Claudius Germanicus Caesar (-15 - 19) MP

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Birthdate:
Birthplace: Roma, Italy
Death: Died in near Antioch, Syria
Occupation: General, Emperor Rome, brother of Claudius & father of Caligula (Caius Caesar Augustus)
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About Claudius Germanicus Caesar

ID: I6863

Name: Germanicus Caesar of Rome

Given Name: Germanicus Caesar

Surname: of Rome

Sex: M

_UID: A40B2AFA5118D811BE490080C8C142CC43E2

Change Date: 26 Nov 2005 1 2

Birth: 15 BC 3 2

Death: of Perhaps poisoned by orders of the Emperor. 10 OCT 19 in 19 AD, Syria, near Antioch 3 2 2

Father: Nero Claudius Caesar

Mother: Antonia Augusta

Marriage 1 Vipsania of Rome b: 14 BC

Married: 4 2

Children

-1. Julia Agrippa Minor of Rome b: ABT 15 BC
-2. GAIUS @ CAESAR OF ROME b: 12
-3. Nero Julius Caesar
-4. Julia Caesar b: ABT 18 BC
-5. Drusus Julius Caesar
-6. Tiberius Julius Caesar
-7.  Ignotus Caesar
-8. Gaius Julius Caesar

Sources:

Abbrev: Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary

Title: Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary (Merriam Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts , 1995)field, Massachusetts , 1995.

Note:

Call number:

Text: s of Nero Claudius Drusus & Antonia, nephew of Emperor Tiberius

Abbrev: Pullen010502.FTW

Title: Pullen010502.FTW

Note:

Call number:

Text: Date of Import: Jan 5, 2002

Abbrev: Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary

Title: Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary (Merriam Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts , 1995)field, Massachusetts , 1995.

Note:

Call number:

Abbrev: Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary

Title: Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary (Merriam Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts , 1995)field, Massachusetts , 1995.

Note:

Call number:

Text: 9 children

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I6863

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See also / Lásd még:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julio-Claudian_family_tree

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanicus

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanicus

Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC. or 15 BC. – 10 October AD 19), commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Lugdunum, Gaul, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania.

Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero.

Family and early life

Germanicus was raised and educated in Rome. His parents were the general Nero Claudius Drusus (son of Empress Livia Drusilla, third wife of Emperor Augustus) and Antonia Minor (the younger daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, sister of Augustus). Livilla was his sister and the future Emperor Claudius was his younger brother.

Germanicus married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla. Through Agrippina the Younger, Germanicus was the Emperor Nero's maternal grandfather.

Germanicus became immensely popular among the citizens of Rome, who enthusiastically celebrated his military victories. He was also a favourite with Augustus, his great-uncle, who for some time considered him heir to the Empire. In AD 4, persuaded by Livia, his wife, Augustus decided in favour of Tiberius, his stepson from Livia's first marriage to Tiberius Nero. However, Augustus compelled Tiberius to adopt Germanicus as a son and to name him as his heir (see Tacitus, Annals IV.57). Upon this adoption, Germanicus's name was changed to Germanicus Julius Caesar. He also became the adoptive brother of Tiberius's natural son Drusus the Younger.

Germanicus held several military commands, leading the army in the campaigns in Pannonia and Dalmatia. He is recorded to have been an excellent soldier and an inspired leader, loved by the legions. In the year 12 he was appointed consul after five mandates as quaestor.

Commander of Germania

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that their recruitments would not be marked back down to 16 years from the now standard 20. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. Germanicus put down this rebellion himself, to honour Augustus' choice and stamp out the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In a bid to secure the loyalty of his troops and his own popularity with them and with the Roman people, he led them on a spectacular but brutal raid against the Marsi, a German tribe on the upper Ruhr river, in which he massacred much of the tribe.

During each of the next two years, he led his 8-legion army into Germany against the coalition of tribes led by Arminius, which had successfully overthrown Roman rule in a rebellion in 9. His major success was the capture of Arminius' wife Thusnelda in May 15. He let Arminius' wife sleep in his quarters during the whole of the time she was a prisoner. He said, "They are women and they must be respected, for they will be citizens of Rome soon"[citation needed]. He was able to devastate large areas and eliminate any form of active resistance, but the majority of the Germans fled at the sight of the Roman army into remote forests. The raids were considered a success since the major goal of destroying any rebel alliance networks was completed.

After visiting the site of the disastrous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, where 20,000 Romans had been killed in 9 CE, and burying their remains, he launched a massive assault on the heartland of Arminius' tribe, the Cheruscans. Arminius initially lured Germanicus' cavalry into a trap and inflicted minor casualties, until successful fighting by the Roman infantry caused the Germans to break and flee into the forest. This victory, combined with the fact that winter was fast approaching, meant Germanicus's next step was to lead his army back to its winter quarters on the Rhine.

In spite of doubts on the part of his uncle, Emperor Tiberius, Germanicus managed to raise another huge army and invaded Germany again the next year, in 16. He forced a crossing of the Weser near modern Minden, suffering heavy losses, and then met Arminius' army at Idistoviso, further up the Weser, near modern Rinteln, in an engagement often called the Battle of the Weser River. Germanicus's leadership and command qualities were shown in full at the battle as his superior tactics and better trained and equipped legions inflicted huge casualties on the German army with only minor losses. One final battle was fought at the Angivarian Wall west of modern Hanover, repeating the pattern of high German fatalities forcing them to flee. With his main objectives reached and with winter approaching Germanicus ordered his army back to their winter camps, with the fleet occasioning some damage by a storm in the North Sea. Although only a small number of soldiers died it was still a bad ending for a brilliantly fought campaign. After a few more raids across the Rhine, which resulted in the recovery of two of the three legion's eagles lost in 9, Germanicus was recalled to Rome and informed by Tiberius that he would be given a triumph and reassigned to a different command.

Despite the successes enjoyed by his troops, Germanicus' German campaign was in reaction to the mutinous intentions of his troops, and lacked any strategic value. In addition he engaged the very German leader (Arminius) who had destroyed three Roman legions in 9, and exposed his troops to the remains of those dead Romans. Furthermore, in leading his troops across the Rhine, without recourse to Tiberius, he contradicted the advice of Augustus to keep that river as the boundary of the empire, and opened himself to doubts about his motives in such independent action. These errors in strategic and political judgement gave Tiberius reason enough to recall his nephew.[1]

Command in Asia and death

Germanicus was then sent to Asia, where in 18 he defeated the kingdoms of Cappadocia and Commagene, turning them into Roman provinces. During a sightseeing trip to Egypt (not a regular province, but the personal property of the Emperor) he seems to have unwittingly usurped several imperial prerogatives.[2] The following year he found that the governor of Syria, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, had canceled the provincial arrangements that he had made. Germanicus in turn ordered Piso's recall to Rome, although this action was probably beyond his authority.[2] In the midst of this feud Germanicus died suddenly in Antioch. His death aroused much speculation, with several sources blaming Piso, under orders from Emperor Tiberius. This was never proven, and Piso later died while facing trial (ostensibly by suicide, but Tacitus supposes Tiberius may have had him murdered before he could implicate the emperor in Germanicus' death), because he feared the people of Rome knew of the conspiracy against Germanicus, but Tiberius' jealousy and fear of his nephew's popularity and increasing power was the true motive.

The death of Germanicus in what can only be described as dubious circumstances greatly affected Tiberius' popularity in Rome, leading to the creation of a climate of fear in Rome itself. Also suspected of connivance in his death was Tiberius' chief advisor, Sejanus, who would, in the 20s, create an atmosphere of fear in Roman noble and administrative circles by the use of treason trials and the role of "informers."

Posthumous honors

Germanicus’ death brought much public grief in Rome and throughout the Roman Empire. His death was announced in Rome during December of 19. There was public mourning during the festive days in December. The historians Tacitus and Suetonius record the funeral and posthumous honors of Germanicus. At his funeral, there were no procession statues of Germanicus. There were abundant eulogies and reminders of his fine character.

His posthumous honors included his name was placed into the following: the Carmen Saliare; the Curule chairs; placed as an honorary seat of the Brotherhood of Augustus and his coffin was crowned by oak-wreaths. Other honors include his ivory statue as head of procession of the Circus Games; his posts of priest of Augustus and Augur were to be filled by members of the imperial family; knights of Rome gave his name to a block of seats to a theatre in Rome.

Arches were raised to him throughout the Roman Empire in particularly, arches that recorded his deeds and death at Rome, Rhine River and Nur Mountains. In Antioch, where he was cremated had a sepulchre and funeral monument dedicated to him.

On the day of Germanicus’ death his sister Livilla gave birth to twins. The second, named Germanicus, died young. In 37, when Germanicus’ only remaining son, Caligula, became emperor, he renamed September Germanicus in honor of his father. Many Romans considered him as their equivalent to King Alexander the Great. Germanicus grandson was Emperor Nero Caesar-died 68 AD-the last of the Julio-Claudian dynasty

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Nerón Claudio Druso (Roma, 24 de mayo de 15 adC - Antioquía, 10 de octubre de 19 dC), desde el 27 de junio de 4 dC, Julio César Claudiano, noble y militar romano, que gobernó y pacificó la provincia de Germania, obteniendo el sobrenombre de Germánico, con el que fue universalmente conocido, por sus victorias.

Fue sobrino del emperador Tiberio, padre de Calígula y hermano de Claudio, que se sucederían en el trono entre los años 14 y 54 de nuestra era.

Hijo de Druso el Mayor y Antonia Minor, que fue hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia la Menor, Germánico fue adoptado a la muerte de su padre por su tío Tiberio por indicación de Augusto, poniéndolo de este modo en la línea de la sucesión imperial (4 dC). Al año siguiente contrajo matrimonio con Agripina la mayor, quien le siguió en todos sus destinos y le dio nueve hijos. Dos de ellos murieron al poco de nacer y otro, llamado Cayo Julio César, murió en la niñez. Los seis restantes alcanzaron la edad adulta:

La adopción imperial supuso especiales dispensas para desarrollar su carrera militar sin atender a los requisitos de edad: Germánico estuvo junto a su padre adoptivo a los 22 años de edad en la expedición dirigida a Panonia (7-9 dC) para sofocar la revuelta producida en la provincia, y en la de Germania (11 dC).

En el 12 alcanzó el consulado, después de cinco cuesturas sucesivas, y al año siguiente recibió de manos de Augusto la dirección de la provincia de Germania, tras el desastre de la batalla del bosque de Teutoburgo, y el mando de las legiones de esta provincia, cuya revuelta sofocó. De su popularidad baste decir que, a la muerte de Augusto, sus soldados le pidieron que suplantase a Tiberio como heredero imperial

Para el año 16 disponía de una gran flotilla que le iba a permitir entrar en el Rin desde el mar, desembarcar cerca del río Ems, avanzar hacia el interior y obtener un sonado éxito con la victoria sobre las tribus germanas cerca del río Weser. La provincia de Germania quedó sujeta al dominio romano y la derrota de Varo vengada.

En ese momento, cuando Germánico juzgaba necesaria una campaña más para conquistar completamente Germania, Tiberio decidió que lo logrado era bastante y lo reclamó en Roma para celebrar un triunfo (26 de mayo del 17) y enviarle al Oriente cum imperium.

Germánico comenzó su segundo consulado (18) en Nicópolis, coronó a Zenón como rey de Armenia y arregló la situación de Capadocia y Comagene. En el 19, un viaje por el Nilo ad cognoscendam antiquitates ofendió gravemente a Tiberio, que no le había dado permiso para visitar Egipto, propiedad privada del emperador.

Una vez en Siria, Germánico se encontró con el procónsul Calpurnio Pisón, que Tiberio había nombrado con la intención de controlar a su hijo adoptivo; el disgusto entre ambos aumentó progresivamente hasta que Germánico ordenó a Pisón que abandonase la provincia. Entonces cayó misteriosamente enfermo, muriendo el 10 de octubre del 19, convencido de que había sido envenenado por Pisón.

Su muerte, comparada por muchos coetáneos con la de Alejandro Magno, dio lugar a universales manifestaciones de luto y a algunas sospechas en Roma sobre la participación en ella del propio Emperador. El Senado decretó para él especiales honores funerarios y juzgó también a Pisón como presunto criminal, quien fue ejecutado.

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Born : 15 BC

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Born : 15 BC

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Född: 15-05-24 f.Kr.

Död: 19-10-10

Noteringar

Adopterad av farbrodern kejsar Tiberius Claudius och var tänkt att efterträda honom, men blev troligtvis förgiftad.

-------------------- 4217576384055058. Emperor Rome Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus ROMAN EMPIRE,1601,1746,3472 son of Emperor Caius Drusus Nero ROMAN EMPIRE and Augusta Antonia "The Younger" ROMAN EMPIRE, was born 1 August 10 B.C. in Palace Augustus, Roma, Italy 3472 and died on 13 October 54 in , , Roma, Italy 3472. The cause of his death was Poisoned with a treated mushroom by his wife, Agrippina.

General Notes:

Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus was born in Lugdunum (Lyon) in 10 BC, as the youngest son of Nero Drusus (Tiberius' brother) and of Antonia the younger (who was the daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia).

Suffering from ill-health and an alarming lack of social skills, for which most believed him mentally handicapped, he received no public office from Augustus except once being invested as an augur (an official Roman soothsayer). Under Tiberius he held no office at all.

Generally he was considered an embarrassment at court.

Under Caligula's reign he was granted a consulship as colleague to the emperor himself (AD 37), but otherwise he was treated very badly by Caligula (who was his nephew), suffering public disrespect and scorn from him at court.

At the assassination of Caligula in January AD 41, Claudius fled to one of the apartments of the palace and hid behind one of the curtain. He was discovered by the praetorians and taken to their camp, where the two praetorian prefects proposed him to the troops who hailed him emperor.

His being made emperor, despite his feebleness and having no military or even administrational experience at all, is most likely due to his being the brother of Germanicus who had died in AD 19 and had been very popular with the soldiery. Also he might have been deemed a possible puppet emperor, whom one could easily control, by the praetorians.

The senate first considered the restoration of the republic, but faced with the praetorians' decision, the senators fell in line and bestowed imperial power upon Claudius.

He was short, possessed neither natural dignity nor authority. He had a staggering walk, 'embarrassing habits', and 'indecent' laugh and when annoyed he foamed disgustingly at the mouth and his nose ran. He stammered and had a twitch. He was always ill, until he became emperor. Then his health improved marvelously, except for attacks of stomach-ache, which he said even made him think of suicide.

In history and in the accounts of ancient historians, Claudius comes as a positive mishmash of conflicting characteristics: absent-minded, hesitant, muddled, determined, cruel, intuitive, wise and dominated by his wife and his personal staff of freedmen. He was probably all of these things. His choice of women was in no doubt disastrous. But he may well have had good reason to prefer the advice of educated and trained, non-Roman executives to that of potentially suspect aristocratic senators, even if some of those executives did use their influence to their own financial advantage.

The senate's initial hesitation in granting him the throne was the source of much resentment by Claudius. Meanwhile the senator disliked him for not being their free choice of ruler.

So Claudius came to be the first Roman emperor in a line of many to follow who was not truly appointed by the senate, but by the army's men.

He also came to be the first emperor who granted the praetorians a large bonus payment at his accession (15'000 sesterces per man), creating another ominous precedent for the future.

Claudius first actions in office though marked him out as an exceptional emperor. Though he needed to for honour's sake to deal with Caligula's immediate assassins (they were sentenced to death), he did not begin a witch hunt.

He abolished the treason trials, burned criminal records and destroyed Caligula's infamous stock of poisons. Claudius also returned many of Caligula's confiscations.

In AD 42 the first revolt against his rule took place, led by the governor of Upper Illyricum, Marcus Furius Camillus Scribonianus.

The attempt of rebellion was easily put down before it ever really got started. However it revealed that the instigators of the uprising had possessed connections with very influential nobility in Rome. The subsequent shock of just how close to his person such conspirators may be, led the emperor to adopt stringent security measures. And it is partly due to these measures that any of the six or more plots against the emperor during his twelve year reign didn't meet with success.

However, the suppression of such conspiracies cost the lives of 35 senators and over 300 equestrians. what wonder that the senate didn't like Claudius !

Immediately after the failed rebellion of AD 42, Claudius decided to distract any attention from such challenges to his authority by organizing a campaign to invade and conquer Britain. A plan close to the army's heart, as they already once before had intended to do so under Caligula. - An attempt which had ended in a humiliating farce.

It was decided that Rome could no longer pretend that Britin did not exist, and a potentially hostile and possibly united nation just beyond the fringe of the existing empire presented a threat which could not be ignored. Also Britain was famed for its metals; most of all tin, but also gold was thought to be there. Besides, Claudius, for so long the butt of his family, wanted a piece of military glory, and here was a chance to get it.

By AD 43 the armies stood ready and all preparations for the invasion were in place. It was a formidable force, even for Roman standards. Overall command was in the hands of Aulus Plautius.

Plautius advanced but then got into difficulties. His orders were to do this if he met any sizable resistance. When he received the message, Claudius handed over the administration of the affairs of state to his consular colleague Lucius Vitellius, and then himself took to the field. He went by river to Ostia, and then sailed along the coast to Massilia (Marseilles). From there, travelling overland and by river transport, he reached the sea and crossed to Britain, where he met up with his troops, who were encamped by the river Thames.

Assuming command, he crossed the river, engaged the barbarians, who had rallied together at his approach, defeated them, and took Camelodunum (Colchester), the barbarian's apparent capital. Then he put down several other tribes, defeating them or accepting their surrender.

He confiscated the tribes' weapons which he handed over to Plautius with orders to subdue the rest. He then headed back to Rome sending news of his victory ahead. When the senate heard about his achievement, it granted him the title of Britannicus and authorized him to celebrate a triumph through the city.

Claudius had been in Britain just sixteen days. Plautius followed up the advantage gained, and was from AD 44 to 47 governor of this new province. When Caratacus, a royal barbarian leader, was finally captured and brought to Rome in chains, Claudius pardoned him and his family.

In the east Claudius also annexed the two client kingdoms of Thracia, making them into another province.

Claudius also reformed the military. The granting of Roman citizenship to auxiliaries after a service of twenty-five years was introduced by his predecessors, but it was under Claudius that it truly became a regular system.

Were most Romans naturally intent on seeing the Roman empire as a solely Italian institution, the Claudius refused to do so, allowing senators to be drawn also from Gaul. I order to do so, he revived the office of censor, which had fallen into disuse. Though such changes caused storms of xenophobia by the senate and appeared only to support accusations that the emperor preferred foreigners to proper Romans.

With the help of his freedmen advisors, Claudius reformed the financial affairs of the state and empire, creating a separate fund for the emperor's private household expenses. As almost all grain had to be imported, mainly from Africa and Egypt, Claudius offered insurances against losses on the open sea, to encourage potential importers and to build up stocks against winter times of famine. Among his extensive building projects Claudius constructed the port of Ostia (Portus), a scheme already proposed by Julius Caesar. This eased congestion on the river Tiber, but the sea currents should gradually cause the harbour to silt up, which is why today it is no longer present.

Claudius also took great care in his function as a judge, presiding over the imperial law-court. He instituted judicial reforms, creating in particular legal safeguards for the weak and defenceless.

Of the loathed freedmen at Claudius' court, the most notorious were perhaps Polybius, Narcissus, Pallas, and Felix, the brother of Pallas, who became governor of Judaea. Their rivalry did not prevent them from working in concert to their common advantage; it was virtually a public secret that honours and privileges were 'for sale' through their offices. But they were men of ability, who rendered useful service when it was in their own interest to do so, forming a sort of imperial cabinet quite independent from the Roman class system.

It was Narcissus, the emperor's minister of letters (i.e. he was the man who helped Claudius deal with all his matters of correspondence) who in AD 48 took the necessary actions when the emperor's wife Valeria Messalina and her lover Gaius Silius attempted to overthrow Claudius, when he was away at Ostia. Their intent was most likely to place the Claudius' infant son Britannicus on the throne, leaving them to rule the empire as regents.

Claudius was extremely surprised and appears to have been indecisive and confused as to what to do. So it was Narcissus who took hold of the situation, had Silius arrested and executed and Messalina driven into suicide.

But Narcissus was not to benefit from having saved his emperor. In fact it became the reason of his very downfall, as the emperor's next wife Agrippina the younger saw to it that the freedman Pallas, who was finance minister, soon eclipsed Narcissus' powers.

Agrippina was granted the title of Augusta, a rank no wife of an emperor had held before. And she was determined to see her twelve year old son Nero take the place of Britannicus as imperial heir.

She successfully arranged for Nero to be betrothed to Claudius' daughter Octavia. And a year later Claudius adopted him as son.

Then on the night of the 12 to 13 October AD 54 Claudius suddenly died. His death is generally attributed to his scheming wife Agrippina who didn't care to wait for her son Nero inherit the throne and so poisoned Claudius with mushrooms. 3472

Tiberius married Valeria Messalina ROMAN EMPIRE 1601 in <, , Lyons, France>. Valeria was born in 23 in Lyons, France and died in 48 in Executed at age 25.

Children from this marriage were:

                     i.  Octavia ROMAN EMPIRE.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanicus

http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanicus_Iulius_Caesar -------------------- GermanicusFrom Wikipedia

Germanicus Julius Caesar


Spouse:Agrippina the Elder Issue: Nero Caesar Drusus Caesar Caligula, Roman Emperor Agrippina the Younger, Roman Empress Julia Drusilla Julia Livilla Father Nero Claudius Drusus Mother Antonia Minor Born 24 May 15 BC or 16 BC Lugdunum, Gaul, Roman Empire Died 10 October 19 AD (aged 34 or 35) Antioch, Syria, Roman Empire Burial Mausoleum of Augustus

Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC. or 15 BC. – 10 October AD 19), commonly known as Germanicus, was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and a prominent general of the early Roman Empire. He was born in Lugdunum, Gaul, and was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania.

Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero.

[edit] Family and early lifeGermanicus was raised and educated in Rome. His parents were the general Nero Claudius Drusus (son of Empress Livia Drusilla, third wife of Emperor Augustus) and Antonia Minor (the younger daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, sister of Augustus). Livilla was his sister and the future Emperor Claudius was his younger brother.

Germanicus married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla. Through Agrippina the Younger, Germanicus was the Emperor Nero's maternal grandfather.

Germanicus became immensely popular among the citizens of Rome, who enthusiastically celebrated his military victories. He was also a favourite with Augustus, his great-uncle, who for some time considered him heir to the Empire. In AD 4, persuaded by Livia, his wife, Augustus decided in favour of Tiberius, his stepson from Livia's first marriage to Tiberius Nero. However, Augustus compelled Tiberius to adopt Germanicus as a son and to name him as his heir (see Tacitus, Annals IV.57). Upon this adoption, Germanicus's name was changed to Germanicus Julius Caesar. He also became the adoptive brother of Tiberius's natural son Drusus the Younger.

Germanicus held several military commands, leading the army in the campaigns in Pannonia and Dalmatia. He is recorded to have been an excellent soldier and an inspired leader, loved by the legions. In the year 12 he was appointed consul after five mandates as quaestor.

[edit] Commander of Germania The death of Germanicus, by Nicholas Poussin, laments the passing of Rome's last Republican.After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that their recruitments would not be marked back down to 16 years from the now standard 20. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. Germanicus put down this rebellion himself, to honour Augustus' choice and stamp out the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In a bid to secure the loyalty of his troops and his own popularity with them and with the Roman people, he led them on a spectacular but brutal raid against the Marsi, a German tribe on the upper Ruhr river, in which he massacred much of the tribe.

During each of the next two years, he led his 8-legion army into Germany against the coalition of tribes led by Arminius, which had successfully overthrown Roman rule in a rebellion in 9. His major success was the capture of Arminius' wife Thusnelda in May 15. He let Arminius' wife sleep in his quarters during the whole of the time she was a prisoner. He said, "They are women and they must be respected, for they will be citizens of Rome soon"[citation needed]. He was able to devastate large areas and eliminate any form of active resistance, but the majority of the Germans fled at the sight of the Roman army into remote forests. The raids were considered a success since the major goal of destroying any rebel alliance networks was completed.

After visiting the site of the disastrous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, where 20,000 Romans had been killed in 9 CE, and burying their remains, he launched a massive assault on the heartland of Arminius' tribe, the Cheruscans. Arminius initially lured Germanicus' cavalry into a trap and inflicted minor casualties, until successful fighting by the Roman infantry caused the Germans to break and flee into the forest. This victory, combined with the fact that winter was fast approaching, meant Germanicus's next step was to lead his army back to its winter quarters on the Rhine.

In spite of doubts on the part of his uncle, Emperor Tiberius, Germanicus managed to raise another huge army and invaded Germany again the next year, in 16. He forced a crossing of the Weser near modern Minden, suffering heavy losses, and then met Arminius' army at Idistaviso, further up the Weser, near modern Rinteln, in an engagement often called the Battle of the Weser River. Germanicus's leadership and command qualities were shown in full at the battle as his superior tactics and better trained and equipped legions inflicted huge casualties on the German army with only minor losses. One final battle was fought at the Angivarian Wall west of modern Hanover, repeating the pattern of high German fatalities forcing them to flee. With his main objectives reached and with winter approaching Germanicus ordered his army back to their winter camps, with the fleet occasioning some damage by a storm in the North Sea. Although only a small number of soldiers died it was still a bad ending for a brilliantly fought campaign. After a few more raids across the Rhine, which resulted in the recovery of two of the three legion's eagles lost in 9, Germanicus was recalled to Rome and informed by Tiberius that he would be given a triumph and reassigned to a different command.

Despite the successes enjoyed by his troops, Germanicus' German campaign was in reaction to the mutinous intentions of his troops, and lacked any strategic value. In addition he engaged the very German leader (Arminius) who had destroyed three Roman legions in 9, and exposed his troops to the remains of those dead Romans. Furthermore, in leading his troops across the Rhine, without recourse to Tiberius, he contradicted the advice of Augustus to keep that river as the boundary of the empire, and opened himself to doubts about his motives in such independent action. These errors in strategic and political judgement gave Tiberius reason enough to recall his nephew.[1]

[edit] Command in Asia and death Benjamin West, Agrippina landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus, Oil on canvas, c. 1768.Germanicus was then sent to Asia, where in 18 he defeated the kingdoms of Cappadocia and Commagene, turning them into Roman provinces. During a sightseeing trip to Egypt (not a regular province, but the personal property of the Emperor) he seems to have unwittingly usurped several imperial prerogatives.[2] The following year he found that the governor of Syria, Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, had canceled the provincial arrangements that he had made. Germanicus in turn ordered Piso's recall to Rome, although this action was probably beyond his authority.[2] In the midst of this feud Germanicus died suddenly in Antioch. His death aroused much speculation, with several sources blaming Piso, under orders from Emperor Tiberius. This was never proven, and Piso later died while facing trial (ostensibly by suicide, but Tacitus supposes Tiberius may have had him murdered before he could implicate the emperor in Germanicus' death). He feared the people of Rome knew of the conspiracy against Germanicus, but Tiberius' jealousy and fear of his nephew's popularity and increasing power was the true motive.[citation needed]

The death of Germanicus in what can only be described as dubious circumstances greatly affected Tiberius' popularity in Rome, leading to the creation of a climate of fear in Rome itself. Also suspected of connivance in his death was Tiberius' chief advisor, Sejanus, who would, in the 20s, create an atmosphere of fear in Roman noble and administrative circles by the use of treason trials and the role of "informers."[citation needed]

[edit] Posthumous honorsGermanicus’ death brought much public grief in Rome and throughout the Roman Empire. His death was announced in Rome during December of 19. There was public mourning during the festive days in December. The historians Tacitus and Suetonius record the funeral and posthumous honors of Germanicus. At his funeral, there were no procession statues of Germanicus. There were abundant eulogies and reminders of his fine character.

His posthumous honors included his name was placed into the following: the Carmen Saliare; the Curule chairs; placed as an honorary seat of the Brotherhood of Augustus and his coffin was crowned by oak-wreaths. Other honors include his ivory statue as head of procession of the Circus Games; his posts of priest of Augustus and Augur were to be filled by members of the imperial family; knights of Rome gave his name to a block of seats to a theatre in Rome.

Arches were raised to him throughout the Roman Empire in particularly, arches that recorded his deeds and death at Rome, Rhine River and Nur Mountains. In Antioch, where he was cremated had a sepulchre and funeral monument dedicated to him.

On the day of Germanicus’ death his sister Livilla gave birth to twins. The second, named Germanicus, died young. In 37, when Germanicus’ only remaining son, Caligula, became emperor, he renamed September Germanicus in honor of his father. Many Romans considered him as their equivalent to King Alexander the Great. Germanicus grandson was Emperor Nero Caesar-died 68 AD-the last of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

-------------------- 8435152768110118. Ceasar Germanicus ROMAN EMPIRE,1601,1746 son of Emperor Caius Drusus Nero ROMAN EMPIRE and Augusta Antonia "The Younger" ROMAN EMPIRE, was born in Lyons, France and died on 24 January 41.

General Notes:

Caligula (Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) often exclaimed , "Oh that the Roman people had but one neck, that I migh t cut it off at a blow!"

Caligula later demanded that divine honors be paid to him throughout the Empire and when, in A.D. 40, the Jews and Christians alone refused, he profaned the Holy Of Holies at Jerusalem by placing there a colossal statue of himsel

Soon after this Caligula was murdered, 24 January A.D . 41, in his 29th year, when Nero was 4 years old.

Germanicus married Agrippina "The Elder" ROMAN EMPIRE 1601 in <B.C. 12>. Agrippina was born in 12 B.C. and died in 33 at age 45.

Children from this marriage were:

4217576384055059 i. Augusta Agrippina "The Younger" ROMAN EMPIRE (born in 15 - died in 59)

                    ii.  Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus ROMAN EMPIRE was born 31 August 12 and died on 24 January 41. Another name for Gaius was CALIGULA.
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Claudius Germanicus Caesar's Timeline

-15
May 24, -15
Roma, Italy
6
6
Age 20
7
7
Age 21
Italy
10
10
Age 24
12
August 31, 12
Age 27
Antium (present-day Anzio)
15
November 6, 15
Age 30
Rome, Roma, Italy
16
September 16, 16
Age 31
Italy
18
18
Age 32
19
October 19, 19
Age 34
near Antioch, Syria
19
Age 33
Italy