Carlos V, rey de España y emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico

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Carlos V de España, rey de España y emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico

Also Known As: "Charles", "Karl", "Carlos I y V de España y del SIRG", "Charles V", "Holy Roman Emperor"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Gent, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams Gewest, Belgium
Death: Died in Cuacos de Yuste, Caceres, Extremadura, Spain
Place of Burial: El Escorial, Madrid, Spain
Immediate Family:

Son of Felipe I el Hermoso, Rey de Castilla and Juana I la Loca, reina nominal de Castilla
Husband of Maria Isabella Manuel Von Hapsburg Burgundy and Isabella of Portugal
Father of Tadea de Austria; Philip II "the Prudent", King of Spain & Portugal; Johann von Österreich, gobernador de los Países Bajos; Isabelle de Foix; María de España Habsburg, Kaiserin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches and 4 others
Brother of Leonor de Habsburgo, reine de France; Isabella von Österreich, Habsburg, Dronning af Danmark, Norge og Sverige; Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor; Maria von Habsburg, Königin zu Ungarn und Böhmen and Catarina de Habsburgo, rainha consorte de Portugal

Occupation: Holy Roman Emperor, Emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, Rey de Romanos, Rey de Castilla, León y Navarra, Rey de Aragón, Mallorca, Sicilia y Valencia, Conde de Barcelona, Rey de Nápoles, Archiduque de Austria, Duque de Borgoña, 1519 Emperor
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Carlos V, rey de España y emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico

http://genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00000361&tree=LEO

Carlos de Austria (o Habsburgo) (Gante, 24 de febrero de 1500 – Monasterio de Yuste, 21 de septiembre de 1558) fue Emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico con el nombre de Carlos V (1519 - 1558) y rey de España como Carlos I (1516[1] - 1556), el primero que unió en su persona las coronas de Castilla y Aragón.

Hijo de Juana I de Castilla, conocida como Juana la Loca, y Felipe el Hermoso, y nieto por vía paterna de Maximiliano I de Austria (Habsburgo) y María de Borgoña (de quienes heredó los Países Bajos, los territorios austríacos y derecho al trono imperial) y de los Reyes Católicos, de quienes heredó el Reino de Castilla, Nápoles, Sicilia, las Indias, Aragón y Canarias, por vía materna.

Tabla de contenidos

1 Vida

1.1 El joven Príncipe

1.2 Herencia y patrimonio

1.3 Títulos

1.4 Rey de España

1.4.1 Conflictos en Castilla: las Comunidades (1520-21)

1.4.2 Conflictos en Aragón: las Germanías (1519-23)

1.4.3 La organización del Imperio Español: el sistema polisinodial

1.4.4 Su reinado en América

1.5 Las jornadas africanas

1.6 Rey de los romanos

1.7 La guerra de Navarra

1.8 Las guerras con Francia

1.9 La aparición del Protestantismo

1.10 Abdicación y herencia de Carlos V

2 Semblanza del César

3 Antecesores

4 Matrimonio e hijos

4.1 Hijos extramatrimoniales

5 Filmografía

6 Véase también

7 Referencias

7.1 Bibliografía

7.2 Notas

8 Enlaces externos


Vida
El joven Príncipe  [editar]El futuro Emperador vino al mundo en el Palacio de Ten Walle de Gante, en Flandes, hoy Belgica, a las 3:30 de la madrugada del martes 24 de febrero de 1500.[3] Fue bautizado como Carlos en recuerdo de su bisabuelo Carlos el Temerario, trágicamente muerto en la Batalla de Nancy en 1477.

Nacía en un momento en que la cristiandad ansiaba una regeneración y renovación espiritual de cara a 1500, comienzo de un nuevo siglo y nueva mitad de milenio. En sus Países Bajos natales, los Hermanos de la Vida Común y Erasmo de Rotterdam y sus compañeros del Humanismo cristiano buscaban por distintas vías la manera de volver a una forma más simple y pura de Cristianismo, desprovista de las corrupciones que se encontraban tanto en la Iglesia como en la sociedad civil. Paralelamente, el nombre de Erasmo nos hace recordar que ésta era una Europa barrida por los vientos de las nuevas corrientes del pensamiento y saber renacentista, con la mirada vuelta hacia el exterior, es decir, hacia nuevos mundos, incluido el Nuevo Mundo de América. El propio Carlos, criándose en los Países Bajos, donde convergían las nuevas influencias del Renacimiento y el Humanismo cristiano, adquirió algo de la curiosidad intelectual, el espíritu investigador práctico y los gustos estéticos de la época.


Escudo del emperador Carlos VCarlos fue educado primero por Guillermo de Croy y luego por Adriano de Utrecht, obispo de Tortosa y futuro papa Adriano VI y por su tía la archiduquesa Margarita de Austria. Toda la educación del joven príncipe se desarrolló en Flandes y fue colmada de cultura flamenca, no obstante su ascendencia era austro-hispánica.

En 1506 muere de forma prematura su padre, Felipe I el Hermoso, y su madre, Juana I de Castilla fue presa de la locura, por lo que Carlos a tan sólo seis años era ya el potencial heredero no sólo de los bienes de Castilla sino también de aquellos de Austria y de Borgoña.

El 5 de enero de 1515 en Bruselas, Carlos fue declarado mayor de edad y proclamado duque de Borgoña. Fue apoyado por un consejo restringido del cual formaban parte los tutores mencionados anteriormente y el gran canciller Jean de Sauvage. Carlos también fue apoyado por Erasmo de Rotterdam, que, en una carta enviada a Tomás Moro, se mostraba perplejo acerca de las capacidades intelectuales del quinceañero.

Aunque, de hecho, Carlos nunca fue muy amante de los estudios, pues prefería las artes caballerescas y la caza.

Herencia y patrimonio
Títulos  

El Imperio CarolinoDon Carlos por la gracia de Dios Rey de Romanos Emperador Semper Augusto.

Doña Joana su madre y el mesmo Don Carlos por la mesma gracia Reyes de Castilla, de Leon, de Aragon, de las dos Sicilias, de Ierusalen, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorcas, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Cordova, de Corcega, de Murcia, de Jaen, de los Algarbes, de Algezira, de Gibraltar, de las Islas de Canaria, de las Indias islas y tierra firme del Mar Oceano,

Condes de Barcelona,

señores de Vizcaya e de Molina,

Duques de Atenas e de Neopatria,

Condes de Ruysellon e de Cerdenia,

Marques de Oristan e de Gorciano,

Archiduques de Austria,

Duques de Borgoña de Bravante.

Pragmática o Edicto del Emperador contra los Comuneros dada en Worms (Febrero de 1521).

Rey de España  

El 22 de enero de 1516, su abuelo Fernando II de Aragón redactaba su último testamento. En él, nombraba a Carlos Gobernador y Administrador de los Reinos de Castilla y León, en nombre de la reina Juana I, incapacitada por su enfermedad. En lo concerniente a la Corona de Aragón, el rey Fernando dejaba todos sus estados a su hija Juana, nombrando, también en este caso, Gobernador General a Carlos en nombre de su madre. Hasta que Carlos llegara, en Castilla gobernaría el cardenal Cisneros y en Aragón el arzobispo Alonso de Aragón.

El 25 de enero moría el rey Fernando en Madrigalejo. A partir de entonces, Carlos comenzó a pensar en tomar el título de "Rey", aconsejado por sus consejeros flamencos. Esta decisión no era bien vista en la Península. El Consejo de Castilla le envió una carta el 4 de marzo en la que le pedía que respetase los títulos de su madre, ya que «aquello sería quitar el hijo al padre en vida el honor». Pero, diez días después las honras fúnebres por el rey Fernando terminaron con gritos de:

Vivan los católicos reyes doña Juana y don Carlos su hijo. Vivo es el rey, vivo es el rey, vivo es el rey

El 21 de marzo Carlos envió una carta a Castilla en el que informaba de su decisión de titularse Rey. Tras largas deliberaciones del Consejo, el 3 de abril el cardenal Cisneros informó al Reino de la decisión de Carlos. El 13 del mismo mes se informó de la nueva intitulación real:

Doña Juana y don Carlos su hijo, reina y rey de Castilla, de León, de Aragón, de las Dos Sicilias, de Jerusalén, de Navarra, de Granada, de Toledo, de Valencia, de Galicia, de Mallorca, de Sevilla, de Cerdeña, de Córdoba, de Córcega, de Murcia, de Jaén, de los Algarves, de Algeciras, de Gibraltar, de las islas de Canaria, de las Islas, Indias y Tierra Firme del mar Océano, condes de Barcelona, señores de Vizcaya y de Molina, duques de Atenas y Neopatria, condes de Ruisellón y de Cerdaña, marqueses de Oristán y de Gociano, archiduques de Austria, duques de Borgoña y de Bravante, condes de Flandes, de Tirol, etc.

En mayo, los tres estamentos del Reino de Navarra, reunidos a petición del virrey Antonio Manrique de Lara, juraron fidelidad a Carlos como su rey y señor natural.


Mientras tanto, en la Corona de Aragón la situación era caótica. El Justicia de Aragón impidió gobernar al arzobispo Alonso de Aragón alegando que, según las leyes aragonesas, el cargo de gobernador sólo podía ser ejercido por el heredero al Trono. La Audiencia Real de Aragón dio la razón al Justicia, pero sentenció que el arzobispo podía gobernar en calidad de curador de la reina Juana. Pero el Justicia tampoco lo permitió entonces, alegando que Juana ya no era la heredera, ya que cuando se la juró como tal, se incluyó que si el rey tenía un hijo varón, éste pasaría a conventirse en el heredero. Y, por tanto, como en 1509 Fernando había tenido un hijo con Germana de Foix, el juramento de Juana quedaba anulado (a pesar de que el niño había muerto a las pocas horas). El 13 de mayo Carlos reconoció los poderes del arzobispo, como curador de la reina Juana, pero, aún así, se rechazó prestarle juramento. Por otro lado, la Diputación del Reino de Aragón reconoció a Juana como heredera de la Corona, pero como por su enfermedad no podía reinar, debía ser apartada del gobierno para que reinara su hijo. A todo ello se añadía el que ninguna institución de la Corona de Aragón le reconocía a Carlos el título de Rey hasta que no jurara los fueros y libertades de los Reinos.

Entre el verano de 1516 y principios de 1517, Carlos aseguró su posición gracias a la firma de una serie de acuerdos diplomáticos, como el Tratado de Noyón con Francia. Además, los Estados Generales acordaron concederle 800.000 coronas para los gastos del viaje. Tras los preparativos para la travesía, el 8 de septiembre de 1517 Carlos embarcó hacia España. Aunque estaba previsto que desembarcara en Santander, la armada llegó a Tazones, en Asturias, por el mal tiempo, lo que retrasó aún más el viaje.

El 9 de febrero de 1518 las Cortes de Castilla, reunidas en Valladolid, juraron como Rey a Carlos. También le concedieron 600.000 ducados. Además, las Cortes hicieron una serie de peticiones al rey, entre ellas:

Aprender a hablar castellano.

El cese de nombramientos a extranjeros.

La prohibición de la salida de metales preciosos y caballos de Castilla.

Trato más respetuoso a su madre Juana, recluida en Tordesillas.

En Aragón la situación seguía siendo complicada. Carlos llegó a Zaragoza el 9 de mayo. Las sesiones de las Cortes de Aragón comenzaron el 20 de mayo y tras largas discusiones, el 29 de julio Carlos era jurado como Rey de Aragón. Juana era reconocida como Reina, pero por su incapacidad para gobernar, sus títulos quedaban sólo como "nominales". Además le fueron entregadas 200.000 libras.

El 15 de febrero de 1519 Carlos entraba en Barcelona, convocando a las Cortes el día siguiente. Tras un discurso muy parecido al que dio en Aragón, y las correspondientes deliberaciones, Carlos fue jurado junto a Juana el 16 de abril. La cuestión del dinero que debían aportar las Cortes se alargó hasta principios de enero de 1520, cuando finalmente le otorgaron 300.000 libras.

Mientras, el emperador Maximiliano I moría el 12 de enero de 1519. El 28 de junio Carlos era elegido como nuevo Emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico en Fráncfort, y por ello decidió suspender el viaje hacia Valencia para ir a Alemania, convocando previamente Cortes castellanas en Santiago de Compostela para el 20 de marzo de 1520. De esta manera, Carlos envió a Adriano de Utrecht para que a través de él le juraran como rey y pudiera convocar Cortes en Valencia,[4] pese a la ilegalidad, lo que provocó malestar entre los estamentos privilegiados; sin embargo debido a la querellas entre el brazo nobiliario (militar) y eclesiástico contra las Germanías, las Cortes no llegaron a celebrarse, y ante los disturbios, el rey envió un documento el 30 de abril de 1520 ofreciéndose guardar sus fueros y privilegios.[5] Finalmente, el rey cumplió la legalidad foral y antes de ir a las Cortes Generales de Monzón, convocadas el 1 de junio de 1528, pasó por Valencia y juró sus fueros el 16 de mayo de dicho año.

Tras este largo proceso que duró cuatro años (sin contar la jura en Valencia), Carlos se convertía en el primer monarca en ostentar las Coronas de Castilla, Aragón y Navarra.

Conflictos en Castilla: las Comunidades (1520-21)  

Artículo principal: Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla

La llegada de Carlos a Castilla supuso la llegada de un joven inexperto que desconocía las costumbres e idioma de su reino, dado lo cual depositó su confianza en sus colaboradores borgoñones que le habían acompañado desde los Países Bajos, a los que le procuró altas dignidades y acceso a rentas y riquezas. Esto molestó a los castellanos y así se lo hicieron saber en las Cortes de Valladolid de 1518, lo cual fue ignorado por el rey. Inmediatamente pasó el rey a Aragón, y a la larga, esto molestó a los castellanos ya que en Castilla había permanecido bastante menos tiempo, así que cuando conoció en Barcelona que había sido electo Rey de romanos convocó Cortes en Santiago de Compostela para conseguir subsidios para sufragar sus gastos en el extranjero, las ciudades se opusieron puesto que no entendían la preferencia de los intereses en Alemania frente a los castellanos y requerían su presencia en el reino. Finalmente el servicio se aceptó y Carlos embarcó para Alemania, nombrando como regente al cardenal Adriano de Utrecht. El malestar se fue extendiendo por Castilla y el incencio de Medina del Campo, extendió el foco de la rebelión comunera por Castilla. Las revueltas antiseñoriales provocaron que la nobleza apoyara al emperador, y el movimiento fue perdiendo aceptación en las ciudades. Finalmente los comuneros, al mando de Juan de Padilla, fueron vencidos en la batalla de Villalar (Valladolid), y la vuelta del rey realizó cambios organizativos en el reino que se manifiestan sobre todo tras las Cortes de Valladolid de 1523.

Conflictos en Aragón: las Germanías (1519-23) 

Artículo principal: Germanías

En los territorios de Levante se produjo el movimiento de las Germanías. Los artesanos de Valencia poseían el privilegio del reinado de Fernando el Católico para formar unas milicias en caso de necesidad de lucha contra las flotas berberiscas. En 1519 Carlos V permitió la formación de esas milicias y se pusieron al mando de Joan Llorenç.

En 1520 cuando se produjo una epidemia de peste en Valencia y los nobles abandonaron la zona, la milicias se hicieron con el poder y desobedecieron la orden de Adriano de Utrecht de su inmediata disolución. En pocos días el movimiento llegó a las islas Baleares en donde duró hasta 1523.

Después de la derrota de los comuneros, el ejército acabó con el conflicto de las Germanías.

La organización del Imperio Español: el sistema polisinodial 

Con este nombre se ha dado en llamar al modo de organización interna del Imperio Español en una serie de Consejos, cuyas bases fueron puestas entre 1521 y 1523, una vez solventados los problemas de la elección imperial y de los comuneros. Parece ser fue el Gran Canciller Gattinara quien propuso a Carlos I un "Consejo Secreto de Estado", que se convirtió en el germen del que seria llamado simplemente "Consejo de Castilla", que fue el modelo de los demás.

Se ha tendido a relacionar a estos Consejos con algunos modelos colegiados parecidos de los tiempos de los Reyes Católicos, lo que es cierto en cuanto a que su composición y funcionamiento interno. No obstante, aquellos no llegaron a tener la institucionalización y el influjo del sistema establecido por Carlos I y que, con modificaciones y decadencia, perviviría prácticamente hasta Felipe V.

Los Consejos estaban compuestos por personas escogidas personalmente por el Rey (cumpliéndose una serie de reglas no escritas a la hora de escogerlos) que, bajo la presidencia del mismo Rey o de algún representante suyo (la mayoría de las veces) discutían sobre algún tema. El Rey siempre tenía la última palabra, pero no es imposible comprender el poder que acumulaban: primero, porque el Consejo era el lugar donde el Rey pulsaba las posiciones de diversas facciones nobiliarias, eclesiásticas o cortesanas. Segundo, porque en épocas en las que el monarca no estaba capacitado (enfermedad, guerra, etc...), ellos eran los verdaderos gobernantes en su área de acción. Tercero, porque, en aquella época, el poder legislativo, ejecutivo o judicial no estaban estrictamente separados, por lo que los Consejos se convirtieron en una especie de Tribunales de Apelación; cuarto, porque, como ahora veremos, ciertos Consejos tenían unidas tareas mundanales y espirituales, por lo que solían tener las llaves del prestigio social (Consejo de Órdenes, por nombrar el caso más claro), de importantes ingresos económicos (Consejo de Cruzadas) o de clave política (Consejo de la Inquisición).

En este orden destaca la importante labor de los secretarios. Los secretarios de los Consejos eran los encargados de trasladar al Rey las deliberaciones de los Consejos y de trasladar a los miembros del Consejo las decisiones y resoluciones del Rey. No obstante, su poder iba más allá de esto, pues se convirtieron en los verdaderos gestores de la voluntad Real: de sus transcripciones dependía la exactitud con que el monarca percibía las declaraciones de los miembros de los Consejos, aceleraban o retrasaban la entrega de las deliberaciones al Monarca, daban su parecer al mismo (hay que recordar que ellos eran los que trataban a diario con él) y traficaban con la información privilegiada que tenían. Muchos autores de la época denunciaron sus tejemanejes y fueron protagonistas de no pocos escándalos políticos (especialmente con |Felipe II).

Consejo de Castilla:

Artículo principal: Consejo de Castilla

Indudablemente el más importante, en tanto que se ocupaban de los asuntos del Reino más importante para Carlos I. Además, era el de mayor prestigio. Se ocupó de la Regencia de Castilla durante un tiempo, y aunque su número varió con el tiempo, en él se reunían representantes de las principales casas nobiliarias de Castilla, dos o tres eclesiásticos y un número variable de licenciados. Sus principales funciones eran el gobierno del Reino de Castilla, así como la administración de justicia, siguiendo la labor de ‘tribunal de apelación’ antes comentada. De hecho, esta segunda función fue la más común, provocando la queja de algunos autores políticos de la época como Covarrubias, que señalaba que este Consejo se ocupaba más de pleitos que del gobierno, a pesar de los esfuerzos por parte de Carlos I de impedirlo.

Consejo de Estado:

Artículo principal: Consejo de Estado

Instrumento del Rey de España cuya finalidad era debatir sobre la política exterior del Reino. Presente ya en el Reinado de los Reyes Católicos, dentro del Consejo Real.

EL Rey decide crear un consejo propio para los asuntos externos del Reino debido a la gran actuación exterior que marcó su reinado. Empieza a funcionar en 1526 cuando Solimán el Magnífico amenaza Austria.

Es el único Consejo que no tiene presidente, pues es el propio Rey el que asume esa función. Sus consejeros no son especialistas en leyes sino expertos en relaciones internacionales, como el Duque de Alba o Nicolás Perrenot. Los consejeros eran, por tanto, miembros de la alta nobleza y del alto clero.

En tiempos de Felipe II en ocasiones el monarca no presidía los consejos y, en su lugar, enviaba a su Secretario Antonio Pérez.

Su misión era asesorar al Rey sobre la política exterior y tenía el control de las embajadas de Roma, Viena (dinastía familiar de los Austrias), Venecia, Génova, y de las principales potencias de Europa: Francia, Inglaterra y Portugal.

A diferencia del Consejo de Castilla, en el que el Rey escuchaba a los consejeros y ejecutaba las conclusiones que le presentaban, en el Consejo de Estado era el propio Rey el que exponía los puntos a debatir, escuchaba a sus consejeros y, posteriormente, el mismo monarca tomaba las decisiones que habían de tomarse.

Consejo de Aragón:

Artículo principal: Consejo de Aragón

Hay que destacar una serie de excepciones de este Consejo: primero, que la presidencia recaía en el vicecanciller de Carlos I, no en Carlos I, debido a que se perpetuó una pragmática de tiempos de los Reyes Católicos; segundo, que la composición del Consejo se hacia por territorios, no por familias nobiliarias; tercero, que este Consejo vio recortadas sus funciones judiciales, funcionando de modo similar al de Castilla sólo para asuntos de Mallorca y Cerdeña. Cuarto, destaca el hecho que este consejo fue el más ignorado por Carlos V, esencialmente por problemas de nombramientos.

Consejo de la Santa Inquisición:

Artículo principal: Consejo de la Santa Inquisición

De existencia irregular, en un principio fue creado por Carlos I en 1535 para eliminar la jurisdicción temporal que la Inquisición gozaba. No obstante, en 1545 el entonces regente Felipe volvió a conceder la jurisdicción temporal a la Inquisición, y el Consejo se reconvirtió en un órgano mediador entre la jurisdicción ordinaria y el Santo Oficio.

Consejo de Órdenes:

Artículo principal: Consejo de Órdenes

Ya en tiempos de los Reyes Católicos, el rey Fernando eliminó la independencia de las órdenes militares convirtiéndose él mismo en maestre de las tres principales órdenes militares. Desde ese momento se detecta periódicamente una especie de reunión informal del Rey con los consejos del Maestre de dichas órdenes, a fin de administrar dichas instituciones. En 1523, el papa Adriano VI concedió las órdenes al Reino de Castilla, por lo que pasa a la jurisdicción real un importante patrimonio: dos ciudades, doscientas villas y un centenar de aldeas, repartidas en un territorio que, en el caso solamente de la Orden de Santiago, llegaba a ser el 4% del Reino de Castilla. Además se presentó el problema de que, al desaparecer la figura del Maestre, las Órdenes perdían el centro organizativo que las mantenía. Por todo ello, Carlos V decidió crear el Consejo de Órdenes, a fin de gobernar, administrar justicia y dar gracia en aquellos territorios.

Formado por los caballeros de las Órdenes, Carlos V aprovechó el Consejo para reducir gradualmente los privilegios de los que gozaban, especialmente por razones políticas pues muchos de ellos ayudaron a los Comuneros, pero escaparon del castigo en función de sus privilegios.

Al final, en tiempos de Felipe II, el Consejo de Órdenes se convertirá en una especie de Tribunal de Honor, pues el hábito pasará a ser un elemento de prestigio social y una garantía de limpieza de sangre, perdiendo todo su carácter de gobierno y justicia.

Consejo de Cruzada:

Artículo principal: Consejo de Cruzada

El Consejo de Cruzada, en un principio, fue creado para administrar las tres bulas concedidas por el Papado (Cruzadas, subsidio y excusado) con el presunto fin de ayudar al Reino a la lucha contra el infiel y al mantenimiento de la flota de galeras del Mediterráneo. Este consejo, formado normalmente por eclesiásticos, se ocupaba de la recaudación y gestión de las dichas bulas, que suponían una importante fuente de financiación del Imperio.

Consejo de Hacienda:

Artículo principal: Consejo de Hacienda

La creación de este Consejo en 1523 supuso una notable racionalización de la Hacienda castellana, que hasta aquel momento disponía de dos contadurías que continuamente se enfrentaban entre ellas (la Mayor, encargada de la recaudación de los impuestos y de su administración, y la de Cuentas, que se ocupaba de intervenir y verificar las cuentas de la anterior).

Este consejo estaba formado por tres consejeros, normalmente licenciados con experiencia en la burocracia de la Corte y cuatro asistentes (Tesorero, escribano de finanzas, contador y secretario). Así, sus competencias incluían el ejecutar los gastos, proponer nuevas fuentes de financiación, proponer presupuestos y pedir informes a los contadores (algo así como los actuales contables) de los demás Consejos. Obviamente, este Consejo de caracterizó por las continuas fricciones con los demás Consejos, agravados por el hecho que los miembros del Consejo de Hacienda raramente eran de importantes familias, al contrario que el resto de Consejos.

Consejo de Indias:

Artículo principal: Consejo de Indias

Fue fundado en 1511 y reformado más tarde por Carlos V, en 1524. Estaba compuesto, básicamente por un Presidente, un Gran Canciller, doce consejeros, el personal subalterno habitual y algunos puestos específicos de este Consejo de Indias, como el de Cronista oficial de Indias, Cosmógrafo y un oidor de la Casa de Contratación -que era también Superintendente de la Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias-, con cuatro oficiales.

En cuanto a sus competencias, tenía suprema jurisdicción en todo lo relativo a mar y tierra del Nuevo Mundo, en lo militar y lo político, en la paz y en la guerra, en lo civil y criminal; supervisaba el funcionamiento de la Casa de Contratación de Indias, en Sevilla; proponía los puestos de virreyes, generales de armadas y flotas, arzobispados y obispados en Indias; entendía también en algunos pleitos de justicia

Su reinado en América  

Durante su reinado, Hernán Cortés conquistó Nueva España (México), Francisco Pizarro conquistó el Imperio Incaico formando el Virreinato del Perú y Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada conquistó el pueblo de los Chibcha, en la actual Colombia. Juan Sebastián Elcano dio la primera vuelta al mundo (1522), terminando el viaje que comenzó Fernando de Magallanes y sentando las primeras bases de la soberanía española en Filipinas y las Marianas.

Pedro de Mendoza, por su parte, concretó la primera fundación de Buenos Aires en la margen derecha del Río de la Plata. Poco tiempo después Juan de Salazar y Gonzalo de Mendoza fundaban Asunción que se convertiría en el centro motor de la conquista de la cuenca rioplatense. Todo esto contribuiría a sentar el primer imperio global de la Historia bajo el reinado de su sucesor, Felipe II, donde se decía que "no se ponía el sol".

Las jornadas africanas  

Jeireddín Barbarroja, aliado con los franceses y almirante subordinado al sultán otomano Suleiman el Kanuni, hostigaba continuamente las costas españolas del Mediterráneo y expulsó a los españoles del Peñón de Argel. Ante esta situación, Carlos I organizó dos operaciones de diferente fortuna.

La primera fue la conocida como la Jornada de Túnez, en 1535, por la que se le arrebató Túnez a Barbarroja y la segunda, la Jornada de Argel, en 1541, que fracasó debido al mal tiempo.

Rey de los romanos  

Tras el fallecimiento de su abuelo el emperador Maximiliano I en enero de 1519, es elegido Rey de Romanos en octubre de ese año, en competencia con el rey de Francia Francisco I, lo que supuso un gasto enorme al que hizo frente buscando dinero en Castilla y en banqueros alemanes (Jacobo Fugger o Fúcar,...). De este modo, reúne en su persona los territorios procedentes de la cuádruple herencia de sus abuelos: habsburguesa (Maximiliano I), borgoñona (María de Borgoña), aragonesa (Fernando el Católico) y castellana (Isabel la Católica). Regresó a Alemania para ser coronado rey y estuvo ausente de España hasta 1522. El 23 de octubre de 1520 fue coronado rey de romanos en Aquisgrán y tres días después fue reconocido emperador electo.

El ideal del Emperador fue el ideal humanista de la Universitas Christiana, la supremacía de la autoridad imperial sobre todos los reyes de la Cristiandad, al modo de las pretensiones de los Hohenstaufen. Frente a estos ideales universalistas mostraron su desacuerdo el rey francés Francisco I y el Papa. De ahí que estuviera constantemente en lucha con ambos durante su imperio.

Véase también: idea imperial de Carlos V

La guerra de Navarra  

Artículo principal: Conquista de Navarra


Escudo de Carlos I de España en la muralla de Viana, con las armas españolas de la Monarquía y las de Navarra en lugar preferenteAprovechando la Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla con una parcial desmilitarización del Reino de Navarra se produjo la tercera contraofensiva de los navarros para recuperar el reino en 1521. En esta ocasión, Enrique II de Navarra con apoyo del rey francés Francisco I, y con una sublevación casi unánime de los habitantes de Navarra, que consiguió la recuperación en poco tiempo. Posteriormente los errores estratégicos del general francés Andrés de Foix y la recomposición rápida del ejército español llevó a que tras una cruenta Batalla de Noáin fuera controlado de nuevo por parte de las tropas de Carlos I. Aún así se mantuvieron focos de resistencia en la zona del Baztán-Bidasoa produciéndose históricos enfrentamientos y asedios como en el Castillo de Maya, en la batalla del monte Aldabe o en el Asedio de la fortaleza de Fuenterrabía. Finalmente la vía diplomática, concediendo una amplia amnistía, y la renuncia de la Baja Navarra, que no llegó a controlar militarmente, llevó a conseguir el control de la Alta Navarra por el Emperador.

Las guerras con Francia  

Sostuvo cuatro guerras con Francisco I de Francia, que también aspiraba a la corona imperial, y al que Carlos exigía la devolución de Borgoña.

En la primera guerra (1521-1526), Francia, se apoderó del Milanesado y ayudó a Enrique II a recuperar el Reino de Navarra, tras su conquista en 1512. Sin embargo el monarca francés fue derrotado y hecho prisionero, junto al monarca navarro, en la batalla de Pavía. Francisco fue llevado a Madrid en donde firmó el Tratado de Madrid (1526), por el cual no volvería a ocupar ni el Milanesado ni apoyaría al rey de Navarra (pacto que denució meses después por firmarlo bajo coacción) y entregaría Borgoña a Carlos, además de renunciar a Flandes e Italia.

En la segunda guerra (1526-1529) las tropas imperiales asaltaron y saquearon Roma (Saco de Roma), obligando al papa Clemente VII, aliado de Francisco I - tras la Liga de Cognac-, a refugiarse en el castillo de Sant´Angelo. Mediante la Paz de Cambrai, España renunció a Borgoña a cambio de que Francisco I renunciara a Italia, Flandes y el Artois, además de entregar la ciudad de Tournay. Coronado por el papa como emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano (1530), Carlos I continuó sus luchas contra Francia.

La tercera (1535-1538) se produjo por la invasión francesa del ducado de Saboya, aliado de España, con la intención de continuar hacia Milán. Acabó con la firma de la tregua de Niza debido al agotamiento de ambos contendientes.

La cuarta (1542-1544) concluyó debido a la reanudación del conflicto con los protestantes en Alemania. Agotados, los dos monarcas firmaron la Paz de Crépy, mediante la cual España perdió territorios del sur de Francia - como Verdún, etc...- y próximos a Flandes; una vez más Francia renunciaba a Italia y Países Bajos, entrando Milán en la política matrimonial mediante un previsible enlace hispano-francés.

La aparición del Protestantismo  

Como Soberano, después de la imposición de la Corona Imperial por mano del pontífice (1530), Carlos se sentía obligado a dedicarse completamente a la solución de los problemas que el luteranismo había creado en Europa y en Alemania en particular, con el fin de salvaguardar la unidad de la fe cristiana contra el embate de los turcos. Antes, en 1523 había cedido las islas de Malta y Gozo, así como Trípoli a la Orden de Malta.

En el mismo año 1530 convocó la Dieta de Augsburgo, en la cual se enfrentaron luteranos y católicos sobre las llamadas Confesiones de Augsburgo. Carlos confirmó el Edicto de Worms de 1521, es decir la excomunión para los luteranos, amenazando la reconstitución de la propiedad eclesiástica. Como respuesta, los luteranos, representados por las llamadas "órdenes reformadas", actuaron dando vida a la Liga de Esmalcalda (1531). Tal coalición, dotada de un ejército y de una caja común, fue llamada también la "liga de los protestantes".

Es claro que los seguidores de la doctrina de Lutero asumieron la denominación "protestantes" en cuanto ellos, reunidos en "órdenes reformadas", en el curso de la segunda Dieta de Espira de 1529, protestaron contra la decisión del Emperador de restablecer el Edicto de Worms: Edicto que había sido suspendido en la precedente Dieta de Espira (1526)

Reconociendo que era necesaria una reforma y para intentar resolver el problema, el pontífice Pablo III convocó un Concilio ecuménico en la ciudad de Trento, cuyos trabajos comenzaron oficialmente el 5 de diciembre de 1545. Concilio del que ni el Rey ni el emperador vieron la conclusión, así como tampoco el papa que lo había convocado.

Tras la negativa de los protestantes a reconocer el Concilio de Trento, el emperador comenzó la guerra en el mes de Junio de 1546, con un ejército armado por el pontífice, al mando de Octavio Farnese, otro austríaco mandado por Fernando de Austria y otro de los soldados de los Países Bajos al mando del Conde de Buren. También apoyaba al Emperador, Mauricio de Sajonia que había sido habilmente apartado de la Liga de Esmalcalda. Carlos V consiguió una contundente victoria en la batalla de Mühlberg en el 1547, poco después los príncipes alemanes se retiraron y se subordinaron al Emperador.

A pesar de su victoria no logró el anhelado deseo de unificar política y socialmente el luteranismo con el catolicismo, por lo que tan sólo ocho años después, en 1555, se vio obligado a suscribir la "Paz de Augsburgo" por medio del cual se reconocía el inalienable derecho de los alemanes de adherirse a la confesión católica o al luteranismo. Dando fin, aunque sea de manera temporal, al largo conflicto surgido por la Reforma.

Abdicación y herencia de Carlos V  

Después de tantas guerras y conflictos, Carlos V entró en una fase de reflexión: sobre sí mismo, sobre la vida y sus vivencias y, además, sobre el estado de Europa. La vida terrenal de Carlos estaba llegando a su conclusión.

Los grandes protagonistas que junto con él habían trazado la escena europea en la primera mitad del siglo XVI habían fallecido: Enrique VIII de Inglaterra y Francisco I de Francia en 1547, Martín Lutero en 1546, Erasmo de Rotterdam diez años antes y el papa Pablo III en 1549.

El balance de su vida y de aquello que había completado no era del todo positivo, sobre todo en relación con los objetivos que se había fijado. Su sueño de un Imperio universal bajo los Habsburgo había fracasado; así como su objetivo de reconquistar Borgoña. Él mismo, aunque autonombrándose el primer y más ferviente defensor de la Iglesia Romana, no había conseguido impedir el asentamiento de la doctrina luterana. Sus posesiones de ultramar se habían acrecentado enormemente pero sin que sus gobernadores hubiesen podido implantar estructuras administrativas estables. Pero tenía consolidado el dominio español sobre Italia, que se aseguraría después de su muerte con la Paz de Cateau-Cambrésis en 1559 y duraría ciento cincuenta años.

Carlos V comenzaba a tener conciencia de que Europa se encaminaba a ser gobernada por nuevos príncipes, los cuales, en nombre del mantenimiento de los propios Estados, no intentaban mínimamente alterar el equilibrio político-religioso al interior de cada uno de ellos. Su concepción del Imperio había pasado y se consolidaba España como potencia hegemónica.

En las abdicaciones de Bruselas (1555-1556), Carlos I deja el gobierno imperial a su hermano, el rey de romanos Fernando (aunque los electores no aceptaron su renuncia formalmente hasta el 3 de mayo de 1558[2] ) y la de España y las Indias a su hijo Felipe. Regresó a España en una travesía en barco desde Flandes hasta Laredo, con el propósito de curar la enfermedad de la gota en una comarca de la que le habían hablado por su buen clima y alejada de las grandes ciudades, la comarca de la Vera. Tardó 1 més y 3 semanas en llegar a Jarandilla de la Vera, lugar donde se hospedó gracias a la hospitalidad de los Condes de Oropesa que cedieron su castillo en dicha villa al Rey Carlos I. Allí esperó desde Noviembre de 1556 hasta el día 3 de febrero de 1557, a la espera de que finalizaran las obras de la casa palacio que mandó construir junto al Monasterio de Yuste. En este plácido lugar permaneció un año y medio en retiro, alejado de las ciudades y de la vida política, y acompañado por la orden de los Jerónimos, quienes guiaron espiritualmente al monarca hasta sus últimos días. Finalmente, un 21 de septiembre de 1558 falleció de paludismo tras un més de agonía y fiebres, causado por la picadura de un mosquito proveniente de las aguas estancadas de uno de los estanques construidos por el experto en relojes e ingeniero hidrográfico Tizzano.

En su testamento reconoció a Juan de Austria como hijo suyo nacido de la relación extramatrimonial que tuvo con Bárbara Blomberg en 1545. Lo conoció por primera vez en una de las habitaciones de la casa palacio del Monasterio de Yuste.

Semblanza del César 

"D. Carlos, por la divina providencia emperador semper augusto."El embajador veneciano Gaspar Contarini hacía la siguiente descripción del Emperador a los 25 años de edad:

"Es de estatura mediana, mas no muy grande, ni pequeño, blanco, de color más bien pálido que rubicundo; del cuerpo, bien proporcionado, bellísima pierna, buen brazo, la nariz un poco aguileña, pero poco; los ojos ávidos, el aspecto grave, pero no cruel ni severo; ni en él otra parte del cuerpo se puede inculpar, excepto el mentón y también toda su faz interior, la cual es tan ancha y tan larga, que no parece natural de aquel cuerpo; pero parece postiza, donde ocurre que no puede, cerrando la boca, unir los dientes inferiores con los superiores; pero los separa un espacio del grosor de un diente, donde en el hablar, máxime en el acabar de la claúsula, balbucea alguna palabra, la cual por eso no se entiende muy bien."

Antecesores  

Antecesores de Carlos Carlos I de España y V de Alemania Padre:

Felipe I de Castilla Abuelo paterno:

Maximiliano I de Habsburgo Bisabuelo paterno:

Federico III de Habsburgo

Bisabuela paterna:

Leonor de Portugal y Aragón

Abuela paterna:

María de Borgoña Bisabuelo paterno:

Carlos el Temerario

Bisabuela paterna:

Isabel de Borbón

Madre:

Juana I de Castilla Abuelo materno:

Fernando II de Aragón Bisabuelo materno:

Juan II de Aragón

Bisabuela materna:

Juana Enríquez

Abuela materna:

Isabel I de Castilla Bisabuelo materno:

Juan II de Castilla

Bisabuela materna:

Isabel de Portugal

Matrimonio e hijos  

El 11 de marzo de 1526 Carlos I se casó en Sevilla con Isabel de Portugal, hermana de Juan III de Portugal (quien en 1525 se había casado con la hermana de Carlos I, Catalina de Austria). Con ella tuvo los siguientes hijos:

Felipe II de España (*21 de mayo de 1527; †13 de septiembre de 1598).

María de Habsburgo (*21 de junio de 1528; †26 de febrero de 1603), quien en 1548 se casó con el emperador Maximiliano II.

Fernando (†1530)

Juana de Austria (*26 de junio de 1537; †7 de septiembre de 1573), quien en 1552 se casó con Juan Manuel de Portugal, príncipe de Portugal.

Juan (*20 de abril de 1539; †20 de abril de 1539)

Hijos extramatrimoniales  

Isabel de Castilla (*1518?), cuya madre parece haber sido la reina viuda Germana de Foix.

Margarita de Austria o Margarita de Parma (*28 de diciembre de 1522 - †18 de enero de 1586), cuya madre fue Juana Van der Gheest.

Juana de Austria (*1522 - †1530), cuya madre fue un dama de Nassau, al parecer de noble cuna.

Tadea de Austria (*1523? - †ca.1562), cuya madre fue Orsolina della Penna. Se casó con un tal Sinidaldo di Copeschi.

Don Juan de Austria (*24 de febrero de 1547; †1 de octubre de 1578), cuya madre fue Bárbara Blomberg.

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Karl (født 24. februar 1500 i Gent i dagens Belgia, død 21. september 1558 i Yuste, Extremadura, Spania), keiser av Det Hellige Romerske Rike av den Tyske Nasjon (som Karl V) i årene 1519–1558; han var også konge av Spania 1516–1556, egentlig som Karl I av Spania, men ofte omtalt som Karl V (Carlos Quinto eller Carlos V) i Spania og Latinamerika. Han var sønn av Filipp I og Johanna av Castilla, og barnebarn av Ferdinand II av Aragon og Isabella I av Castilla og av keiser Maximilian og hertuginne Maria av Burgund. Således tilhørte han huset Habsburg.

Karl V var den siste tysk-romerske keiser som ble kronet av Paven.

Han er også kjent som den som var keiser da Martin Luther praktiserte sin forkynnelse, og han kalte Luther inn til et møte hvor Luther ble lyst i bann av katolikkene. Keiseren holdt fast ved sin religion, og han ønsket i utgangspunktet å kjempe for den. På et senere tidspunkt godtok keiseren en avtale mellom katolikker og protestanter.

Karl V førte også krig mot de osmanske tyrkerne, som utgjorde en trussel mot de italienske besittelsene, Østerrike og de spanske kystene. Hans svorne fiende, Frans I (François premier), kongen av Frankrike, allierte seg derimot med tyrkerne for å svekke hans rike.

[rediger] Ymse

Karl V var født i Flandern, og må dermed ha kunnet både fransk og nederlandsk på et tidlig tidspunkt. Da han kom til Spania, lærte han fort å snakke godt kastiljansk spansk. Han skal visstnok ha sagt «Jeg snakker spansk med Gud, fransk med herrene, italiensk med damene og tysk med hesten min».

Siden han også hersket over de spanske koloniene i Latin-Amerika og på Filippinene, skal han også ha sagt «I mitt rike går sola aldri ned».

Charles V (r. 1519-1556), later a Holy Roman Emperor, was born at Prinsenhof in Ghent(in the Duchy of Burgundy), on February 24, 1500 and died in Yuste on September 21, 1558. Charles married Isabella of Portugal, daughter of Emmanuel, King of Portugal, in 1503. Charles secured financial support from Jacob Fugger and the Welser family of Augsburg.

Karls mor var Johanna den Gale, datter av Isabell av Castilla og Ferdinand av Aragorn. Johanna var gift med Filip den fagre/smukke/vakre (alt etter hvilken norsk bok man konsulterer), som lenge hadde flørtet med sinnslidelse da hun drepte sin mann under mistanke om enda et sidesprang. Da det viste seg at han var uskyldig, bikket hun endelig over og skal angivelig ha dratt med seg liket hans overalt. Filip var sønn av Maria av Burgund og Maximilian I av Habsburg.

Det er altså fra disse fire Karl arver riket. Fra Isabella får han Castilla, fra Ferdinand Aragon og alle de områder i middelhavet Aragon har krav på (Napoli, Sicilia, Sardinia og eventuelt andre, noe som gir mulighet for flere kriger i Italia). Det var da også disse som fant det for godt å sende Colombus til India, og det er under Karl Vs herredømme at utforskningen og koloniseringen av Amerika for alvor tar av.

Fra Maria av Burgund får han tittelen hertug av nettopp Burgund, et stort område som inbefatter dagens Nederland, Belgia, deler av Frankrike og tyske områder. Av Maximilian I av Habsburg arver han alle de Habsburgske arvelandene, og det er ikke småtterier. Han blir tysk territorialfyrste gjennom landområdene i Østerrike. Endelig blir han ved dennes død "valgt" til tysk-romersk keiser. (Hans hovedmotstander her, som i resten av livet, var Frans I av Frankrike, som med tid og stunder endte med å gifte seg med Karls søster, og det var ganske enkelt et spørsmål om hvem av dem som hadde nok ressurser til å bestikke valgkollegiet.)

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Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I or Carlos V, German: Karl V., Dutch: Karel V, French: Charles Quint, 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I of Spain, of the Spanish realms from 1506 until his abdication in 1556. On the eve of his death in 1558, his realm, which has been described as one in which the sun never sets, spanned almost 4 million square kilometers.

As the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties – the Habsburgs of the Archduchy of Austria, the Valois of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Trastamara of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon – he ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe, as well as the various Castilian (Spanish) colonies in the Americas.

He was the son of King Philip I of Castile (Philip the Handsome) and Queen Joanna of Castile (Joanna the Mad). His maternal grandparents were King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, whose daughter Catherine of Aragon was Queen of England and first wife of Henry VIII. Henry's daughter was Mary I of England, who married Charles's son Philip. His paternal grandparents were the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Duchess Mary of Burgundy, whose daughter Margaret raised him.

As the first king to reign in his own right over both Castile and Aragon following the end of the Reconquista, he is often considered as the first King of Spain. Charles I of Spain provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan and his navigator Juan Sebastian Elcano, after the Portuguese captain was repeatedly turned down by Manuel I of Portugal. The commercial success of the voyage (first circumnavigation of the Earth), temporarily enriched Charles by the sale of its cargo of cloves and laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain.

Charles' reign constitutes the pinnacle of Habsburg power, when all the family's far flung holdings were united in one hand. After his reign, the realms were split between his descendants, who received the Spanish possession and the Netherlands, and those of his younger brother, who received Austria, Bohemia and Hungary.

Aside from this, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation[1] and the convocation of the Council of Trent.

Contents [hide]

1 Heritage and early life

2 Marriage and children

3 Reign

3.1 Burgundy and the Low Countries

3.2 Spain

3.3 America

3.4 Holy Roman Empire

4 France

5 Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire

6 Humanism and Reformation

7 Health

8 Abdication and later life

9 Titles

10 Arms

11 References in literature and popular culture

12 Ancestors

13 Notes

14 Bibliography


[edit] Heritage and early life


Charles and his sister with their Spanish mother, Joanna; though a beauty, she was pronounced mad after the death of her husband. It was through her that Charles gained the powerful country of Spain and all of its rich possessions.Combining the old heritage of the German Habsburgs, the House of Burgundy, and the Spanish heritage of his mother, Charles transcended ethnic and national boundaries. His motto was Plus Ultra, Further Beyond, and it became the national motto of Spain.

Charles was born in the Flemish city of Ghent in 1500 along with sister Cara Clase IX. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He spoke five languages: French, Dutch, later adding an acceptable Spanish (which was required by the Castilian Cortes as a condition for becoming king of Castile) and some German and Italian.

From his Burgundian ancestors, he inherited an ambiguous relationship with the Kings of France. Charles shared with France his mother tongue and many cultural forms. In his youth, he made frequent visits to Paris, then the largest city of Western Europe.

In his words: "Paris is not a city, but a universe" (Lutetia non urbs, sed orbis). But Charles also inherited the tradition of political and dynastical enmity between the Royal and the Burgundian lines of the Valois Dynasty. This conflict was amplified by his accession to both the Holy Roman Empire and the kingdom of Spain.

Though Spain was the core of his possessions, he was never totally assimilated and especially in his earlier years felt as if he were viewed as a foreign prince. He could not speak Spanish very well, as it was not his primary language. Nonetheless, he spent most of his life in Spain, including his final years in a Spanish monastery.

[edit] Marriage and children


Plus Oultre, Charles' personal motto on the gable of a Flemish house in Ghent, Charles V's birthplace.On 10 March 1526, Charles married his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, sister of John III of Portugal, in Seville.

Their children included:

Philip II of Spain (1527 - 1598), the only son to reach adulthood.

Maria of Spain (1528 - 1603), who married her first cousin Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Joan of Spain (1535 - 1573), who married her first cousin Infante John of Portugal, who was the heir of Portugal.

Charles also had several mistresses (all courted before or after his marriage to Isabella). Two of them gave birth to two future Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands:

Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles I de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, daughter of Gilles Johann van der Gheynst and wife Johanna van der Caye van Cocambi, bore Margaret of Parma

Barbara Blomberg bore John of Austria.

[edit] Reign

[edit] Burgundy and the Low Countries


Habsburg possessions in 1547.In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian territories, most notably the Low Countries and Franche-Comté, most of which were fiefs of the German empire, except his birthplace of Flanders that was still a French fief, a last remnant of what had been a powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret acted as regent until 1515 and soon she found herself at war with France over the question of Charles' requirement to pay homage to the French king for Flanders, as his father had done. The outcome was that France relinquished its ancient claim on Flanders in 1528.

From 1515 to 1523, Charles' government in the Netherlands also had to contend with the rebellion of Frisian peasants (led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama). The rebels were initially successful but after series of defeats, the remaining leaders were captured and decapitated in 1523.

Charles extended the Burgundian territory with the annexation of Tournai, Artois, Utrecht, Groningen and Guelders. The Seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles' Burgundian ancestors, but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. In 1549, Charles issued a Pragmatic Sanction, declaring the Low Countries to be a unified entity of which his family would be the heirs.[2]

The Low Countries held an important place in the Empire. For Charles V personally, they were the region where he spent his childhood. Because of trade and industry and the rich cities, they were also important for the treasury.

[edit] Spain

In the Castilian Cortes of Valladolid of 1506, and of Madrid of 1510 he was sworn as prince of Asturias, heir of his mother the queen Joanna.[3]. On the other hand, in 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Saragossa, pledged an oath to his mother Joanna as heiress, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, without modifying the right of the succession, but by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cortes and the King.[4][5] So, with the death of his grandfather, the king of Aragon Ferdinand II on 23 January 1516, his mother Joanna inherited the Crown of Aragon, which consisted of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia; while Charles became Governor General.[6] Nevertheless, the Flemings wished that Charles assume the royal title, and this was supported by his grandfather the emperor Maximilian I and the Pope Leo X, this way, after the celebration of Ferdinand II's obsequies on 14 March 1516, he was proclaimed as king of Castile and of Aragon jointly with his mother. Finally, when the Castilian regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted the fait accompli, he acceded to Charles's desire to be proclaimed king and he imposed his statement along the kingdom. Thus, the cities were recognizing Charles as king jointly with his mother.[7]


Posthumous Portrait of Charles V on Horseback by Anthony van Dyck.Charles arrived in his new kingdoms in autumn of 1517. His regent Jiménez de Cisneros came to meet him, but fell ill along the way, not without a suspicion of poison, and died before meeting the King.[8]

Due to the irregularity of assuming the royal title, when his mother, the legitimate queen, was alive, the negotiations with the Castilian Cortes in Valladolid (1518) proved difficult,[9] and in the end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn to speak Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; he was prohibited from taking precious metals from Castile; and he would respect the rights of his mother, Queen Joanna. The Cortes paid homage to him in Valladolid in February 1518. After this, Charles departed to the kingdom of Aragon. He managed to overcome the resistance of the Aragonese Cortes and Catalan Cortes also,[10] and finally he was recognized as king of Aragon jointly with his mother.[11]

Charles was accepted as sovereign, even though the Spanish felt uneasy with the Imperial style. Spanish monarchs until then had been bound by the laws; the monarchy was a contract with the people. With Charles it would become more absolute, even though until his mother's death in 1555 Charles did not hold the full kingship of the country.

Soon resistance against the Emperor rose because of the heavy taxation (the money was used to fight wars abroad, most of which Castilians had no interest in) and because Charles tended to select Flemings for high offices in Spain and America, ignoring Castilian candidates. The resistance culminated in the Revolt of the Comuneros, which was suppressed by Charles. After this, Castile became integrated into the Habsburg empire, and provided the bulk of the empire's military and financial resources.

[edit] America

During Charles' reign, the territories in New Spain were considerably extended by conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, who caused the Aztec and Inca empires to fall in little more than a decade. Combined with the Magellan expedition's circumnavigation of the globe in 1522, these successes convinced Charles of his divine mission to become the leader of a Christian world that still perceived a significant threat from Islam. Of course, the conquests also helped solidify Charles' rule by providing the state treasury with enormous amounts of bullion. As the conquistador Bernal Diaz observed: "We came to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those in darkness, and also to acquire that wealth which most men covet."[12] In 1550, Charles convened a conference at Valladolid in order to consider the morality of the force used against the indigenous populations of Spanish America.

Charles V is credited with the first idea of constructing an American Isthmus canal in Panama as early as 1520 [13]

[edit] Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Emperor


Silver 4 real coin of Charles V, struck ca. 1542-1555


Obverse: CAROLVS ET IOHANA, REGES (Charles and Johanna, Monarchs). Depicts the crest of Castile and León. The strike date was determined by the Assayer L. Reverse: HISPANIARVM ET INDIARVM (Of the Spains [Spanish kingdoms] and the Indies." Nawlins Depicts the Strait of Gibraltar between the Pillars of Hercules. Center Latin motto is PLVS VLTRA, or "Further Beyond."

After the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian, in 1519, he inherited the Habsburg lands in Austria. He was also the natural candidate of the electors to succeed his grandfather. With the help of the wealthy Fugger family, Charles defeated the candidacy of Francis I of France and was elected on 28 June 1519. In 1530, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna, the last Emperor to receive a papal coronation.

Charles was Holy Roman Emperor over the German states, but his real power was limited by the princes. Protestantism gained a strong foothold in Germany, and Charles was determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands. An inquisition was established as early as 1522. In 1550, the death penalty was introduced for all heresy. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alva, personally suppressed the Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540.[2]

Charles abdicated as Emperor in 1556 in favor of his brother Ferdinand; however, due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the abdication (and thus make it legally valid) until May 3, 1558. Up to that date, Charles continued to use the title of Emperor.

[edit] France

Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire and still maintained ambitions in Italy. The first war with Charles's great nemesis Francis I of France began in 1521. Charles allied with England and Pope Leo X against the French and the Venetians, and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. To gain his freedom, the French king was forced to cede Burgundy to Charles in Treaty of Madrid (1526).

When he was released, however, Francis had the Parliament of Paris denounce the treaty because it had been signed under duress. France then joined the League of Cognac that the Pope had formed with Henry VIII of England, the Venetians, the Florentines, and the Milanese to resist imperial domination of Italy. In the ensuing war, Charles's sack of Rome (1527) and virtual imprisonment of Pope Clement VII in 1527 prevented him from annulling the marriage of Henry VIII of England and Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon, with important consequences. In other respects, the war was inconclusive. In the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), called the "Ladies' Peace" because it was negotiated between Charles's aunt and Francis's mother, Francis renounced his claims in Italy but retained control of Burgundy.

A third war erupted in 1535, when, following the death of the last Sforza Duke of Milan, Charles installed his own son, Philip, in the duchy, despite Francis's claims on it. This war too was inconclusive. Francis failed to conquer Milan, but succeeded in conquering most of the lands of Charles's ally the Duke of Savoy, including his capital, Turin. A truce at Nice in 1538 on the basis of uti possidetis ended the war, but lasted only a short time. War resumed in 1542, with Francis now allied with Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I and Charles once again allied with Henry VIII. Despite the conquest of Nice by a Franco-Ottoman fleet, the French remained unable to advance into Juarez, while a joint Anglo-Imperial invasion of northern France, led by Charles himself, won some successes but was ultimately abandoned, leading to another peace and restoration of the status quo ante in 1544.


Inner court of the Charles V Palace in Granada (Andalusia).A final war erupted with Francis' son and successor, Henry II, in 1551. This war saw early successes by Henry in Lorraine, where he captured Metz, but continued failure of French offensives in Italy. Charles abdicated midway through this conflict, leaving further conduct of the war to his son, Philip II and his brother, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.

[edit] Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire

Further information: Islam and Protestantism and Habsburg-Persian alliance


Attempts at forming a Habsburg-Persian alliance against the Ottoman Empire were first initiated by Charles V and Shah Ismail in 1516-19.Charles fought continually with the Ottoman Empire and its sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent. The expeditions of the Ottoman force along the Mediterranean coast posed a threat to Habsburg lands and Christian monopolies on trade in the Mediterranean. In Central Europe, the Turkish advance was halted at Vienna in 1529.

Charles V made overtures to the Safavid Empire to open a second front against the Ottomans, in an attempt at creating a Habsburg-Persian alliance. Contacts were positive, but rendered difficult by enormous distances. In effect however, the Safavids entered in conflict with the Ottoman Empire in the Ottoman-Safavid War (1532–1555), forcing it to split its military resources.[14]

In 1535 Charles won an important victory at Tunis, but in 1536 Francis I of France allied himself with Suleiman against Charles. While Francis was persuaded to sign a peace treaty in 1538, he again allied himself with the Ottomans in 1542 in a Franco-Ottoman alliance. In 1543 Charles allied himself with Henry VIII and forced Francis to sign the Truce of Crepy-en-Laonnois. Charles later signed a humiliating treaty with the Ottomans to gain him some respite from the huge expenses of their war, although it did not end there. However, the Protestant powers in the Holy Roman Empire Diet often voted against money for his Turkish wars, as many Protestants saw the Muslim advance as a counterweight to the Catholic powers. The great Hungarian defeat at the 1526 Battle of Mohács "sent a wave of terror over Europe."[15][16]


Emperor Charles V at Mühlberg, painted in 1548 by Titian.[edit] Humanism and Reformation

As Holy Roman Emperor, he called Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521, promising him safe conduct if he would appear. He initially dismissed Luther's idea of reformation as "An argument between monks". He later outlawed Luther and his followers in that same year but was tied up with other concerns and unable to take action against Protestantism.

1524 to 1526 saw the Peasants' Revolt in Germany and in 1531 the formation of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League. Charles delegated increasing responsibility for Germany to his brother Ferdinand while he concentrated on problems elsewhere.

In 1545, the opening of the Council of Trent began the Counter-Reformation, and Charles won to the Catholic cause some of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1546, he outlawed the Schmalkaldic League (which had occupied the territory of another prince). He drove the League's troops out of southern Germany and at the Battle of Mühlberg defeated John Frederick, Elector of Saxony and imprisoned Philip of Hesse in 1547. At the Augsburg Interim in 1548 he created an interim solution giving certain allowances to Protestants until the Council of Trent would restore unity. However, Protestants mostly resented the Interim and some actively opposed it. Protestant princes, in alliance with Henry II of France, rebelled against Charles in 1552, which caused Charles to retreat to the Netherlands.

[edit] Health


Medal of Charles Quint, in which his jaw deformity clearly appears.Charles suffered from an enlarged lower jaw, a deformity which got considerably worse in later Habsburg generations. This deformity was caused by the family line's multiple years of inbreeding, which was very common in royal families of that era and was practiced in order to keep the blood "pure." He struggled to chew his food properly and consequently experienced bad indigestion for much of his life. As a result, he usually ate alone.[17] He suffered from epilepsy[18] and was seriously afflicted with gout. This was presumably caused by a diet consisting mainly of red meat.[19] As he aged, his gout went from painful to crippling. In his retirement, he was carried around the monastery of St. Yuste in a sedan chair. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms.[17]

[edit] Abdication and later life

In 1556, Charles abdicated his various titles, giving his Spanish empire (Spain, the Netherlands, Naples, Milan and Spain's possessions in the Americas) to his son, Philip II of Spain. His brother Ferdinand, already in possession of the Austrian lands and Roman King succeeded as Emperor elect. Charles retired to the monastery of Yuste in Extremadura, but continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in the situation of the empire. He suffered from severe gout and some scholars think Charles V decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552 forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where he was later defeated. He lived alone in a secluded monastery, with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe symbolises his reign and his lack of time.[20]

Charles died on 21 September 1558 from fatal malaria.[21] Twenty-six years later, his remains were transferred to the Royal Pantheon of The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

[edit] Titles

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Titular Duke of Burgundy as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Duke of Brabant as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Duke of Limburg as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Duke of Lothier as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Duke of Luxemburg as Charles III
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Margrave of Namur as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Count Palatine of Burgundy as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Count of Artois as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Count of Charolais as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Count of Flanders as Charles III
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Count of Hainault as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Count of Holland as Charles II
25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Count of Zeeland as Charles II
12 September 1543–16 January 1556: Duke of Guelders as Charles III

12 September 1543–16 January 1556: Count of Zutphen as Charles II

14 March 1516–16 January 1556: King of Castile and Leon as Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
14 March 1516–16 January 1556: King of Aragon and Sicily as Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
14 March 1516–1554: King of Naples as Charles IV (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)

: 28 June 1519–24 February 1530: King of the Romans as Charles V

: 24 February 1530–16 January 1556: Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V

12 January 1519–1521: Archduke of Austria as Charles I

The full Charles' titulature went as follows:

Charles, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, King of Italy, Castile, Aragon, Leon, both Sicilies, Jerusalem, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Sardinia, Cordova, Corsica, Murcia, Jaen, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Western and Eastern Indies, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, etc. etc. Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Athens, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Zutphen, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Oristano and Gociano, Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen, etc. etc.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_V,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

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For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V of Spain, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina.

Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor;

King of the Romans;

King of Italy

Reign 28 June 1519 – 24 February 1558[1]

Coronation 26 October 1520, Aachen (german royal), 22 February 1530, Bologne (italian royal), 24 February 1530, Bologne (imperial)

Predecessor Maximilian I

Successor Ferdinand I

King of Spain

with Joanna

Reign 23 January 1516–1556

Predecessor Joanna of Castile

Ferdinand II of Aragon

Successor Philip I & II

Duke of Burgundy, Lord of the Netherlands and Count Palatine of Burgundy

Reign 1506–1555[2]

Coronation 1 May 1506

Predecessor Philip the Handsome

Successor Philip II of Spain

Spouse Isabella of Portugal

Issue

Philip II of Spain

Maria of Spain

Joan of Spain

John of Austria (illegitimate)

Margaret of Parma (illegitimate)

House House of Habsburg

Father Philip I of Castile

Mother Joanna of Castile

Born 24 February 1500

Ghent, Flanders

Died 21 September 1558

Yuste, Spain

Burial El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain

Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I, Carlos V or "Carlos I de España y V de Alemania", German: Karl V., Dutch: Karel V, French: Charles Quint, 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Carlos I of Spain, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his abdication in 1556.

As the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties — the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy; the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Duchy of Burgundy; and the House of Trastámara of Crown of Castile-León & Aragon — he ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in North, Central, and South America, the Caribbean, Asia, and the Philippines.

Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor married his son Philip the Handsome to Queen Joanna of Castile-León (who also later became heiress to the Kingdom of Aragon), thus initiating the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. In addition to this, Maximilian was married to Duchess Mary of Burgundy, allowing Philip to also inherit the Duchy of Burgundy (which included the Low Countries) when Mary died in 1482. Charles was the eldest son of Philip and Joanna. When Philip died in 1506, Charles inherited Burgundy and Castile-León, and then inherited Aragon jure matris upon the death of his maternal grandfather Ferdinand II in 1516. As Charles was the first person to rule Castile-León and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, he became the first de jure King of Spain (Charles co-reigned with his mother Joanna, which was however a technicality given her mental instability).[3] Maximilian outlived Philip, and thus passed the entire Habsburg Monarchy and the imperial throne to Charles when he died in 1519. At that time, his realm, which has been described as "the empire on which the sun never sets," spanned nearly four million square kilometers across Europe, the Far East, and the Americas.[4]

Much of Charles' reign was devoted to the Italian Wars against the French kings Francis I and Henry II, which although enormously expensive, were militarily successful due to the undefeated Spanish tercio and the efforts of his prime minister Mercurino Gattinara. Charles' forces re-captured both Milan and Franche-Comté from France after the decisive Habsburg victory at the Battle of Pavia in 1525,[5] which pushed Francis to form the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Charles' rival Suleiman the Magnificent conquered Hungary in 1526 after defeating the Christians at the Battle of Mohács. However, the Ottoman advance was halted after they failed to capture Vienna in 1529.

Aside from this, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation.[6] In addition to the Peasants' War against the Empire, several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles' authority with military force. Unwilling to allow the same religious wars to come to his other domains, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignacio de Loyola during Charles' reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict largely by Charles' nonviolent measures.[7] In Germany, although the Protestants were personally defeated by Charles at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, he legalized Lutheranism within the Holy Roman Empire with the Peace of Augsburg. Charles also maintained his alliance with Henry VIII of England, despite the latter splitting the Church of England from Rome and violently persecuting Catholics.

In the New World, Charles oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas, including the conquest of both the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire. The rapid Christianization of New Spain was attributed to the miracle of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Uncomfortable with how his viceroys were governing the Americas vis-à-vis the Native Americans, Charles consulted figures such as Francisco de Vitoria and Bartolomé de las Casas on the morality of colonization. He also provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan and his navigator Juan Sebastian Elcano, after the Portuguese captain was repeatedly turned down by Manuel I of Portugal. The commercial success of the Magellan's voyage (the first circumnavigation of the Earth) temporarily enriched Charles by the sale of its cargo of cloves and laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain, and along with Ruy López de Villalobos, began Spanish colonization of the Philippines.

Though always at war, Charles was essentially a lover of peace, and all his wars were virtually defensive. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet."[8] Charles retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to Charles' younger brother Ferdinand, whereas the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Heritage and early life
   * 2 Marriage and children
   * 3 Reign
         o 3.1 Burgundy and the Low Countries
         o 3.2 Spain
         o 3.3 Italy
         o 3.4 America
         o 3.5 Holy Roman Empire
   * 4 France
   * 5 Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire
   * 6 Protestant Reformation
   * 7 Health
   * 8 Abdication and later life
   * 9 Titles
   * 10 Arms
   * 11 References in literature and popular culture
   * 12 Ancestors
   * 13 Notes
   * 14 Bibliography
   * 15 External Links

[edit] Heritage and early life

Charles and his sister with their Castilian mother, Joanna I. It was through her that Charles gained the powerful country of Spain and all of its rich possessions.

Charles was born in the Flemish city of Ghent in 1500. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ (who would later become his first prime minister), and also by Adrian of Utretch (later Pope Adrian VI). Charles spoke five languages: French, Dutch, later adding an acceptable Spanish (which was required by the Castilian Cortes Generales as a condition for becoming King of Castile), as well as some German and Italian. In reference to the political circumstances of the era, it is alleged that Charles quipped: "I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse."[9]

From his Burgundian ancestors, he inherited an ambiguous relationship with the Kings of France. Charles shared with France his mother tongue and many cultural forms. In his youth, he made frequent visits to Paris, then the largest city of Western Europe. In his words: "Paris is not a city, but a universe" (Lutetia non urbs, sed orbis). But Charles also inherited the tradition of political and dynastic enmity between the Royal and the Burgundian lines of the Valois Dynasty.

Though Spain was the core of his possessions, he was never totally assimilated and especially in his earlier years felt as if he were viewed as a foreign prince. He could not speak Spanish very well, as it was not his primary language. Nonetheless, he spent most of his life in Spain, including his final years in a Spanish monastery. Nevertheless, Charles' motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.

[edit] Marriage and children

Plus Oultre, Charles' personal motto on the gable of a Flemish house in Ghent, Charles V's birthplace.

On 10 March 1526, Charles married his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, sister of John III of Portugal, in Seville.

Their children included:

   * Philip II of Spain (1527–1598), the only son to reach adulthood.
   * Maria of Spain (1528–1603), who married her first cousin Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor.
   * Joan of Spain (1535–1573), who married her first cousin Infante John of Portugal, who was the heir of Portugal.

Isabella often administrated Spain while Charles was in other lands. Due to Philip II being a grandson of Manuel I of Portugal through his mother Isabella, Philip was in the line of succession to the throne of Portugal, and claimed it after Sebastian of Portugal was killed in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578, thus establishing the Iberian Union.

Charles also had several mistresses. Two of them gave birth to two future Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands:

   * Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles I de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, daughter of Gilles Johann van der Gheynst and wife Johanna van der Caye van Cocambi, bore Margaret of Parma
   * Barbara Blomberg bore John of Austria.

[edit] Reign

[edit] Burgundy and the Low Countries

Habsburg possessions in 1547. The Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Bohemia are ruled by Charles' brother, Ferdinand.

In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian territories, most notably the Low Countries and Franche-Comté, most of which were fiefs of the German empire, except his birthplace of Flanders that was still a French fief, a last remnant of what had been a powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret acted as regent until 1515 and soon she found herself at war with France over the question of Charles' requirement to pay homage to the French king for Flanders, as his father had done. The outcome was that France relinquished its ancient claim on Flanders in 1528.

From 1515 to 1523, Charles' government in the Netherlands also had to contend with the rebellion of Frisian peasants (led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama). The rebels were initially successful but after series of defeats, the remaining leaders were captured and decapitated in 1523.

Charles extended the Burgundian territory with the annexation of Tournai, Artois, Utrecht, Groningen and Guelders. The Seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles' Burgundian ancestors, but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. In 1549, Charles issued a Pragmatic Sanction, declaring the Low Countries to be a unified entity of which his family would be the heirs.[10]

The Low Countries held an important place in the Empire. For Charles V personally, they were the region where he spent his childhood. Because of trade and industry and the rich cities, they were also important for the treasury.

[edit] Spain

The Palace of Charles V in Granada, Spain.

In the Castilian Cortes of Valladolid of 1506, and of Madrid of 1510 he was sworn as prince of Asturias, heir of his mother the queen Joanna.[11]. On the other hand, in 1502, the Aragonese Cortes gathered in Saragossa, pledged an oath to his mother Joanna as heiress, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, without modifying the right of the succession, but by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cortes and the King.[12][13] So, with the death of his grandfather, the king of Aragon Ferdinand II on 23 January 1516, his mother Joanna inherited the Crown of Aragon, which consisted of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia; while Charles became Governor General.[14] Nevertheless, the Flemings wished that Charles assume the royal title, and this was supported by his grandfather the emperor Maximilian I and the Pope Leo X, this way, after the celebration of Ferdinand II's obsequies on 14 March 1516, he was proclaimed as king of Castile and of Aragon jointly with his mother. Finally, when the Castilian regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted the fait accompli, he acceded to Charles's desire to be proclaimed king and he imposed his statement along the kingdom. Thus, the cities were recognizing Charles as king jointly with his mother.[15]

Posthumous Portrait of Charles V on Horseback by Anthony van Dyck.

Charles arrived in his new kingdoms in autumn of 1517. His regent Jiménez de Cisneros came to meet him, but fell ill along the way, not without a suspicion of poison, and died before meeting the King.[16]

Due to the irregularity of assuming the royal title, when his mother, the legitimate queen, was alive, the negotiations with the Castilian Cortes in Valladolid (1518) proved difficult,[17] and in the end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn to speak Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; he was prohibited from taking precious metals from Castile; and he would respect the rights of his mother, Queen Joanna. The Cortes paid homage to him in Valladolid in February 1518. After this, Charles departed to the kingdom of Aragon. He managed to overcome the resistance of the Aragonese Cortes and Catalan Cortes also,[18] and finally he was recognized as king of Aragon jointly with his mother.[19]

Charles was accepted as sovereign, even though the Spanish felt uneasy with the Imperial style. Spanish monarchs until then had been bound by the laws; the monarchy was a contract with the people. With Charles it would become more absolute, even though until his mother's death in 1555 Charles did not hold the full kingship of the country.

Soon resistance against the Emperor rose because of the heavy taxation (the money was used to fight wars abroad, most of which Castilians had no interest in) and because Charles tended to select Flemings for high offices in Spain and America, ignoring Castilian candidates. The resistance culminated in the Revolt of the Comuneros, which was suppressed by Charles. After this, Castile became integrated into the Habsburg empire, and provided the bulk of the empire's military and financial resources.

[edit] Italy

The Crown of Aragon inherited by Charles included the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France after the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Charles succeeded in re-capturing Milan in 1525 following the Battle of Pavia. Spain successfully held on to all of its Italian territories, though they were invaded again on multiple occasions during the Italian Wars. In addition to this, Habsburg trade in the Mediterranean Sea was consistently disrupted by the Ottoman Empire. A Holy League, which consisted of all the Italian states and Spain, was formed in 1538 to drive the Ottomans back, but was defeated at the Battle of Preveza. Decisive naval victory eluded Charles; it would not be achieved until after Charles' death, at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

[edit] America

During Charles' reign, the territories in New Spain were considerably extended by conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, who caused the Aztec and Inca empires to fall in little more than a decade. Combined with the Magellan expedition's circumnavigation of the globe in 1522, these successes convinced Charles of his divine mission to become the leader of Christendom that still perceived a significant threat from Islam. The conquests also helped solidify Charles' rule by providing the state treasury with enormous amounts of bullion. As the conquistador Bernal Diaz observed: "We came to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those in darkness, and also to acquire that wealth which most men covet."[20] In 1550, Charles convened a conference at Valladolid in order to consider the morality of the force used against the indigenous populations of the New World, which included figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas.

Charles V is credited with the first idea of constructing an American Isthmus canal in Panama as early as 1520.[21]

[edit] Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V Arms-imperial.svg

Silver 4 real coin of Charles V, struck ca. 1542-1555

Obverse: CAROLVS ET IOHANA, REGES (Charles and Johanna, Monarchs). Depicts the crest of Castile and León. The strike date was determined by the Assayer L. Reverse: HISPANIARVM ET INDIARVM (Of the Spains [Spanish kingdoms] and the Indies." Nawlins Depicts the Strait of Gibraltar between the Pillars of Hercules. Center Latin motto is PLVS VLTRA, or "Further Beyond."

After the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian, in 1519, he inherited the Habsburg Monarchy. He was also the natural candidate of the electors to succeed his grandfather. With the help of the wealthy Fugger family, Charles defeated the candidacy Frederick III, Elector of Saxony after Frederick withdrew, giving Charles the crown on 28 June 1519. In 1530, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna, the last Emperor to receive a papal coronation.

Despite holding the imperial throne, Charles' real authority was limited by the German princes. Protestantism gained a strong foothold in the Empire's territories, and Charles was determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands. An inquisition was established as early as 1522. In 1550, the death penalty was introduced for all heresy. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alva, personally suppressed the Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540.[10]

Charles abdicated as Emperor in 1556 in favor of his brother Ferdinand; however, due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the abdication (and thus make it legally valid) until 24 February 1558. Up to that date, Charles continued to use the title of Emperor.

[edit] France

Western Europe in 1525, after the Battle of Pavia. Territories in yellow are ruled by Charles. Territories within the red boundary are of the Holy Roman Empire, which Charles had partial control over.

Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire and still maintained ambitions in Italy. The first war with Charles's great nemesis Francis I of France began in 1521. Charles allied with England and Pope Leo X against the French and the Venetians, and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. To gain his freedom, the French king was forced to cede Burgundy to Charles in Treaty of Madrid (1526).

When he was released, however, Francis had the Parliament of Paris denounce the treaty because it had been signed under duress. France then joined the League of Cognac that the Pope had formed with Henry VIII of England, the Venetians, the Florentines, and the Milanese to resist imperial domination of Italy. In the ensuing war, Charles's sack of Rome (1527) and virtual imprisonment of Pope Clement VII in 1527 prevented him from annulling the marriage of Henry VIII of England and Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon, with important consequences. In other respects, the war was inconclusive. In the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), called the "Ladies' Peace" because it was negotiated between Charles's aunt and Francis' mother, Francis renounced his claims in Italy but retained control of Burgundy.

A third war erupted in 1535, when, following the death of the last Sforza Duke of Milan, Charles installed his own son, Philip, in the duchy, despite Francis's claims on it. This war too was inconclusive. Francis failed to conquer Milan, but succeeded in conquering most of the lands of Charles's ally the Duke of Savoy, including his capital, Turin. A truce at Nice in 1538 on the basis of uti possidetis ended the war, but lasted only a short time. War resumed in 1542, with Francis now allied with Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I and Charles once again allied with Henry VIII. Despite the conquest of Nice by a Franco-Ottoman fleet, the French remained unable to advance into Juarez, while a joint Anglo-Imperial invasion of northern France, led by Charles himself, won some successes but was ultimately abandoned, leading to another peace and restoration of the status quo ante in 1544.

Inner court of the Charles V Palace in Granada (Andalusia).

A final war erupted with Francis' son and successor, Henry II, in 1551. This war saw early successes by Henry in Lorraine, where he captured Metz, but continued failure of French offensives in Italy. Charles abdicated midway through this conflict, leaving further conduct of the war to his son, Philip II and his brother, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.

[edit] Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire

Further information: Islam and Protestantism and Habsburg-Persian alliance

Attempts at forming a Habsburg-Persian alliance against the Ottoman Empire were first initiated by Charles V and Shah Ismail in 1516-19.

Charles fought continually with the Ottoman Empire and its sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent. The expeditions of the Ottoman force along the Mediterranean coast posed a threat to Habsburg lands and monopolies on trade in the Mediterranean. In Central Europe, the Turkish advance was halted at Vienna in 1529.

Charles V made overtures to the Safavid Empire to open a second front against the Ottomans, in an attempt at creating a Habsburg-Persian alliance. Contacts were positive, but rendered difficult by enormous distances. In effect however, the Safavids entered in conflict with the Ottoman Empire in the Ottoman-Safavid War (1532–1555), forcing it to split its military resources.[22]

In 1535 Charles won an important victory at Tunis, but in 1536 Francis I of France allied himself with Suleiman against Charles. While Francis was persuaded to sign a peace treaty in 1538, he again allied himself with the Ottomans in 1542 in a Franco-Ottoman alliance. In 1543 Charles allied himself with Henry VIII and forced Francis to sign the Truce of Crepy-en-Laonnois. Charles later signed a humiliating treaty with the Ottomans to gain him some respite from the huge expenses of their war, although it did not end there. However, the Protestant powers in the Holy Roman Empire Diet often voted against money for his Turkish wars, as many Protestants saw the Muslim advance as a counterweight to the Catholic powers. The great Hungarian defeat at the 1526 Battle of Mohács "sent a wave of terror over Europe."[23][24]

Emperor Charles V at Mühlberg, painted in 1548 by Titian.

[edit] Protestant Reformation

As Holy Roman Emperor, Charles called Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521, promising him safe conduct if he would appear. Initially dismissing Luther's theses as "an argument between monks," he later outlawed Luther and his followers in that same year but was tied up with other concerns and unable to take action against Protestantism.

1524 to 1526 saw the Peasants' Revolt in Germany and in 1531 the formation of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League. Charles delegated increasing responsibility for Germany to his brother Ferdinand while he concentrated on problems elsewhere.

In 1545, the opening of the Council of Trent began the Counter-Reformation, and Charles won to the Catholic cause some of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1546, he outlawed the Schmalkaldic League (which had occupied the territory of another prince). He drove the League's troops out of southern Germany and at the Battle of Mühlberg defeated John Frederick, Elector of Saxony and imprisoned Philip of Hesse in 1547. At the Augsburg Interim in 1548 he created an interim solution giving certain allowances to Protestants until the Council of Trent would restore unity. However, Protestants mostly resented the Interim and some actively opposed it. Protestant princes, in alliance with Henry II of France, rebelled against Charles in 1552, which caused Charles to retreat to the Netherlands.

[edit] Health

Medal of Charles Quint, in which his jaw deformity clearly appears.

Charles suffered from an enlarged lower jaw, a deformity which got considerably worse in later Habsburg generations, giving rise to the term Habsburg jaw. This deformity was caused by the family line's multiple years of inbreeding, which was very common in royal families of that era and was practiced in order to maintain dynastic control of territory. He struggled to chew his food properly and consequently experienced bad indigestion for much of his life. As a result, he usually ate alone.[25] He suffered from epilepsy[26] and was seriously afflicted with gout. This was presumably caused by a diet consisting mainly of red meat.[27] As he aged, his gout progressed from painful to crippling. In his retirement, he was carried around the monastery of St. Yuste in a sedan chair. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms.[25]

[edit] Abdication and later life

On 25 October 1555, Charles abdicated his various titles, giving his Spanish Empire (continental Spain, the Netherlands, Naples-Sicily, Lombardy and Spain's possessions in the Americas) to his son, Philip. His brother Ferdinand, already in possession of the dynastic Habsburg lands, succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles retired to the monastery of Yuste in Extremadura, but continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in the situation of the empire. He suffered from severe gout and some scholars think Charles decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552 forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where he was later defeated. He lived alone in a secluded monastery, with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe symbolizes his reign and his lack of time.[28]

Charles died on 21 September 1558 from fatal malaria.[29] Twenty-six years later, his remains were transferred to the Royal Pantheon of The Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

[edit] Titles

Search Wikiquote Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

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   * Blason fr Bourgogne.svg 25 September 1506–16 January 1556: Titular Duke of Burgundy as Charles II
   * Coat of arms of Brabant.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Duke of Brabant as Charles II
   * Limburg New Arms.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Duke of Limburg as Charles II
   * Austria coat of arms simple.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Duke of Lothier as Charles II
   * Armoiries Comtes de Luxembourg.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Duke of Luxemburg as Charles III
   * Namur Arms.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Margrave of Namur as Charles II
   * Blason comte fr Nevers.svg 25 September 1506–5 February 1556[30]: Count Palatine of Burgundy as Charles II
   * Artois Arms.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Count of Artois as Charles II
   * Blason Charolais.svg 25 September 1506–5 February 1556[30]: Count of Charolais as Charles II
   * Blason Nord-Pas-De-Calais.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Count of Flanders as Charles III
   * Hainaut Modern Arms.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Count of Hainault as Charles II
   * Counts of Holland Arms.svg 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Count of Holland as Charles II
   * Coatofarmszeeland.PNG 25 September 1506–25 October 1555: Count of Zeeland as Charles II
   * Guelders-Jülich Arms.svg 12 September 1543–25 October 1555: Duke of Guelders as Charles III
   * Escudo de Zutphen 1581.png 12 September 1543–25 October 1555: Count of Zutphen as Charles II
   * Escudo Corona de Castilla.png 14 March 1516–16 January 1556: King of Castile and Leon as Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
   * Escudo Corona de Aragon y Sicilia.png 14 March 1516–16 January 1556: King of Aragon and Sicily as Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
   * Armas del reino de Nápoles - Casa de Austria.svg 14 March 1516–25 July 1554: King of Naples as Charles IV (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 25 July 1554)
   * Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg: 28 June 1519–24 February 1530: King of the Romans as Charles V
   * Holy Roman Empire Arms-double head.svg: 24 February 1530–24 February 1558: Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V
   * Austria coat of arms simple.svg 12 January 1519–1521: Archduke of Austria as Charles I

The full Charles' titulature went as follows:

Charles, by the grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Castile, Aragon, León, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaen, Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of Two Sicilies, of Sardinia, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Western and Eastern Indies, Lord of the Islands and Main Ocean Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Athens, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Zutphen, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Oristano and Gociano, Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen.

[edit] Arms

Main article: Coat of arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

[edit] References in literature and popular culture

Eschutcheon of Charles V, watercolor, John Singer Sargent, 1912. Metropolitan Museum of Art

There are few figures about whom as many traces have survived half a millennium, in both literature and living minds. Those traces comprise a large number of legends and folk tales that can often be attributed to fantasy, as well as the literary renderings of historical events connected to Charles' life and romantic adventures, his relationship to Flanders, and his abdication.[31]

   * In De heerelycke ende vrolycke daeden van Keyser Carel den V, published by Joan de Grieck in 1674, the short stories, anecdotes, citations attributed to the emperor, and legends about his encounters with famous and ordinary people, depict a noble Christian monarch with a perfect cosmopolitan personality and a strong sense of humour. Converesely, in Charles De Coster's masterpiece Thyl Ulenspiegel (1867), Charles V is after his death consigned to Hell as punishment for the acts of the Inquisition under his rule, his punishment being that he would feel the pain of anyone tortured by the Inquisition. De Coster's book also mentions the story on the spectacles in the coat of arms of Oudenaarde, the one about a paysant of Berchem in Het geuzenboek (1979) by Louis Paul Boon, while Abraham Hans (1882–1939) included both tales in De liefdesavonturen van keizer Karel in Vlaanderen.
   * Lord Byron's Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte refers to Charles as "The Spaniard".
   * Ernst Krenek's opera Karl V (opus 73, 1930) examines the title character's career via flashbacks.
   * In the third act of Giuseppe Verdi's opera Ernani, the coronation of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor is presented. Charles (Don Carlo in the opera) prays before the tomb of Charlemagne. With the announcement that he is elected as Carlo Quinto he declares an amnesty including the eponymous bandit Ernani who had followed him there to murder him as a rival for the love of the soprano. The opera, based on the Victor Hugo play, Hernani, portrays Charles as a callous and cynical adventurer whose character is transformed by the election into a responsible and clement ruler.
   * In another Verdi opera, Don Carlo, the final scene implies that it is Charles V, now living the last years of his life as a hermit, who rescues his grandson, Don Carlo, from his father Philip II and the Inquisition, by taking Carlo with him to his hermitage at the monastery in Yuste.
   * In The Maltese Falcon, the title object is said to have been an intended gift to Charles V.
   * A well known Flemish legend about Charles being served a beer at the village of Olen, as well as the emperor's lifelong preference of beer above wine, led to the naming of several beer varieties in his honor. The Haacht Brewery of Boortmeerbeek produces Charles Quint, while the Het Anker Brewery at Mechelen produces Gouden Carolus.[32]
   * Carlos V is the name of a popular chocolate bar in Mexico. Its tagline is "El Rey de los Chocolates" or "The King of Chocolates" and "Carlos V, El Chocolate Emperador" or "Charles V, the Emperor of Chocolates."
   * Gouden Carolus Grand Cru of the Emperor (Gouden Carolus Cuvee Van De Keizer) is a beer by Brouwerij Het Anker in Mechelen, Belgium. It is brewed once a year on Charles V's birthday.
   * Charles V is a notable character in Simone de Beauvoir's All Men Are Mortal.
   * Charles V is portrayed by Sebastian Armesto on Showtime series The Tudors.

Notes

  1. ^ The college of electors assembled at Frankfort accepted the instrument of Charles V's imperial resignation (dated 27 August 1556) and declared the election of Ferdinand as emperor [1][2]
  2. ^ Abdication of Brussels
  3. ^ William S. Maltby, Charles V. History 1450-1789.
  4. ^ Maximilian I, Luminarium.org. Excerpted from Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Ed. Vol XVII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910. 923.
  5. ^ Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 60, 68; Guicciardini, History of Italy, 363–364; Oman, Art of War, 211.
  6. ^ Dennis Bratcher (ed.). The Edict of Worms (1521).
  7. ^ Henry Kamen, "Toleration and Dissent in Sixteenth-Century Spain: The Alternative Tradition." The Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring, 1988), pp. 3-23.
  8. ^ Charles V, Luminarium.org. Excerpted from Encyclopedia 
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Carlos V, rey de España y emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico's Timeline

1500
February 24, 1500
Gent, Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams Gewest, Belgium
1518
August 20, 1518
Age 18
Valencia, Valencia, Valencia, Spain
1522
December 28, 1522
Age 22
Oudenaarde, Belgium
1523
1523
Age 22
1526
March 10, 1526
Age 26
Seville, Spain
1527
May 21, 1527
Age 27
Valladolid, Valladolid, Castille and Leon, Spain
1528
June 21, 1528
Age 28
Madrid, Spain
1529
March 22, 1529
Age 29
Of, Madrid, Madrid, Spain
1535
June 24, 1535
Age 35
Madrid, Spain
1539
April 30, 1539
Age 39
Toledo, Toledo, Castille La Mancha, Spain