Chlothar "le Jeune", roi des Francs (584 - c.630) MP

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Nicknames: "Lothair Merovingian King of Neustria and King of the Franks", "Lothair 'the Young'", "Chlotar", "Clothar", "Clotaire", "Chlotochar", "Hlothar", "the Young", "the Great", "(Lotharius II)", "Le Jeune", "Clothaire /Meroving/", "King of All Franks", "King Clotaire I of the /Franks/..."
Birthplace: Paris, Neustria (Present France), Frankish Empire
Death: Died in Paris, Neustria (Present France), Frankish Empire
Occupation: King of Neustria (584-629), Paris (595-629), and the Franks (613-629)King of Neustria (584-629), Paris (595-629), and the Franks (613-629), King of Neustria, and, from 613 to 629, King of all the Franks, King of the Franks, King of Neustra, King of Paris
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Chlothar "le Jeune", roi des Francs

Chlothar (or Clotaire, Chlothachar) (584-629), King of Soissons (Neustria) (584), King of Metz (Austrasia) and Orléans (Burgundy), and sole King of the Franks (613-629).

He was born shortly after his father's death in 584 and immediately became King of Soissons. His mother ruled on his behalf until he turned 13, when they took possession of Paris in 597. He was attacked by his cousins Theudebert of Metz and Theuderic of Orléans, but defeated them. His cousins attacked again in 600, and were successful. Chlothar fled, and ultimately retained only 12 districts of his former kingdom, the area between the Oise, the Seine and the Atlantic. In 604, he sent an invasion force under his son Mérovic against Theuderic, but the army was defeated, Theudbert occupied Paris, and Mérovic was captured.

Eventually his cousins turned to fighting each other. In 611, he made a pact with Theuderic that he would not give aid to Theudebert. Under the agreement, if Theuderic were to be successful, he would give the duchy of Dentelin to Chlothar. Theuderic defeated Theudebert in 612, and Chlothar occupied the duchy, while Theuderic captured and imprisoned Theudebert, taking his kingdom. The following year, Theuderic died, leaving the two kingdoms to his young son Siegbert II. Later that year, Chlothar had Siegbert II murdered. He annexed the kingdoms of Metz and Orléans, becoming King of the Franks and uniting them for the first time since the death of his grandfather Chlothar I in 561.

In 614/15 Chlothar signed the Perpetual Constitution, also called the Edict of Paris, an early Magna Carta. The charter preserved the rights of Frankish nobles and excluded Jews from civil employment. In 617 he canceled the annual tribute paid by the Lombards.

In 622 he turned over the government of Metz (Austrasia) to his son Dagobert I, whose councillors Arnulf, Bishop of Metz, and Pépin I, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia thereby gained a degree of autonomy. Chlothar died in 629 and was succeeded by his son Dagobert.

Ben M. Angel notes: Someone placed this person as having died at the "Abbaye de St. Vincent" in Paris, and buried in the Cathedral by the same name. First, no such cathedral. There is a church and abbey by the name of St. Vincent, but it's St Vincent de Paul, who lived a millennium after Clothar. The Franks can be argued as being forward looking, but probably not clairvoyant (certainly not to that degree). Death location has been left to Paris. Burial location has been left as unknown.

Sources

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlothar_II

Chlothar II (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; 584 – 629), called the Great (le Grand) or the Young (le Jeune), King of Neustria, and, from 613 to 629, King of all the Franks, was not yet born when his father, King Chilperic I died in 584. His mother, Fredegund, was regent until her death in 597, at which time the thirteen-year old Clotaire began to rule for himself. As king, he continued his mother's feud with Brunhilda, queen of Austrasia, with equal viciousness and bloodshed.

In 599, he made war with his cousins, Theuderic II of Burgundy and Theudebert II of Austrasia, who defeated him at Dormelles (near Montereau). At this point, however, the two brothers took up arms against each other. In 605, he invaded Theuderic's kingdom, but did not subdue it. He remained often at war with Theuderic and the latter died in Metz in late 613 while preparing a campaign against him. At that time, Warnachar, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, and Rado, mayor of the palace of Burgundy, abandoned the cause of Brunhilda and her great-grandson, Sigebert II, and the entire realm was delivered into Clotaire's hands. Brunhilda and Sigebert met Clotaire's army on the Aisne, but the Patrician Aletheus, Duke Rocco, and Duke Sigvald deserted the host and the grand old woman and her king had to flee. They got as far as the Orbe, but Clotaire's minions caught up with them by the lake Neuchâtel. Both of them and Sigebert's younger brother Corbo were executed by Clotaire's orders.

In that year, Clotaire II became the first king of all the Franks since his grandfather Clotaire I died in 561 by ordering the murder of the infant Sigebert II (son of Theuderic), whom the aging Brunhilda had attempted to set on the thrones of Austrasia and Burgundy, causing a rebellion among the nobility. This led to the delivery of Brunhilda into Clotaire's hands, his thirst for vengeance leading to his formidable old aunt enduring the agony of the rack for three whole days, before suffering a horrific death, chained between four horses that were goaded in separate directions, eventually tearing her apart.

In 615, Clotaire II promulgated the Edict of Paris, a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that reserved many rights to the Frankish nobles while it excluded Jews from all civil employment for the Crown. The ban effectively placed all literacy in the Merovingian monarchy squarely under ecclesiastical control and also greatly pleased the nobles, from whose ranks the bishops were ordinarily exclusively drawn. Clotaire was induced by Warnachar and Rado to make the mayoralty of the palace a lifetime appointment at Bonneuil-sur-Marne, near Paris, in 617. By these actions, Clotaire lost his own legislative abilities and the great number of laws enacted in his reign are probably the result of the nobles' petitions, which the king had no authority not to heed.

In 623, he gave the kingdom of Austrasia to his young son Dagobert I. This was a political move as repayment for the support of Bishop Arnulf of Metz and Pepin I, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, the two leading Austrasian nobles, who were effectively granted semi-autonomy.

Clotaire II died in 629 after 45 years on the throne, longer than any other Merovingian dynast. He left the crown greatly reduced in power and prepared the way for the rise of the mayors and the rois fainéants.

Marriage and issue

First wife of Chlothar II was Haldertude (575-604).They had the folowing son:

   * Dagobert I

Second wife of Chlothar II was Bertrade.

Third wife of Chlothar II was Sichilde (Brynhilde). They had the following children:

   * Charibert_II
   * Oda

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Chlothar II (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; 584 – 629), called the Great (le Grand) or the Young (le Jeune), King of Neustria, and, from 613 to 629, King of all the Franks, was not yet born when his father, King Chilperic I died in 584. His mother, Fredegund, was regent until her death in 597, at which time the thirteen-year-old Chlothar began to rule for himself. As king, he continued his mother's feud with Brunhilda, queen of Austrasia, with equal viciousness and bloodshed.

Chlothar II died in 629 after 45 years on the throne, longer than any other Merovingian dynast save for his grandfather Chlotar I, who ruled from 511 to 561. He left the crown greatly reduced in power and prepared the way for the rise of the mayors and the rois fainéants. The first wife of Chlothar II was Haldetrude (ca 575–604). She was the mother of Dagobert I. Chlothar's second wife was Bertrada. His third wife was Sichilde, who bore him Charibert II and a daughter, Oda.

Sources:

   * Bachrach, Bernard S. (1972). Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0 81660 621 8.
   * Geary, Patrick J. (1988). Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0 19504 458 4.
   * James, Edward (1991). The Franks. London: Blackwell, ISBN 0 63114 872 8.
   * Oman, Charles (1914). The Dark Ages, 476–918. London: Rivingtons.
   * Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1962). The Long-Haired Kings, and Other Studies in Frankish History. London: Methuen.
   * Wood, Ian N. (1994). The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450–751. London: Longman, ISBN 0 58221 878 0.

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Depiction: A treaty of King Chlothar II and the Lombards.

Chlothar II (or Chlotar, Clothar, Clotaire, Chlotochar, or Hlothar, giving rise to Lothair; 584 – 629), called the Great (le Grand) or the Young (le Jeune), King of Neustria, and, from 613 to 629, King of all the Franks, was not yet born when his father, King Chilperic I died in 584.

His mother, Fredegund, was regent until her death in 597, at which time the thirteen-year-old Chlothar began to rule for himself. As king, he continued his mother's feud with Brunhilda, queen of Austrasia, with equal viciousness and bloodshed.

The first wife of Chlothar II was Haldetrude (ca 575–604). She was the mother of Dagobert I.

Chlothar's second wife was Bertrada.

His third wife was Sichilde, who bore him Charibert II and a daughter, Oda.

Sources:

  • Bachrach, Bernard S. (1972). Merovingian Military Organization, 481–751. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0 81660 621 8.
  • Geary, Patrick J. (1988). Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0 19504 458 4.
  • James, Edward (1991). The Franks. London: Blackwell, ISBN 0 63114 872 8.
  • Oman, Charles (1914). The Dark Ages, 476–918. London: Rivingtons.
  • Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1962). The Long-Haired Kings, and Other Studies in Frankish History. London: Methuen.
  • Wood, Ian N. (1994). The Merovingian Kingdoms, 450–751. London: Longman, ISBN 0 58221 878 0.

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Rei da Austrasie (584-629) , Rei de todos os Francs (613-629)

Em 599, ele entrou em guerra contra seus primos, Teodorico II da Borgonha e Teodeberto II da Austrásia, que o derrotaram em Dormelles. A partir daí, no entanto, os dois irmãos entraram em guerra entre si. Em 605, ele invadiu o reino de Teodorico, mas não o subjugou. Clotário manteve o estado de guerra com Teodorico até este morrer em em Metz em 613 enquanto preparava uma campanha na guerra entre eles. Nesse momento, Warnachar, prefeito do palácio de Austrásia, e Rado, prefeito do palácio da Borgonha, abandonaram a causa de Brunilda e de seu bisneto, Sigeberto II, e o reino inteiro foi entregue nas mãos de Clotário. Brunilda e Sigeberto encontraram o exército de Clotário em Aisne, mas o patrício Aleteu, o duque Rocco e o duque Sigivaldo abandonaram seu senhor e sua bisavó, levando seu rei a ter que fugir.

Nesse ano (613), Clotário II tornou-se o primeiro rei de todos os francos desde seu avô Clotário I morto em 561 por ordenar a morte de Sigeberto II (filho de Teodorico), a quem Brunilda tinha tentado colocar no trono de Austrásia e da Borgonha, causando uma rebelião entre os nobres. Isto levou à entrega de Brunilda a Clotário e seu desejo de vingança levou sua temível tia à prolongada agonia da tortura por três dias, antes de uma morte horrível, acorrentada entre quatro cavalos que foram açoitados em quatro direções, rasgando o seu corpo.

Em 615, Clotário II promulgou o Édito de Paris, uma espécie de Magna Carta que reservava muitos direitos aos nobres francos enquanto escluía os judeus de qualquer trabalho ou atividade civil para a Coroa. A proibição efetivamente estabeleceu que toda a alfabetização na monarquia merovíngia estaria sob controle eclesiástico e também englobaria a nobreza, que geralmente fornecia os candidatos a bispo. Clotário foi induzido por Warnachar e Rado a tornar a prefeitura do palácio uma nomeação vitalícia em Bonneuil-sur-Marne, proximo a Paris, em 617. Por estas ações, Clotário perdeu sua própria capacidade legislativa e o grande número de leis promulgadas no seu reino são provavelmente o resultado de petições da nobreza, que o rei sem ter autoridade acatou.

Em 623, ele entregou o reino da Austrásia para seu filho mais jovem Dagoberto I. Isto foi um ato político como recompensa pela ajuda do bispo Arnulfo de Metz e de Pepino I, prefeito do palácio da Austrásia, os dois liderando a nobreza austrasiana, a quem efetivamente foi concedida uma semi-autonomia.

Clotário II morreu em 629 após 45 anos de reinado, o mais longo da dinastia merovíngia. Ele deixou a coroa com o poder enormemente reduzido e preparou o caminho para a ascensão dos prefeitos do palácio e para o surgimento dos rois fainéants.

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Merovingisk kung av Neustrien och ensam härskare över frankerna från 613. Ett spädbarn när hans far, Chilperik I, mördades i 584 var han försäkrade varandra av kraften i hans mor, Fredegund, och genom att skydda sin farbror, Guntram, kung av Burgund. Slåss mot en attack av sin kusin Childebert II av Austrasien-Bourgogne i 592, Chlotar själv grep territorium från Childebert unga efterträdare, Theodebert II och Theoderik II, 596 men förlorade mycket av sitt rike till dem i 599 eller 600. I 613, tillåts dock när båda var döda, austrasiske fientlighet mot Brynhild, mormorsmor av Theoderik unge son, Sigibert II, Chlotar att gripa både Austrasien och Bourgogne och därmed att återförena de frankiska landar. Han dödade både Sigibert och Brynhild. Chlotar åtnjöt ett högt anseende bland präster, relationerna med vem, regleras i en omfattande påbud som utfärdas vid rådet i Paris i oktober 614 och som är avsedda att lösa problem som uppstår genom långa år av oroligheter. Bortsett från några problem i Bourgogne, var åren efter 613 faktiskt lugnt. Chlotar inte förena förvaltningen, dock, han upprätthöll separata borgmästare i slottet för tre distrikt över vilket han styrde, och 623 han etablerat sin son Dagobert I, som kung av Austrasien.

För att nämna denna sida: "Chlotar II" Encyclopædia Britannica <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=84441&tocid=0&query=chlotar%20ii>

584King av Neustrien

613King i Frankrike

KING CLOTHAIRE II av Soissons (Chilperik I, Clothaire jag, Clovis jag, Childeric jag, Merovaeus, Clodion), son till kung Chilperik I och Fredegonda, föddes 584 och dog i 628 i Paris. Han gifte sig Altrude.

Kung av Soissons 584-613

Enda kung över frankerna 617-628

Han undertecknade "Perpetual konstitutionen" 614 / 5 (en tidig Magna Charta) Barn: i. Dagobert I kung av Frankrike & Austrasien, b. i 602 d. i 638. ii. Charibert II, hertig av Akvitanien

Chlothar II av Frankerna kung av frankerna, son till Chilperik I De Soissons kung av franker och Fredegonde, drottning av Frankerna (av SOISSON), föddes 584 och dog 629, vid 45 år. Ett annat namn för Chlothar var Clothaire II.

Noterade händelser i hans liv var:

Fakta 1: anslutit: 613. Kung av Neustrien. Enda kung 613-629.

Fakta 2: hade tre fruar.

Chlothar gift Brynhild.

Barn från detta äktenskap var:

  • i. Merovech av Frankerna ()
  • ii. St Ode av Frankerna ()
  • iii. Charibert II av Frankerna Duc d'Aquitaine (död 632)

Chlothar nästa gift Haldetrude Haldetrude. Haldetrude föddes omkring 585 och dog 604, ca 19 år.

Noterade händelser i hennes liv var:

1. Ref: royalty för Comm. 1995, 303-48.

Barn från detta äktenskap var:

i. Dagobert I Austrasien King (född omkring 605 - dog 639)

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The Franks or the Frankish peoples were an ever-changing confederation of west Germanic tribes, such as the Salians, Sicambri, Chamavi, Tencteri, Chattuarii, Bructeri, Usipetes, Ampsivarii. The Salians, later preeminent among the tribes, were a "proto-Dutch" (Old Low Franconian) speaking people. The Franks first appeared in history around 260. Sometimes the Franks allied with non-Old Frankish speaking tribes as the Frisians and Chatti and occasionally with Saxons. They were not originally grouped into one tribe, but "as with the other barbarians, they belonged to much smaller groups that would join constantly changing confederations."[1]

Most of those peoples were living at the northern borders of the Rhine in, and opposite to the Insula Batavorum in a region then called "Francia" in the Panegyrici Latini. They formed a constant pressure on the Roman borders but also took active service in the Roman army, climbing up the ranks to dominating positions, such as at the time of Arbogastes. They slowly replaced the Batavians in their native domains and according to Ammianus Marcellinus expanded their territory on Roman soil to the delta of the Scheldt, where the Salians blocked grain supplies for the Roman Army. With later invasions of the Salians Chlodio and Childeric they moved up the Scheldt and homed around Tournai, from where those Salians finally conquered the Roman army, that was supported by other Franks.

The Merovingian family of Childeric united all Franks in Gaul and slowly expanded their influence to other territories until a new dynasty called the Carolingians took over and conquered a major part of western Europe. The location of Francia moved with the Franks untill finally around the year 1000 it became to be known as France.

Etymology

Some histories asserted that the Merovingian kings were descended from the Sicambri, a Germanic tribe, asserting that this tribe had changed their name to "Franks" in 11 BC, following their defeat and relocation by Drusus, under the leadership of a certain chieftain called Francio. The Chronicle of Fredegar is the earliest source for this chieftain, and it is widely agreed among historians (including A. C. Murray, Ian Woods, Rosamund McKitterick, and J. M. Wallace-Hadrill) that "Francio" is a Fredegarian invention.

The ethnonym has also been traced to *frankon (Old English franca), meaning "javelin, lance." This would compare to the seax (knife) after which the Saxons were named or the halberd (battle-axe) after which the Lombards may have been named. The throwing axe of the Franks is known as the francisca) but, conversely, the weapon may have been named after the tribe. A. C. Murray says, "The etymology of 'Franci' is uncertain ('the fierce ones' is the favourite explanation), but the name is undoubtedly of Germanic origin."[2]

The meaning of "free" (e.g. English frank, frankly, franklin) arose because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks had the status of freemen.

Earliest records of the Franks

The earliest Frankish history remains relatively unclear. Our main source, the Gallo-Roman chronicler Gregory of Tours, whose Historia Francorum (History of the Franks) covers the period up to 594, quotes from otherwise lost sources like Sulpicius Alexander and Frigeridus, and profits from Gregory's personal contact with many Frankish notables. Apart from Gregory's History, some surviving earlier Roman sources such as Ammianus and Sidonius Apollinaris mention the Franks.

Gregory states that the Franks originally lived in Pannonia, but later settled on the banks of the Rhine. Additional sources beginning with the 7th century Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous work called Gesta regnum Francorum (completed 727) likewise relate that a Cimmerian or Scythian tribe called the Sicambri migrated in prehistoric times from the mouth of the Danube on the Black Sea to the Rhine, where they took the name "Franks." This legend of a Scythian or Cimmerian background is not unique to the Franks; it is similar to the origin legends of many other European nations as well.

Modern scholars of the Völkerwanderung are in agreement that the Frankish confederacy emerged at the beginning of the third century out of the unification of various earlier, smaller groups, including the Sicambri, Usipetes, Tencterii, and Bructerii, who inhabited the lower Rhine valley and lands immediately to the east. The confederacy was a social development perhaps accelerated by increasing upheaval in the area arising from the war between Rome and the Marcomanni beginning in 166 and subsequent conflicts of the late second and the third centuries. A region in the northeast of today's Netherlands — north of the erstwhile Roman border — still bears the name Salland, and may have received that name from the Salians, who formed the core of the Frankish pirates.[citation needed]

Since the very end of the second century, Franks appear in Roman textual and archaeological sources and on Roman soil as both enemies and allies (laeti or dediticii). Around 250, one group of Franks, taking advantage of a weakened Roman Empire, penetrated as far as Tarragona in present-day Spain, plaguing this region for about a decade before Roman forces subdued them and expelled them from Roman territory. About forty years later, the Franks had the Scheldt region under control and were raiding the Channel, disrupting transportation to Britain. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who were feared as pirates along the shores at least till the time of Julian the Apostate (358), when some of them were settled as foederati in Toxandria according to a treaty with the Roman authority.[citation needed] They participated in the spectacular episode known as the Conspiratio Barbarica (367–369).[citation needed]

Language

The language spoken by the early Franks is best known as Old Low Franconian and is only attested in a few words from Latin texts and in personal names, but it left its imprint on many Old French and even Latin loanwords. It evolved into Old Low Franconian in the Low Countries, that again evolved in Old Dutch. In what is now Germany the Eastern Low Franconian dialects were slowly replaced from the 14th century by High German. From the 8th century it was replaced by Old French south of the language border. From the 10th century the language border slowly went north to the current Dutch-French language border.

There is no surviving work of literature in the Frankish language and no work may ever have existed. Latin was the written language of Gaul before and during the Frankish period. Of the Gallic works which survive, there are a few chronicles, many hagiographies and saints' lives, and a small corpus of poems.

Religion

The Franks originally followed a form of Germanic paganism, but in 496, their king, Clovis I, who had married a Burgundian Roman Catholic named Clotilda, was baptised into the Catholic faith by Saint Remi. This event had an immense impact on the history of Europe, for at the time the Franks were the only major Germanic tribe in communion with Rome. Their contemporary rivals, the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, and Lombards, were of the Arian persuasion, and this led the catholic church to support the Franks.

Art and architecture

Gelasian Sacramentary, c.750.Frankish art and architecture belong to that phase of European art called Migration Period art. It was followed by a period called the Pre-Romanesque.

Very little is preserved in the way of Frankish architecture of the Merovingian period. The works of Gregory of Tours praise the churches of his day, but the most commonly given example of Merovingian architecture is a baptistery dedicated to Saint John in Poitiers. It is a small building with little pattern or cohesive style, it is largely a hodgepodge of borrowed Roman devices.

What is preserved of the visual and plastic arts largely consists of jewellery (such as brooches), weapons (such as swords with decorative hilts), and apparel (such as capes and sandals) found in grave sites, such as the famous grave of the queen Aregund, discovered 1959. Not many illuminated manuscripts survive from the Merovingian period, though the few that do contain a great deal of zoomorphic representations.

Law

By the sixth century, there persisted two basic legal subdivisions within the Frankish nation: the Salian and the Ripuarian, following the Lex Salica and the Lex Ribuaria respectively. By the ninth century, if not earlier, this division had in practice become virtually non-existent but continued, for some time, to have implications for the legal system under which a person could go on trial.

Politics

The early political history of the Franks is largely unknown. The earliest recorded tribal chieftains have more to do with legend than fact. What is clear, is that Frankish chieftains from the late fifth century had as a goal the unification of their confederacy under one king, in like manner to the Goths and Vandals who had established kingdoms on former Roman territory.

Merovingians

The first Frankish chief to make himself "King of the Franks" (rex Francorum) was Clovis I in 509. He had conquered the Kingdom of Soissons of the Roman general Syagrius and expelled the Visigoths from southern Gaul at the Battle of Vouillé, thus establishing Frankish hegemony over all of Gaul save Burgundy, Provence, and Brittany, which he left to his successors, the Merovingians, to conquer.

Clovis divided his realm between his four sons in a manner which would become familiar, as his sons and grandsons in turn divided their kingdoms between their sons. Clovis' sons united to defeat Burgundy in 534, but internecine feuding came to the fore during the reigns of the brothers Sigebert I and Chilperic I and their sons and grandsons, largely fueled by the rivalry of the queens Fredegunda and Brunhilda. This period saw the emergence of three distinct regna (realms or subkingdoms): Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy. Each region developed in its own way and often sought to exert influence over the others. The rising star of the Arnulfing clan of Austrasia meant that the centre of political gravity in the kingdom gradually shifted eastwards from Paris and Tours to the Rhineland.

The Frankish realm was united again in 613 by Chlothar II, son of Chilperic. Chlothar granted the Edict of Paris to the nobles in an effort to cut down on corruption and unite his vast realm under his authority. After the militarily successful reign of his son and successor Dagobert I, royal authority rapidly declined under a series of kings traditionally known as rois fainéants. By 687, after the Battle of Tertry, the chronicler could say that the mayor of the palace, formerly the king's chief household official, "reigned." Finally, in 751, with the approval of the papacy and the nobility, the mayor Pepin the Short deposed the last Meroving, Childeric III, and had himself crowned, inaugurating a new dynasty, the Carolingians.

Carolingian legacy

The unification of most of what is now western and central Europe under one chief ruler provided a fertile ground for the continuation of what is known as the Carolingian Renaissance. Despite the almost constant internecine warfare that the Carolingian Empire endured, the extension of Frankish rule and Roman Christianity over such a large area ensured a fundamental unity throughout the Empire. Each part of the Carolingian Empire developed differently; Frankish government and culture depended very much upon individual rulers and their aims. Those aims shifted as easily as the changing political alliances within the Frankish leading families. However, those families, the Carolingians included, all shared the same basic beliefs and ideas of government. These ideas and beliefs had their roots in a background that drew from both Roman and Germanic tradition, a tradition that began before the Carolingian ascent and continued to some extent even after the deaths of Louis the Pious and his sons.

Crusaders and other Western Europeans as "Franks"

Because the Frankish kingdom dominated Western Europe for centuries, terms derived from "Frank" were used by many in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and beyond as a synonym for Roman Christians (e.g., al-Faranj in Arabic, farangi in Persian, Frenk in Turkish, Feringhi in Hindustani, and Frangos in Greek). See also Thai ฝรั่ง farang[1]. During the crusades, which were at first led mostly by nobles from northern France who claimed descent from Charlemagne, both Muslims and Christians used these terms as ethnonyms to describe the Crusaders. This usage is often followed by modern historians, who call Western Europeans in the eastern Mediterranean "Franks" regardless of their country of origin. Compare with Rhomaios, Rûmi ("Roman"), used for Orthodox Christians. Catholics on various islands in Greece are still referred to as Φραγκοι, "Frangoi" (Franks). Examples include the naming of a Catholic from the Island of Syros as "Frangosyrianos" (Φραγκοσυριανος).

Sources

Geary, Patrick J. Before France and Germany: the Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-19-504458-4.

Lewis, Archibald R. "The Dukes in the Regnum Francorum, A.D. 550–751." Speculum, Vol. 51, No 3 (July 1976), pp 381–410.

James, Edward. The Franks. (Peoples of Europe series) Basil Blackwell, 1988. ISBN 0-631-17936-4.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Barbarian West. London: Hutchinson, 1970.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. The Long-Haired Kings. London: Butler & tanner Ltd, 1962.

Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Europe 300–1000. London: MacMillan, 1991.

Murray, Archibald C. and Goffart, Walter A. After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. 1999.

C.E.V. Nixon and Barbara Rodgers In Praise of Later Roman Emperors, Berkeley 1994

Ammianus Marcellinus History, Loeb Classical library, translation John C. Rolf

--------------------

Clotaire II was not yet born when his father, King Chilperic I died in 584. His mother, Queen Fredegonde, administered his kingdom until her death in 597. At age 13, Clotaire II began to rule for himself.

In 613 Clotaire II became the first king of all the Franks since his grandfather Clotaire I died in 561 by ordering the murder of Sigebert II who had ascended to the thrones of Austrasia and Burgundia.

In 615, Clotaire II promulgated the Edict of Paris, a sort of Frankish Magna Carta that reserved many rights to the Frankish nobles while it excluded Jews from all civil employment for the Crown, a ban which placed all the literacy available to the Merovingian monarchy squarely under ecclesiastical control and also greatly pleased the nobles, from whose ranks the bishops were ordinarily exclusively drawn. Then, in 623 he gave the kingdom of Austrasia to his young son Dagobert I. This was a political move as repayment for the support of Bishop Arnulf of Metz and Pepin I, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, the two leading Austrasian nobles, who were effectively granted semi-autonomy.

Clotaire II died in 629.

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King of Soissons 584-613

King of the Franks 613-629

When his father, King Chilperic I of Soissons died in 584, Chlotar wasnot yet even born. Until 597, his kingdom was administered by his mother,Queen Fredegund, but when she died that year he bagan to rule for himself, now 13 years old. In 613, the Austrasian and Burgundian kings,Theudebert II and Theuderic II respectively, had died, and Queen Brunhild had placed the young Sigebert II on the throne of those two kingdoms.That year, the 29 year old Chlotar had Sigebert and Brunhild killed, and became the first king of all the Franks since his grandfather Chlotar Idied in 561.

In 615, Chlotar passed the Edict of Paris, a sort of French Magna Carta that greatly pleased the nobles across the kingdom. In 623, he gave the kingdom of Austrasia to his young son Dagobert I, which was a political move giving Pepin I, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, and Bishop Arnulfof Metz, the two leading Austrasian nobles, semi-autonomy for their loyalty to Chlotar. In 629, Chlotar died and Dagobert became sole king, moving his capital from Austrasia to Paris. -------------------- His ancestry is provided elsewhere in this tree.

Clothaire's father was Chilperic I Soissons Franks and his mother was Fredegunde Franks. His paternal grandparents were Chlotar I (The Old) Franks and Radegonde (Ingunde) Thuringian de Ingonde; his maternal grandparents were Brunulphe Earlin and Crotechilde de Ostrogoths. -------------------- Clotário II

Rei de todos os francos (613-629)

Rei da Nêustria (584-629)

Nascimento Junho de 584, Cambrai

Morte 18 de Outubro de 629

Sepultura Saint-Germain-des-Prés

Clotário II (◊ Junho de 584 † 18 de Outubro de 629) (em francês Clotaire II), chamado o Grande ou o Jovem, rei de Nêustria e a partir de 613 a 629 rei de todos os francos. Ainda não havia nascido quando seu pai, o rei Chilperico I, morreu em 584. Sua mãe, a rainha Fredegunda, foi regente até morrer em 597, passando então Clotário II a governar aos 13 anos. Como rei, ele continuou a contenda de sua mãe com a rainha Brunilda com igual crueldade e derramamento de sangue.

Em 599, ele entrou em guerra contra seus primos, Teodorico II da Borgonha e Teodeberto II da Austrásia, que o derrotaram em Dormelles. A partir daí, no entanto, os dois irmãos entraram em guerra entre si. Em 605, ele invadiu o reino de Teodorico, mas não o subjugou. Clotário manteve o estado de guerra com Teodorico até este morrer em em Metz em 613 enquanto preparava uma campanha na guerra entre eles. Nesse momento, Warnachar, prefeito do palácio de Austrásia, e Rado, prefeito do palácio da Borgonha, abandonaram a causa de Brunilda e de seu bisneto, Sigeberto II, e o reino inteiro foi entregue nas mãos de Clotário. Brunilda e Sigeberto encontraram o exército de Clotário em Aisne, mas o patrício Aleteu, o duque Rocco e o duque Sigivaldo abandonaram seu senhor e sua bisavó, levando seu rei a ter que fugir.


Clotaire II

Rei da França (584-629).Nesse ano (613), Clotário II tornou-se o primeiro rei de todos os francos desde seu avô Clotário I morto em 561 por ordenar a morte de Sigeberto II (filho de Teodorico), a quem Brunilda tinha tentado colocar no trono de Austrásia e da Borgonha, causando uma rebelião entre os nobres. Isto levou à entrega de Brunilda a Clotário e seu desejo de vingança levou sua temível tia à prolongada agonia da tortura por três dias, antes de uma morte horrível, acorrentada entre quatro cavalos que foram açoitados em quatro direções, rasgando o seu corpo.

Em 615, Clotário II promulgou o Édito de Paris, uma espécie de Magna Carta que reservava muitos direitos aos nobres francos enquanto escluía os judeus de qualquer trabalho ou atividade civil para a Coroa. A proibição efetivamente estabeleceu que toda a alfabetização na monarquia merovíngia estaria sob controle eclesiástico e também englobaria a nobreza, que geralmente fornecia os candidatos a bispo. Clotário foi induzido por Warnachar e Rado a tornar a prefeitura do palácio uma nomeação vitalícia em Bonneuil-sur-Marne, proximo a Paris, em 617. Por estas ações, Clotário perdeu sua própria capacidade legislativa e o grande número de leis promulgadas no seu reino são provavelmente o resultado de petições da nobreza, que o rei sem ter autoridade acatou.

Em 623, ele entregou o reino da Austrásia para seu filho mais jovem Dagoberto I. Isto foi um ato político como recompensa pela ajuda do bispo Arnulfo de Metz e de Pepino I, prefeito do palácio da Austrásia, os dois liderando a nobreza austrasiana, a quem efetivamente foi concedida uma semi-autonomia.

Clotário II morreu em 629 após 45 anos de reinado, o mais longo da dinastia merovíngia. Ele deixou a coroa com o poder enormemente reduzido e preparou o caminho para a ascensão dos prefeitos do palácio e para o surgimento dos rois fainéants.

Índice [esconder]

1 Pais

2 Casamentos e filhos

3 Ver também

4 Ligações externas


[editar] Pais

♂ Chilperico I (◊ 539 † 584)

♀ Fredegunda (◊ 545 † 597)

[editar] Casamentos e filhos

em 599 com Haldetrude (◊ ? † 604)

♂ Meroveu (◊ 599 † ?)

em 602 com Bertrude (◊ c. 590 † c. 618) filha de Rocomero da Borgonha

♂ Dagoberto I (◊ 604 † 639)

♂ Cariberto II (◊ c. 606 † 632)

em 619 com Sichilde (◊ c. 590 † depois de 627)

♂ Eteraldo (◊ ? † ?)

♂ ? morreu ainda criança -------------------- Clothaire II Of Franks 1 •Sex: M •Title: King of Franks •Birth: 584 1 2 •Death: 10 OCT 629 in Paris, Seine, France 1 •Burial: AFT 10 OCT 629 Saint Germain des Pres 1

Father: Chilperic Of Neustria I b: ABT 538 in Soissons, Aisne, France Mother: Fredegonda b: 543

Marriage 1 Altrude b: ABT 584 Children 1. Dagobert Of Austrasia b: 602

Sources: -------------------- b. , May or June 584

d. Oct. 18, 629

Merovingian king of Neustria and sole ruler of the Franks from 613.

An infant when his father, Chilperic I, was assassinated in 584, he was assured the succession by the power of his mother, Fredegund, and by the protection of his uncle, Guntram, king of Burgundy. Fighting off an attack by his cousin Childebert II of Austrasia-Burgundy in 592, Chlotar himself seized territory from Childebert's young successors, Theodebert II and Theodoric II, in 596 but lost much of his realm to them in 599 or 600. In 613, however, when both were dead, Austrasian hostility toward Brunhild, great-grandmother of Theodoric's young son, Sigebert II, allowed Chlotar to seize both Austrasia and Burgundy and thus to reunitethe Frankish lands. He killed both Sigebert and Brunhild.

Chlotar enjoyed a high reputation among churchmen, relations with whom were regulated in a wide-ranging edict issued at the Council of Paris in October 614 and intended to settle the problems arising from the long years of turmoil. Apart from some trouble in Burgundy, the years after 613 were in fact peaceful. Chlotar did not unify the administration,however; he maintained separate mayors of the palace for the three districts over which he ruled, and in 623 he established his son,Dagobert I, as king of Austrasia.

Copyright c 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Frankish king, son of Chilperic I and Fredegunde. He succeeded (584) his father as king of Neustria, but his mother ruled for him until her death (597). In 613, after the death of his cousin Theodoric II, king of Austrasia, he was called in by Austrasian nobles to assume rule. He thus became king of all the Franks. He put Brunhilda to death, restored peace with the help of the nobility, and was compelled to grant (614) a charter giving far-reaching privileges to nobles and clergy. He was also forced to agree that each of the component parts of the Frankish lands, Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy, was to have its own mayor of the palace; the mayors of the palace were the chief royal

administrators. In 623 he sent his son Dagobert I to be king of Austrasia. Dagobert later succeeded to all the Frankish lands.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition

-------------------- Chlothar (or Clotaire, Chlothachar) (584-629), King of Soissons (Neustria) (584), King of Metz (Austrasia) and Orléans (Burgundy), and sole King of the Franks (613-629).

He was born shortly after his father's death in 584 and immediately became King of Soissons. His mother ruled on his behalf until he turned 13, when they took possession of Paris in 597. He was attacked by his cousins Theudebert of Metz and Theuderic of Orléans, but defeated them. His cousins attacked again in 600, and were successful. Chlothar fled, and ultimately retained only 12 districts of his former kingdom, the area between the Oise, the Seine and the Atlantic. In 604, he sent an invasion force under his son Mérovic against Theuderic, but the army was defeated, Theudbert occupied Paris, and Mérovic was captured.

Eventually his cousins turned to fighting each other. In 611, he made a pact with Theuderic that he would not give aid to Theudebert. Under the agreement, if Theuderic were to be successful, he would give the duchy of Dentelin to Chlothar. Theuderic defeated Theudebert in 612, and Chlothar occupied the duchy, while Theuderic captured and imprisoned Theudebert, taking his kingdom. The following year, Theuderic died, leaving the two kingdoms to his young son Siegbert II. Later that year, Chlothar had Siegbert II murdered. He annexed the kingdoms of Metz and Orléans, becoming King of the Franks and uniting them for the first time since the death of his grandfather Chlothar I in 561.

In 614/15 Chlothar signed the Perpetual Constitution, also called the Edict of Paris, an early Magna Carta. The charter preserved the rights of Frankish nobles and excluded Jews from civil employment. In 617 he canceled the annual tribute paid by the Lombards.

In 622 he turned over the government of Metz (Austrasia) to his son Dagobert I, whose councillors Arnulf, Bishop of Metz, and Pépin I, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia thereby gained a degree of autonomy. Chlothar died in 629 and was succeeded by his son Dagobert.

Ben M. Angel notes: Someone placed this person as having died at the "Abbaye de St. Vincent" in Paris, and buried in the Cathedral by the same name. First, no such cathedral. There is a church and abbey by the name of St. Vincent, but it's St Vincent de Paul, who lived a millennium after Clothar. The Franks can be argued as being forward looking, but probably not clairvoyant (certainly not to that degree). Death location has been left to Paris. Burial location has been left as unknown.

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Chlothar II the Young, King of the Franks's Timeline

570
570
Austrasia, France
584
May 584
Paris, Neustria (Present France), Frankish Empire
591
591
Age 6
Nanterre, Neustria (Present France), Frankish Empire
600
600
Age 15
600
Age 15
Bavaria, Germany
602
602
Age 17
Metz, Moselle, France
605
605
Age 20
Metz, Moselle, Lorraine, France
608
608
Age 23
Metz, (Present Lorraine), Austrasia (Present eastern France), Frankish Empire
610
610
Age 25
Metz, Austrasia, France
629
629
Age 44
Saint-Germain-des-Prés