Charles I de Valois, duc d'Orléans

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Charles de Valois, Duc d'Orléans

Also Known As: "France (Valois) (Duke Of /Orleans)/", "Charles Of /Orleans/"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Hôtel de Saint Paul, Paris, Île-de-France, France
Death: Died in Amboise, Centre, France
Place of Burial: Saint Sauveur, Blois, Centre, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Louis I de Valois, duc d'Orléans and Valentina Visconti
Husband of Isabella of France, Queen consort of England; Bonne d'Armagnac and Maria von Kleve
Father of Jeanne d'Orléans; Marie d'Orléans; Louis XII, roi de France and Anne d'Orleans
Brother of Jean (Philippe) D' Orleans; Philippe d'Orléans, comte de Vertus; Louis D' Orleans; Jean II de Valois, comte d'Angoulême; Marie D'orleans and 3 others
Half brother of Jean d'Orléans, comte de Dunois

Occupation: Duke of Orleans
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Charles I de Valois, duc d'Orléans

Charles of Valois (24 November 1394, Paris – 5 January 1465, Amboise) was Duke of Orléans from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis, Duke of Orléans on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. He was also Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise and of Blois, lord of Coucy, and the inheritor of Asti in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. He is now remembered as an accomplished poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, most written during his twenty-four years spent as a prisoner of war.

Accession

Ascending to the duchy at the age of fourteen after the assassination of his father, Charles was expected to carry on his father's leadership against the Burgundians, a French faction which supported the Duke of Burgundy. The latter was never punished for his role in Louis' assassination, and Charles had to watch as his grief-stricken mother Valentina Visconti succumbed to illness not long afterwards. At her deathbed, Charles and the other boys of the family were made to swear the traditional oath of vengeance for their father's murder.

During the early years of his reign as duke, the orphaned Charles was heavily influenced by the guidance of his father-in-law, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, for which reason Charles' faction came to be known as the "Armagnacs".

Imprisonment

After war with the Kingdom of England was renewed in 1415, Charles was one of the many French noblemen wounded in the Battle of Agincourt on October 25, 1415. Captured by Sir Richard Waller (with whom a long-lasting friendship emerged and would later fund the refurbishment of his castle and add the Fleur-de-lis to the Waller Coat of Arms)[1] and taken to England as a hostage, he would remain in captivity for the next twenty-four years, at various places including Wallingford Castle. The conditions of his confinement were not strict; he was allowed to live more or less in the manner to which he had become accustomed, like so many other captured nobles. However, he was not offered release in exchange for a ransom, since Henry V of England had left instructions forbidding any release: Charles was the natural head of the Armagnac faction and in the line of succession to the French throne, and was therefore deemed too important to be returned to circulation.

Poetry

It was during these twenty-four years that Charles would write most of his poetry, including melancholy works which seem to be commenting on the captivity itself, such as En la forêt de longue attente.[2]

The majority of his output consists of short poems in the ballade and rondeau meters, written in the French language. A contemporary English translation of some of these poems exists; this is commonly attributed to Charles himself, though some scholars have challenged his authorship.[3]

Freedom

Finally freed in 1440 by the efforts of his former enemies, Philip the Good and Isabella of Portugal, the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy, he set foot on French soil again after 25 years, "speaking better English than French" according to one source. Meeting the Duchess of Burgundy after disembarking, the gallant Charles said: "M'Lady, I make myself your prisoner." At the celebration of his third marriage, with Marie of Cleves, he was created a Knight of the Golden Fleece. His subsequent return to Orléans was marked by a splendid celebration organized by the citizens.

He made a feeble attempt to press his claims to Asti in Italy, before settling down as a celebrated patron of the arts.

Charles appears in Shakespeare's play Henry V as the "Duke of Orléans".

Marriage and children

Charles married three times. His first wife Isabella of Valois (daughter of Charles VI of France and widow of Richard II of England), whom he married in Compiègne in 1406, died in childbirth. Their daughter, Joan married John II of Alençon in 1424 in Blois.

Afterwards, he married Bonne d'Armagnac, the daughter of Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac in 1410. Bonne died before he returned from captivity.

On his return to France in 1440, Charles married Marie of Cleves in Saint-Omer (daughter of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves) and had three children:

Marie d'Orléans (19 December 1457 – 1493, Mazères). Married Jean of Foix in 1476.

Louis XII of France (1462–1515)

Anne of Orléans (1464–1491, Poitiers), Abbess of Fontevrault and Poitiers.

Fictional Accounts

The critically acclaimed historical novel Het Woud der Verwachting/Le Foret de Longue Attente/In a Dark Wood Wandering (1949) by Hella Haasse gives a sympathetic description of the life of Charles, Duke of Orléans.

Charles is also a major character in Margaret Frazer's The Maiden's Tale, a historical mystery which gives a very sympathetic fictional account of a few weeks of his life in England in the autumn of 1439, shortly before his release in 1440.

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Charles, Duke of Orléans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis, Duke of Orléans on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. He was also Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont and of Blois, lord of Coucy, and the inheritor of Asti in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. He is now remembered as an accomplished poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, most written during his twenty-five years spent as a prisoner of war.

Ascending to the title of Duke at the age of fourteen after the assassination of his father, Charles was expected to carry on his father's leadership against the Burgundians, a French faction which supported the Duke of Burgundy. The latter was never punished for his role in Louis' assassination, and Charles had to watch as his grief-stricken mother Valentina Visconti succumbed to illness not long afterwards. At her deathbed, Charles and the other boys of the family were made to swear the traditional oath of vengeance for their father's murder.

During the early years of his reign as Duke, the orphaned Charles was heavily influenced by the guidance of his father-in-law, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, for which reason Charles' faction came to be known as the "Armagnacs".

After war with the Kingdom of England was renewed in 1415, Charles was one of the many French noblemen wounded in the Battle of Agincourt on October 25, 1415. Captured by Sir Richard Waller (with whom a long-lasting friendship emerged) and taken to England as a hostage, he would remain in captivity for the next twenty-five years, at various places including Wallingford Castle. The conditions of his confinement were not strict; he was allowed to live more or less in the manner to which he had become accustomed, like so many other captured nobles. However, he was not offered release in exchange for a ransom, since Henry V of England had left instructions forbidding any release: Charles was the natural head of the Armagnac faction and in the line of succession to the French throne, and was therefore deemed too important to be returned to circulation. It was during these twenty-five years that Charles would write most of his poetry, including melancholy works which seem to be commenting on the captivity itself, such as "Le Foret de Longue Attente".

Finally freed in 1440 by the efforts of his former enemies, Philip the Good and Isabel of Portugal, the Duke and Duchess of Burgundy, he set foot on French soil again after 25 years, "speaking better English than French" according to one source. Meeting the Duchess of Burgundy after disembarking, the gallant Charles said: "M'Lady, I make myself your prisoner." At the celebration of his third marriage, with Marie of Cleves, he was created a Knight of the Golden Fleece. His subsequent return to Orléans was marked by a splendid celebration organized by the citizens.

He made a feeble attempt to press his claims to Asti in Italy, before settling down as a celebrated patron of the arts.

Charles appears in Shakespeare's play Henry V as the "Duke of Orleans".

[edit]Marriage and Children

Charles married three times. His first wife Isabella of Valois (daughter of Charles VI of France and widow of Richard II of England), whom he married in Compiegne in 1406, died in childbirth. Their daughter, Jeanne (1409, Blois – 1432, Angers), married John II of Alençon in 1424 in Blois.

Afterwards, he married Bonne of Armagnac, the daughter of Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac in 1410. Bonne died before he returned from captivity.

On his return to France in 1440, Charles married Marie of Cleves in St. Omer (daughter of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves) and had three children:

Marie d'Orléans (December 19, 1457 – 1493, Mazares). Married Jean of Foix, Count of Étampes in 1476.

Louis XII of France (1462–1515)

Anne d'Orléans (1464–1491, Poitiers), Abbess of Fontevrault and Poitiers.

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Charles I de Valois, duc d'Orléans's Timeline

1391
May 31, 1391
St Paul, Paris, France
1394
November 24, 1394
Paris, Île-de-France, France
1395
September 27, 1395
Blois, Centre, France
1406
June 29, 1406
Age 11
Compiègne, Picardy, France
1409
1409
Age 14
Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Centre, France
1410
1410
Age 15
1440
November 26, 1440
Age 46
France
1457
1457
Age 62
Loir-et-Cher, Centre, France
1462
June 27, 1462
Age 67
Château de Blois, Blois, Touraine, Loir-et-Cher, France
1464
1464
Age 69
Poitiers, Poitou, France