cruz de la Cañada, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
1657
1657
Age 29
Santa Cruz de la Cañada, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
1659
1659
Age 31
Santa Cruz de la Cañada, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
1659
Age 31
Santa Cruz de la Cañada, Provincia de Nuevo México, Virreinato de Nueva España
1661
1661
Age 33
Santa Cruz de la Cañada, Rio Arriba, Provincia de Nuevo México, Reino de Nueva España
1667
1667
Age 39
Nuevo México, Nueva España