David Crawford, Col (1625 - 1698) MP

‹ Back to Crawford surname

Is your surname Crawford?

Research the Crawford family

Col. David Crawford's Geni Profile

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Nicknames: "David Crafford", "David Craford"
Birthplace: Kilbirnie, North Ayrshire, Scotland
Death: Died in New Kent, Virginia
Cause of death: Allegedly killed by the Pamunkey Indians
Occupation: Plantation Owner, Member of House of Burgesses (1692-1694), Burgess of Virginia
Managed by: James Edward Winfrey
Last Updated:

About David Crawford, Col

NOTE: Colonel David Crawford is the only known child of John Crawford of Jamestown and an uknown mother. He arrived in Virginia with his father John Crawford of Jamestown in around 1643.

-------------------

Colonel David Crawford (c. 1625 - 1710) was a member of the House of Burgesses and an early plantation owner in Virginia.

            
  • Birth:  1625 in Kilbirnie, Ayershire, Scotland
  • Death: Conflicting Data regarding if he died 12/13/1698, 12/13/1704, or 1710.  Allegedly killed by Indians in New Kent, Virginia
  • Parents: John Crawford of Jamestown
  • Married: Jane (perhaps A Douglass) — married 1654 in James City, Virginia

"It is fairly certain that our Crawford ancestors immigrated to Virginia from Scotland. Beyond this, little else is known with certainty about the Old World origins of the Crawfords of Virginia. Much has been written on the ancient and noble forbearers of our Crawfords, yet it all is based on family legend and theories that have little basis in verifiable facts."

Unfortunately, the name of David's wife is lost to us. Based on various sources, however, we can identify all or most of his children. His children are as follows: 

  1. Elizabeth, b. about 1650-54; married Nicholas Meriweather (ancestors of the explorer)
  2. Judith, b. 1658; married Robert Lewis and removed to the South
  3. Angelina, b. 1660; married William McGuire and removed South
  4. Captain David, b. 1662; d. September 1762; married Elizabeth Smith in 1695
  5. John b. ? ; d. December 13, 1689; wife unknown. 

------------------------

David Crawford was born circa 1625, in Scotland, emigrating to the Virginia Colony with his father, John Crawford around 1643. His father was later killed in Bacon's Rebellion of 1676.

Crawford amassed many acres of land and owned a large plantation that eventually became the site of Richmond, Virginia. On April 2, 1692 he was elected to the House of Burgesses as one of two representatives from New Kent County, Virginia for two years. He introduced a piece of legislation, requiring that County Clerks maintain an office in their respective County Courthouse.

As an elderly man he was killed by some Pamunkey Indians in 1710 in New Kent County, Virginia.

Links

--------------------

David CRAWFORD I "the Immigrant" ABT 1625 - 13 Dec 1689

OCCUPATION: Burgess

RESIDENCE: Scotland and 1643 James City and New Kent Cos. VA

BIRTH: ABT 1625, Kibernie, Aryshire Scotland 

DEATH: 13 Dec 1689, Killed by Indians, Asequin Plantation, New Kent Co Virginia 

Father: JOHN CRAWFORD "the Immigrant"

Family 1 : Jane  MARRIAGE: 1649, James City Co VA 

  1. Elizabeth CRAWFORD 
  2. David CRAWFORD II 
  3. John CRAWFORD 
  4. Sarah CRAWFORD 
  5. Judith CRAWFORD 

Notes: lived in St. Peter's (St. Paul's) Parish, in New Kent Co. (Hanover), Va.. BURGESS NEW KENT, 1692. Seven, the first patent in 1667, of his land transactions netted him some 4,584 acres (or 5,123). "His possessions included the site of the present City of Richmond Va. (Stephens', Mrs. Lucinda Frances; Crawford Genealogy).  In 1693, he deeded his residence, Assassquin (Assaquin, Assiskins), New Kent, Va., to his grandson, William Meriwether. 

-------------------

Children of DAVID CRAWFORD are: 

i. CAPT. DAVID3 CRAWFORD, b. 1662; d. September 1762. 

ii. ELIZABETH CRAWFORD. 

iii. JUDITH CRAWFORD, m. ROBERT LEWIS. 

iv. ANGELINA CRAWFORD, m. WILLIAM MCQUIRE. 

Spouse: Jane // Married: 1654 in James City, Virginia 

-------------------

DAVID CRAWFORD was born 1623/25 in Kilbernie, Ayrshire, Scotland, and died 13 Dec 1689 in New Kent, New Kent County, Virginia. He married in 1654/56 to Jane ---- born 1633 in Virginia. Various spellings in legal documents have the Crawford name as Craford or Crafford. In 1667, David had 86 acres of land located in the parish of Martyn's Hundred in James City County granted by Sir William Berkeley, the Governor of the Colony of Virginia. The second grant of land to David was in 1672 for 1000 acres of land as "lying in ye branches of Mattadegun Creeke, in New Kent County" for having brought into the colony twenty persons. He acquired other lands: 1,350, 375, 1,300, 277, and 196 acres, most in St. Paul's Parish and St Peter's Parish in New Kent County or Hanover County.

"David Crawford belonged to the slave-holding aristocacy of the Old Dominion which so closely resembled the feudal nobility of earlier times." He certaintly had Indian servants whom he said he had purchased. The way of life in Virginia at this period became very gracious for those who could afford it. Almost from one generation to the next, this class went from primitive shelters to homes built of brick. Mostly constructed of two stories, these homes had large rooms and high ceilings, large windows with glass to take care of the heat in summer. The kitchen and any other areas which were considered other than living areas were separated. So was born the southern tradition of the 'main' house surrounded by smaller buildings for cooking, washing, and dairy products.


The progenitor of our Crawford family in Virginia was John Crawford from Kilburney, Ayrshire, Scotland, who together with his son, David, settled in James City County. The evidence that does exist suggests that John was a widower when he left Scotland for Virginia with his young son. The name of John's wife has not been found. John and David arrived in Virginia about the year 1643. 

John Crawford was born in Scotland about the year 1600. Lost to us is the explanation for his leaving the comfort of the civilized environment of Scotland and venturing to a Virginia, which was still very much a wilderness outpost in the mid-17th century. Some 19th century family researchers perhaps caught up in the desire to find an ancestor with noble heritage, offered theories of his motivation for leaving Scotland. The most persistent among them was that he was the youngest son in a wealthy family and as the youngest son, he was not in line to inherit the family estate. It is more reasonable to assume that after losing his wife, John nothing holding him in Scotland and decided to seek his fortune and his son's future prosperity in the New World. This latter scenario certainly was common among commoners and gentry alike in England, Wales, and Scotland. Not everyone immigrating to the Colonies did so because they were disinherited, or to escape political or religious persecution. Many simply came to make their fortune. 

Little documentation survives regarding the life of John, either in Scotland or Virginia. Most of what we know is found in Crawford family bibles written after the times of John and through family oral legend. It should be recognized, however, that simply because information comes to us by oral legend or from less than authoritative written sources themselves based on oral legend, it does not mean that the information is incorrect. 

The family maintains that John Crawford prospered in his new home as a planter of tobacco until the fateful year of 1676. Confronted by adverse weather, the low price of tobacco in England, mounting debt to English mercantile houses, unrest among the native tribes in reaction to English incursions in their territory, taxation imposed on Colonists by Parliament to fund the protection of the Virginia frontier and possibly the incompetent administration of Governor Sir William Berkeley all lead to rebellion against the Crown in 1676. This attempted revolution against the rule of Great Britain has come down to as "Bacon's Rebellion" after its political leader, Nathaniel Bacon. Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries Bacon's Rebellion was viewed by historians as the precursor to 1776. Nathaniel Bacon was portrayed as a freedom fighter struggling against the tyranny of a despotic King and Parliament. The cry of "Taxation without representation" was first raised in Virginia in 1676, only to be echoed again in the years leading to 1776. 

In the 20th century historians have developed a more balanced view of the causes and motivations for Bacon leading many a Virginian to war against the Mother Country. The causes general remain the same, but the interpretation of the reasons for reacting to them differs. The drop in the price of tobacco, the principal cash crop of Virginia, quickly caused prosperous planters to fall into debt to the mercantile houses for which they depended on for most of their manufactured goods, the desire to move west into Indian territory where vast estates could be founded on virgin land was being thwarted by the obstinateness of the indigenous people to peacefully vacate their ancestral lands, and over being taxed by Parliament to cover the cost of the military protection on the frontier that they demanded. So, in the 18th and 19th centuries we see those involved in Bacon's Rebellion as the first heroes of American independence from the despotism and tyranny imposed by London, while in the 20th century we see that those involved among the colonists may have been motivated by self-interest and, in the case of Nathaniel Bacon himself, perhaps by megalomania. A careful consideration of the possible causes and motivations on both sides of the conflict is a study in and of itself. It shall be left up to the reader to pursue a study of Bacon's Rebellion to decide for his or herself which, if either, interpretation of the conflict is correct. 

What we are interested in is John Crawford's role in Bacon's Rebellion. It is said that although at an advanced age in 1676 (probably about 76 years old) John took to his horse and joined the revolt with Bacon, serving under Bacon's chief military officer, Giles Bland. It is further said that in reaction to what John perceived as the senseless and unwarranted slaughter of so many British settlers by the tribes on the frontier and seeing the Crown apparently incapable of dealing with the threat, "...the stern, unyielding determination to volunteer for the defense of the community, and, if need be, to offer his life as a sacrifice for the protection of other lives no more valuable that his own," prompted him to join the Rebellion. (Crawford Family) 

There are two accounts of John's death. One has it as John rode west part of a small troop to protect the frontier; he and his men were ambushed and murdered to the man by an overwhelming number of Native Americans. The other account has it that John was shot from his horse in a charge against Sir William Berkeley's soldiers. The earliest written accounts of John's service in Bacon's Rebellion appear at the height of the Victorian Age, when romanticizing history and the players who made it was endemic in Western Europe and the United States. During this time history was often presented as fact without any substantiating documentation merely because it fit into the author's image of those who lived in the noble past. 

In our more cynical and analytical times, many of the histories written from the mid-19th century through the early 20th century are laughable in their naivety. Yet, placing aside the flowery Victorian language and the zealous patriotism they unabashedly display, there may be a kernel of truth in these histories. Although unproven and probably unprovable, John's possible participation in Bacon's Rebellion should not be discounted out of hand. His having done so would fit into the character of the Crawford family both before and after John. They have a demonstrated interest in politics and law. It also fits into the noble class that John and his family is believed to have belonged. The Code of Chivalry that found its origins during the time of the Norman Conquest persisted among the nobility of Europe into the first decades of the 20th century. Therefore, it is not inconceivable that despite his advanced age John felt an obligation to take up arms to defend fellow British citizens, even if doing so meant taking up arms against an agent of the Crown. 

Our next encounter with our Crawfords in Virginia is with John's son, born circa 1625 in Kilburney, Scotland when he purchased 86 acres on August 7, 1667 in the Parish of Martyns Hundred in James City County from Mrs. Anne Loveing. This land transaction was approved by the Royal Governor, Sir William Berkeley. (Land Patents for James City County, VA, Book 6) 

The grant of land that David acquired was made to him directly by Governor Berkeley in 1672, securing to him 1,000 acres in New Kent County "lying in yee branches of Mattedegun Creeke." David received this land for bringing twenty people to Virginia to settle and develop the land. It was at this time that David relocated to New Kent County. David's land acquisitions continued in 1676, the year of Bacon's Rebellion, with 1,350 acres, 375 acres, 1,300 acres, 277 acres, and 196 acres all in New Kent County. Each of these land acquisitions were either purchases approved by the Royal Governor or direct grants made by the Governor. What is interesting is that prior family researchers have not addressed the apparent cooperation that David got from the Royal Governor while his ancient father was off fighting in open rebellion against the Governor's administration. There are plausible explanations for this, including but limited to John Crawford not having participated in Bacon's Rebellion, not holding a son accountable for the sins of his father, and wanting to keep David loyal to the Crown. 

On October 28, 1681 David Crawford purchased 1,300 acres from Mr. William Taylor in St. Peter's Parish in New Kent County and he received another land grant from the government on November 4, 1685 for an unspecified acreage that appears to have adjoined his earlier purchase from Taylor. The government granted David the land for bringing six people into the Colony to settle. It was at this site that David built his final plantation that he named "Assiskins Run" (also known as "Assassquin"). In 1693 David deeded this land over to his grandson, William Meriwether. Also, on May 12, 1697 David deeded 200 acres to his grandson, David Meriwether, with all appurtenances. This property was located in Kent County, which afterward became Hanover County. Because of the widespread destruction of public records during the Civil War we will never know the full extent of David's landholding or how much of it he gave to his family during and upon his death. We can safely assume, however, that for the time and place in which David lived that he was a major landowner. 

As a Gentleman of means in Colonial Virginia David answered the call to public service. On April 2, 1692 David was elected to the House of Burgesses as one of two representatives from New Kent County. The other representative was Captain John Lyddall. David took his seat in the House on Monday, April 4, 1692. The only piece of legislation that could be found that was introduced by David was an Act requiring that County Clerks maintain an office in their respective County Courthouse. This Act passed. (H. R. McIlwaine, p 380) No doubt that David either introduced or sponsored other pieces of legislation during his two years of service in the House, but a thorough search of the Journals of the House of Burgesses was not performed. 

Unfortunately, the name of David's wife is lost to us. Based on various sources, however, we can identify all or most of his children. His children are as follows: 

    1) Elizabeth, b. about 1650-54; married Nicholas Meriwether     2) Judith, b. 1658; married Robert Lewis and removed to the South     3) Angelina, b. 1660; married William McGuire and removed South     4) Captain David, b. 1662; d. September 1762; married Elizabeth Smith in 1695     5) John b. ? ; d. December 13, 1689; wife unknown. 

We have run numerous articles on "Tusculum," the fine old home built by David Crawford in Albemarle (later Amherst) County, Virginia. David was the father of Elizabeth Crawford, who married Nicholas Clayton Davies. Nicholas Clayton was a son of Henry Landon Davies and the grandson of Nicholas Davies (Old Nick). Many of our readers may have read these articles about Tusculum and our family's efforts to make a significant contribution to save this piece of American history without knowing much about the history of this interesting and accomplished family. We will try to resolve this with a series of articles on our line of Crawfords of Virginia. 

Composing this series is a daunting undertaking. There are several difficult problems in dealing with this family. First, the ancient origins of the family are only known as legend and there are competing legends about its early Scottish origins. Second, as was the custom among many Southern families, the same given names were given to children generation after generation. The second problem is compounded by the third, which is that generally the Crawfords enjoyed longevity. Therefore, we have to deal with the uncertainty of always knowing which Crawford a specific court or church record is referring to. Despite these obstacles to achieving a complete understanding of Crawford history, we will proceed to tell their story as we understand it. Perhaps the posting of these articles published in this newsletter on the Davies web site will attract other descendants of the Crawfords of Virginia who can add to or correct the information offered in these articles. Genealogy is always a work in progress. 

It is fairly certain that our Crawford ancestors immigrated to Virginia from Scotland. Beyond this, little else is known with certainty about the Old World origins of the Crawfords of Virginia. Much has been written on the ancient and noble forbearers of our Crawfords, yet it all is based on family legend and theories that have little basis in verifiable facts. The surname "Crawford" is not uncommon in Scotland . It may or may not be Gaelic in origins. Some suspect that the surname originates from two Gaelic words: cru meaning "the pass of blood" or bloody and ford, "a crossing or passage." An opposing theory is that the name is of Norman origin, coming from Crodh meaning "cattle" and port meaning "a place of shelter." The Norman conjunction of these two words would be crofort. (Crawford Family) The author also came across another translation of the Norman conjunction cro-ford to mean "where crows roost at a river crossing." Many of the early researchers of our Crawford family, who tie it to noble and royal families in Scotland, trace its origins to Medieval Scotland. Mr. George Crawford in his family sketches found in his "History of Renfrewshire" claims that the earliest use of the surname he discovered was in 1189 when a Galfridus de Crawfurd was a witness to the declaration of independence of the Abbey of Kelso from the Episcopal See. The problem with this statement is that in the 12th century surnames had not yet come into common use. The use of surnames tended not to become prominent in Europe until an area became urbanized. Urbanization was a slow process, especially in Scotland. Surnames did not become prevalent until the late 13th century (J. N. Hook, p. 10). Therefore, what often appears to be a family surname among the more ancient people we examine is an identifier rather than a true surname, although these last names were a precursor to surnames. In other words, in the example given the "Galfridus" referred to is identifies him as the Galfridus residing at a stream crossing where either crows roost or a place where cattle are sheltered. If Galfridus had a son also named Galfridus, but who operated a mill downstream from the crofort, he may have been known as "Galfridus de Molis," the Galfridus who owns the mill. 

Most researchers believe that the surname Crawford is of Norman origin. It is entirely likely that the name Crawford as we know it today evolved into a common pronunciation from all three of the possible original Norman and Celtic words discussed above. 

The history of Scotland is as fascinating a study as that of England, but it is one that is beyond the scope of this article. Nevertheless, a brief understanding of its ancient origins may be helpful in the understanding of the difficulty determining the origins of our Crawford line. There is a very good reason why both a possible Gaelic and Norman meaning of the surname is discussed above. Unlike Wales and Ireland, Scotland was not populated by a single ethnic group from its earliest times. Both historical and archeological evidence shows that "Alban" the Gaelic name for the Scottish people were formed by an amalgamation of two tribes, the Albanaig (men of Alban) and Picts. The name "Scotland" comes from the Latin name of the people who drove Hadrian to build his famous wall, "Scotti." 

The Scotland of Roman times through the 12th century was much smaller in extent than we see it today. It extended between the Forth, the Spey and the highlands. In the far north the province of Caithness was Norse. The people who resided in Galloway were known as the "Galwegians." Anglo-Saxons lived in Lothian, the area between the Tweed and the Forth. Running from the Clyde to the southern edge of the Lake District was inhabited by Cumbrians, a Celtic tribe that once occupied the whole of Cumbria in England. In the early 12th century King David of the Scots also refers to "Moray and Scotland" in a charter, so there must have been yet another ethnic group that the King viewed as being distinct from the Scots. To add further complexity to the cultural mix existing in Scotland, King David invited the "new French" nobility to Scotland in an effort to civilize his country. This so-called French nobility were of Norman and Norman-Anglo descent from Normandy and England. Despite the wide range of tribal groups that comprised early medieval Scotland, by the 13th century the various people came to recognize themselves as Scottish. This was accomplished without warfare and without political coercion from within. The people of what became Greater Scotland unified in response to a common enemy, the Normans of England. This included those Normans who settled in Scotland. 

The possible ancient origin of the Crawford family is the subject of legend. There is very little found documentation to verify or deny the legends. Yet the claim that the family descended from Sir William Wallace and was a member of the Douglas clan has been persistent through many generations of Crawfords. The exploration of the possible ancient ancestry of our Crawford line will be explored in detail in a future article. Our concern here is to pick up the history of our Crawford line where documentation exists to prove it. 

In subsequent articles we will explore the next generations of this fascinating family that contributed immensely to the growth and success of the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the United States during its critical formative years. We will also follow this family west to Amherst County where Captain David Crawford constructed "Tusculum," as well as taking the occasional detour to examine the lives of those not of our direct line who settled in the deep South. 

--------------------

•Name: David Crawford 

•Given Name: David 

•Surname: Crawford 

•Suffix: Sr. 

•Sex: M 

•Birth: ABT 1625 

•Immigration: 1643 

•PROP: 8 OCT 1662 James City County, Virginia 

•Note: He received a grant of 1,000 acres on Mattadegan Creek for transporting 20 colonists from Scotland to Virginia. David Crawford received extensive additional grants for transporting colonists, including: 1,350 acres on February 24, 1675 for transporting 27 persons; and 1,300 acres, 277 acres, and 196 acres in 1685 in upper New Kent County on the York River. 

•PROP: 7 AUG 1667 James City County, Virginia 

•Note: He purchased 86 acres in the parish of Martyn's Hundred, August 7, 1667 . 

•Event: member of the Virginia House of Burgesses Elected BET 1690 AND 1692 

•Residence: 1693 

•Note: He lived on his 277 acres on the Assasiquin Run, which he deeded to his grandson, William Meriweather. 

•Death: 1710 

•Note: He was killed by Pamunky Indians. 

•Religion: a member of the Church of England New Kent County, Virginia 

•Note: He was a vestryman at St. Peter's Parish, subsequently St. Paul's Parish. 

Father: John Crawford b: 1600 in Ayershire, Scotland

Marriage 1 Jane b: ABT 1630

•Married: 1654 in James City County, Virginia

Children

1. Elizabeth Crawford b: ABT 1654 in New Kent County, Virginia

2. Judith Crawford b: ABT 1658 in New Kent County, Virginia

3. Angelina Crawford b: ABT 1660 in New Kent County, Virginia

4. David Crawford b: 1662 in New Kent County, Virginia

5. John Crawford b: ABT 1664 in New Kent County, Virginia

6. Sarah Crawford b: ABT 1670 in New Kent County, Virginia

_______________________________

From the Poindexter Descendants Association:

DAVID CRAWFORD

David was born circa 1625 in Kilbirnie, Ayreshire, Scotland. David was the son of John Crawford "The Immigrant." John was born in Scotland about 1600, married, the after the death of his wife came to Jamestown VA abt. 1643, bringing son David with him. John was killed in Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.

David married Jane abt. 1649 in James City Co., VA. Planter of "Asequin Plantation" on the Pamunkey River near Newcaste in Hanover Co, VA. David was a member of the House of Burgesses of VA. (See Journals of the House of Burgess of VA, 1659, 1660, 1693).

In 1667, David had 86 acres of land located in the parish of Martyn's Hundred in James City County granted by Sir William Berkeley, the Governor of the Colony of Virginia. The second grant of land to David was in 1672 for 1000 acres of land as "lying in ye branches of Mattadegun Creeke, in New Kent County" for having brought into the colony twenty persons. He acquired other lands: 1,350, 375, 1,300, 277, and 196 acres, most in St. Paul's Parish and St Peter's Parish in New Kent County or Hanover County. It is said that his land holding included acreage for the City of Richmond.

"David Crawford belonged to the slave-holding aristocacy of the Old Dominion which so closely resembled the feudal nobility of earlier times." He certaintly had Indian servants whom he said he had purchased. The way of life in Virginia at this period became very gracious for those who could afford it. Almost from one generation to the next, this class went from primitive shelters to homes built of brick. Mostly constructed of two stories, these homes had large rooms and high ceilings, large windows with glass to take care of the heat in summer. The kitchen and any other areas which were considered other than living areas were separated. So was born the southern tradition of the 'main' house surrounded by smaller buildings for cooking, washing, and dairy products."


Mary Callaway Jones, in her extensive research of the Crafford family, reports that David Crafford was born in 1625 in Ayrshire, Scotland, immigrated to Virginia in 1643. He was married in James City County in 1654, built Assassquin Plantation sometime after 1685, served for a time as a Burgess from New Kent County, and was ‘killed by the Pamunkey Indians’ in 1710.

Reference: "The Meriwethers and Their Connections" by Nelson Heath Meriweather, Chapter III Nicholas Meriwether II (1667-1744) p 55, This Crawford History is taken from Mrs. Frank Armstrong (Crawford) Vanderbilt's "Laurus Crawfordiana: Memorials of that branch of the Crawford family which comprises the descendants of John Crawford, of Virginia, 1660-1883" (New York, privately printed, 1883), "Statutes at Large; A Collection of all the Laws of Virginia" Volume V, by William Waller Hening p. 257 September 1744 18th George II Chap. XXIV.

_____________________________

Unfortunately, the name of David's wife is lost to us. Based on various sources, however, we can identify all or most of his children. His children are as follows:

   1) Elizabeth, b. about 1650-54; married Nicholas Meriwether
   2) Judith, b. 1658; married Robert Lewis and removed to the South
   3) Angelina, b. 1660; married William McGuire and removed South
   4) Captain David, b. 1662; d. September 1762; married Elizabeth Smith in 1695
   5) John b. ? ; d. December 13, 1689; wife unknown. 

Children

Elizabeth CRAWFORD b: 1650
Judith CRAWFORD
Angelina CRAWFORD b: 2 NOV 1689
John CRAWFORD
Captain David CRAWFORD b: 1662 in VA

Children

Elizabeth CRAWFORD b: ABT 1672 in Assasquinn, New Kent, Va.
Judith CRAWFORD b: ABT 1658
Angelina CRAWFORD b: ABT 1660
David CRAWFORD b: ABT 1662 in Jamestown, James City, Va.
John CRAWFORD b: 01 Oct 1664 in Jamestown, James City, Va.
Sarah CRAWFORD b: ABT 1666 in New Kent Co., Va.

Owned Negro boy named Peter born 10 Oct 1688 New Kent Co.

John's son, David, born circa 1625 in Kilburney, Scotland when he purchased 86 acres on August 7, 1667 in the Parish of Martyns Hundred in James City County from Mrs. Anne Loveing. This land transaction was approved by the Royal Governor, Sir William Berkeley. (Land Patents for James City County, VA, Book 6)

The grant of land that David acquired was made to him directly by Governor Berkeley in 1672, securing to him 1,000 acres in New Kent County "lying in yee branches of Mattedegun Creeke." David received this land for bringing twenty people to Virginia to settle and develop the land. It was at this time that David relocated to New Kent County. David's land acquisitions continued in 1676, the year of Bacon's Rebellion, with 1,350 acres, 375 acres, 1,300 acres, 277 acres, and 196 acres all in New Kent County. Each of these land acquisitions were either purchases approved by the Royal Governor or direct grants made by the Governor. What is interesting is that prior family researchers have not addressed the apparent cooperation that David got from the Royal Governor while his ancient father was off fighting in open rebellion against the Governor's administration. There are plausible explanations for this, including but limited to John Crawford not having participated in Bacon's Rebellion, not holding a son accountable for the sins of his father, and wanting to keep David loyal to the Crown. On October 28, 1681 David Crawford purchased 1,300 acres from Mr. William Taylor in St. Peter's Parish in New Kent County and he received another land grant from the government on November 4, 1685 for an unspecified acreage that appears to have adjoined his earlier purchase from Taylor. The government granted David the land for bringing six people into the Colony to settle. It was at this site that David built his final plantation that he named "Assiskins Run" (also known as "Assassquin"). In 1693 David deeded this land over to his grandson, William Meriwether. Also, on May 12, 1697 David deeded 200 acres to his grandson, David Meriwether, with all appurtenances. This property was located in Kent County, which afterward became Hanover County. Because of the widespread destruction of public records during the Civil War we will never know the full extent of David's landholding or how much of it he gave to his family during and upon his death. We can safely assume, however, that for the time and place in which David lived that he was a major landowner.

Assassquin Plantation was bounded on three sides by water - on the west and north by the Pamunkey River, on the east by Assassquin Creek, and on the south by a steep 90 ft. gradient leading up to the flatlands of Old Church.

As a Gentleman of means in Colonial Virginia David answered the call to public service. On April 2, 1692 David was elected to the House of Burgesses as one of two representatives from New Kent County. The other representative was Captain John Lyddall. David took his seat in the House on Monday, April 4, 1692. The only piece of legislation that could be found that was introduced by David was an Act requiring that County Clerks maintain an office in their respective County Courthouse. This Act passed. (H. R. McIlwaine, p 380) No doubt that David either introduced or sponsored other pieces of legislation during his two years of service in the House, but a thorough search of the Journals of the House of Burgesses was not performed.

Colonel David Crawford (c. 1625[1] – 1710) was a member of the House of Burgesses and an early plantation owner in Virginia.

David Crawford was born circa 1625, in Scotland, emigrating to the Virginia Colony with his father, John Crawford around 1643.[2] His father was later killed in Bacon's Rebellion of 1676 by Pamunkey Indians.

Crawford amassed many acres of land and owned a large plantation that eventually became the site of Richmond, Virginia. On April 2, 1692 he was elected to the House of Burgesses as one of two representatives from New Kent County, Virginia for two years. He introduced a piece of legislation, requiring that County Clerks maintain an office in their respective County Courthouse.

____________________________________

The History of the Broaddus Flats Site (44Hn254) - Assassquin Plantation

by Tom Hobbs

Prior to the birth of Hanover County, Virginia (1721) the entire region just north of Richmond was New Kent County, one of the early counties (1654) founded in the mid 17th century by Englishmen expanding settlements and "hundreds" away from Jamestown. Although New Kent’s eastern boundary was established at about Ware Creek and the western edge of James City County, early records are unclear exactly where its western boundary was—presumably, the Monacan Indian empire or even the Blue Ridge Mountains. Regardless, by the middle of the 17th century, only a handful of brave settlers built homes west of Virginia’s fall line and into New Kent’s western frontier. Enterprising gentlemen, such as John Page, preferred to own land ‘on the upper freshes of the Pamunkey River,’ where indentured servants tended his tobacco fields, but he lived in Middle Plantation (later renamed Williamsburg). Even though Page and many other "gentlemen" of the era were "cittie" dwellers, most owned at least a few hundred acres of farmland in the hinterlands or even farther out into the frontier. Most were also expected to participate in all aspects of colonial life, including an Anglican Church office, such as vestryman or warden, and / or to hold a commission in the local militia. Page, for example, is often recorded as "Col. John Page, Esq."

It was, therefore, a little surprising to me to discover the substantial remains of a late 17th century home so far west of settled areas in eastern New Kent County. Because this part of Virginia was still in a "contact period" between Native Americans and Anglo-American settlers, it was not surprising to me to find Indian pottery and pipe parts in the same context with colonial artifacts. It must be pointed out, however, that Native Americans undoubtedly lived on the flat terrain adjacent to the Pamunkey River for thousands of years, and that they might not have been anxious to abandon these fertile hunting and farming grounds to European "persisters."

The 1995 discovery of a 2.5’ wide (and about the same depth from colonial ground level) trench on the site’s south side puzzled me and my archaeology friends. Over a period of four years we have carefully excavated about 50’ of it and have uncovered deep-seated posts (5" x 7") spaced every 8’ down the center. These now appear to have been support posts for a substantial wall, possibly for the defense of the house and its outbuildings. Some additional careful archeology on the "inside" diagonal edge of the V-shaped feature revealed evidence of two burned posts (so far) representing, we think, supports for a "cat walk" or platform along that side of the wall. This feature would allow someone to peer over the wall or look through gun slots cut into the wall.

Indeed, defense was foremost on the minds of these frontier settlers—only about twenty years prior to the 1690’s a concerned farmer named Nathaniel Bacon had fomented a rebellion against Governor William Berkeley over several issues. One of these was a concern over the governor’s participation in a lucrative trade with the Indians of outlying counties and his apparent disregard for mounting commercial (tobacco-growing & trading) problems and for protection against hostile Indians. At any rate, it seems that the governor was either unwilling or unable to raise and support an army large enough to protect an ever-growing colony of land-hungry, lower-class tobacco farmers. So, it appears that settlers along the ‘upper freshes of the Pamunkey’ were pretty much on their own to ply their trade and to protect their commercial and domestic holdings as best they could. To complicate matters more, Bacon complained to Berkeley that English indentured servants were not receiving the opportunities promised to them with the successful completion of their indenture. How these second-class citizens of 17th century Virginia protected themselves and their families is a matter for discussion elsewhere. Bacon and his militia, in the meantime, marched on Jamestown and burned the Statehouse to the ground. Berkeley fled to safer ground.

In addition to the above-mentioned worry, frontier colonists became increasingly aware of the influx of convicted felons, often fresh out of Newgate Prison in London, into Virginia’s and Maryland’s Tidewater counties. Most of them became ballast (literally) for west-bound ships, were committed to a seven-year indenture once in the colony, were banished from England forever, and did not receive the same "freedom dues" that other servants got at the close of their indenture. Apparently, many of these felon servants, both men and women, got into scrapes with the Law and with their masters. Colonial records describe them variously as ‘desperate villaines’, ‘jaile birds’, and ‘wicked convicts.’ Some ran away to other counties or even to neighboring colonies, where they were thought to have perpetrated acts of violence and sabotage. One such event occurred on April 1, 1729, when members of the King’s Council in Virginia advised the governor that the Westmoreland County home of Col. Thomas Lee had been burned to the ground by persons unknown. Governor Gooch investigated and reported that 'the recent outrage can be attributed to the secret Robberies and other villainous attempts of a more pernicious Crew of transported felons.' The House of Burgesses had tried in 1670 to halt the flow of convicts with their Jaile Bird Act but this law must have fallen on deaf ears in Parliament. The author feels that the rumors and official reports of these acts alone would induce a plantation owner in rural New Kent (later Hanover County) to build a wall around his dwelling house and outbuildings.

Further evidence for self-protection or participation in a militia can, I think, be deduced from some of the artifacts uncovered in the past ten years at 44Hn254. Flintlock gun parts and "used-up" gunflints are a fairly common find on the site.

In 1999 students found the iron frissen to a flint-lock pistol and an iron sword pommel to a 17th century rapier, a type of sword worn by officers and gentlemen of the day. These weapons were not being used for hunting wild game, however, the larger gun flints were most likely from "fowling pieces," used for doing just that. Also, the greater percentage of excavated faunal remains (bones) should be from those animals, however, an examination of the food remains excavated from the principle trash pit, the 9’ X 20’ cellar, reveals that the vast portion of bones are from domesticated animals such as cow and pig. (They also had a healthy appetite for oysters ! ) Further possible connection to participation in a militia by the man of the house was suggested to the author on a trip to Williamsburg several years ago. Ivor Noel Hume, retired archaeologist for The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, identified some fancy brass buckles from the house site as 'quite possibly from the hat bands of the type worn by militiamen of the 17th century.' Jamestown Rediscovery archeologists have in recent years unearthed similar buckles from the fort area there, so it appears that this style of hat was popular throughout the century.

Records for both New Kent and Hanover counties are scarce for this turn-of-the-century period and maps are non-existent. Major portions of Hanover’s records have been destroyed by fire twice in its history. Once during the Revolutionary War, British campfires were kept lit, so the story goes, with these nice, dry manuscripts by marauding soldiers under the command of Colonel Bannastre Tarlton. Eighty years later, concerned Hanovarians did not want the same thing to happen to the county’s records at the hands of the Union Army, so they were sent by wagon into Richmond ‘for safe-keeping.’ There, of course, they were mostly consumed in the great fire started by Confederates before the city fell to Federal forces in April, 1865. For obvious reasons, not a great deal of effort was made following the War to ask residents of New Kent and Hanover to relate to county officials who had owned their property in past years, not to mention about buildings long-since gone and forgotten. A horde of old papers and documents recently found in the basement of Hanover Courthouse may one day shed some light on early landholdings of the county.

County records, fortunately, were not the only ones kept during this turn-of-the-century period. Many parish records survive from this era, including St. Peter’s of New Kent and St. Paul’s of Hanover. Unhappily for the researcher, these records tend to deal with trivial (to us now) church matters, such as who tithed how much and sometimes where these monies were allocated. I have been able to glean some enticing information, like which men owned the larger portions of land within that parish and therefore tithed the most. These records do not, however, mention exactly where their lands were, other than to say ‘the lands adjacent to so ‘n’ so’s property’ or ‘land lying on such ‘n’ such creek.’ Names of plantations are never mentioned. William Waller Hening compiled all the laws made by the General Assembly for the period 1619–1792 into thirteen volumes and, while they are useful, a more reliable source can be found in N.M. Nugent’s "Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants." Volume Two: 1666-1695 is particularly helpful because of the recently-granted lands on the ‘upper freshes of the Pamunkey River.’

All of these records mentioned above have strongly suggested early ownership of this large parcel of land now known as Broaddus Flats by a few gentlemen and even a lady of the late 17th century. Today, some of the low ground in which site 44Hn254 is located still bears the old name "Woremeley’s Field." This undoubtedly is a reference to Ralph Wormeley, Esq. of Rosegill Plantation in Middlesex County on the Rappahannock River. Wormeley was on the vestry of the local Anglican church, served on the royal governor’s Council for many years, was acting governor for a while, and had vast holdings throughout upper central Virginia. Some of his land, for instance, became King William County (just north of the Pamunkey River) later in the 1730’s. Mr. Wormeley had some competition for property in New Kent County, however, and one record shows that a large parcel of the 4,000 acre Broaddus Flats was known as Assassquin Plantation by the last quarter of the 17th century. The earliest grants, probably beginning in the 1650’s, went to Sir Phillip Honeywood, William Taylor, John Sleeman (or Fleeman), Thomas Glass, Mrs. Hannah Clark, George Phillips, Andrew Davis, and to the west (near Totopotomoy Creek) the 3,000-plus acre tract known as "Mehixton" of Col. John Page. I may have found the earliest house, called Mehixton by Col. Page, in 1978 when exploring Summer Hill property with its owner, Mrs. Ruby Newton. This site, now a nearly-filled basement measuring 42’ x 24’, has been recorded at DHR with the title 44Hn94. I took students to the site for archeological excavations until the discovery of Broaddus Flats site in 1992.

By the 1680s, one sees a sort of "second wave" of westward-moving planters in this part of New Kent; names such as Poindexter, Crafford, and Meriwether. A short search of the records finds a George Poindexter (1627-1690) who emigrated to America about 1657 and acquired land in Gloucester County (north side of the York River) in March of that year. He soon built a house near Middle Plantation, probably in York County (northeast of Williamsburg), and called for his wife & family to come from England. He apparently acquired by headright a few hundred additional acres (fifty / person) for their transport to the colony. Three of George P., Sr.’s children, George II (b. 1651), John (b. 1652), and Elizabeth (b. 1654) were, according to York Co. records, given gifts of a horse and a cow by their uncle, Peter Efford, in 1664 and 1665. George P. II purchased 850 acres of land near Middle Plantation from Edward Thorp in 1667 and must have soon moved up in the ranks of young, aspiring planters. In 1679 George P. II helped establish (along with Col. John Page) Bruton Parish in Middle Plantation. George P., Sr. saw opportunity to the west and purchased land in New Kent County, where he built the brick & timber home "Christ’s Cross" (now known as Crisscross) in 1685. (There is some evidence that because of his participation in Bacon’s Rebellion and his aid to Governor Berkeley, George P., Sr. was awarded lands west of Middle Plantation in New Kent Co.) George P., Sr. was soon elected to the vestry of St. Peter’s Parish but apparently declined for poor health. The records are unclear but he probably died in 1690 and his wife, Susanna, in 1693. In 1704 George P. II was elected vestryman and served as churchwarden in 1705 and 1706. His youngest son, Thomas (1675-1719) would soon play an important role in helping ally, by marriage, three families of New Kent.

George P. II served on the vestry (and probably did business with) a certain David Crafford (also Crawford), who had purchased 1,316 acres of farmland from George P., Sr. in 1682. Crafford’s oldest daughter, Elizabeth, married Col. Nicholas Meriwether; his youngest daughter, Sarah, married Thomas Poindexter. Book #7 (1679-89) in Richmond’s Land Office records the following acquisition by David Crafford:

"Francis, Lord Howard … with the consent of the Council … do grant unto Mr. David Crafford … 1300 acres … in St. Peter’s Parish, within county of New Kent…beginning on a bank of York River at the mouth of Assaquin Run…first granted to Hannah Clarke by patent bearing date of the 10th of Feb., 1652, and by her death was…and by deed from Wm. Taylor unto David Crafford, 4th Nov. 1685." Mary Callaway Jones, in her extensive research of the Crafford family, reports that David Crafford was born in 1625 in Ayrshire, Scotland, immigrated to Virginia in 1643. He was married in James City County in 1654 (wife’s name unknown), built Assassquin Plantation sometime after 1685, served for a time as a Burgess from New Kent County, and was ‘killed by the Pamunkey Indians’ in 1710.

In 1693, the Meriwether’s son, William, was given a 400-acre tract by his grandfather, David Crafford—part of his farm called Assassquin Plantation. In 1730, according to Hening, Meriwether laid off 40 acres of this property for a tobacco warehouse on the Pamunkey River and shortly afterwards a town, which he called Newcastle. It was surveyed by Patrick Henry’s father, John, into half-acre lots with six streets parallel to the river and three leading down to the large commons adjacent to the river. The 52 lots apparently sold quickly, with Meriwether taking a full acre lot by the commons. In 1740, the Virginia General Assembly gave the power to William Meriwether and three other "Justices of Hanover" to build a bridge 12 ft. wide from Newcastle over the Pamunkey to King William County—the first bridge to span a tidal river in the thirteen American colonies.

Although the location of the town of Newcastle is well known today, nothing remains of its earlier splendor when, in the mid-18th century, it was seriously considered to be the new Virginia capital. Richmond won out in that race; towns such as Newcastle and Hanovertown (old Page’s Warehouse located a few miles up the Pamunkey) became ghost towns as the century wore on. A short study of the USGS Quadrangle map containing Broaddus Flats quickly reveals that Assassquin Plantation was bounded on three sides by water—on the west and north by the Pamunkey River, on the east by Assassquin Creek, and on the south by a steep 90 ft. gradient leading up to the flatlands of Old Church.

The answer to the question "Who could have built this structure ?" is now fairly clear in the author’s head. Taking into account its location, its probable date of construction (1680’s or 1690’s), and who would have had the means to build a home of this size (42’ x 21’ with a "kitchen wing" measuring 32’ x 17’ to the north), the author feels sure we have been excavating the David Crafford family seat of Assassquin Plantation. Since discovering an early 18th century pewter button with initials "TP" (Thomas Poindexter ?) a couple of years ago, it is quite possible that this structure passed on to the Crafford’s daughter, Sarah, and her land-rich husband, or that he lost a button while visiting his wife’s homestead.

Once again, a gap in the Hanover records obscures any motive for the Craffords, Poindexters, and Meriwethers to sell their properties in Broaddus Flats in the mid-18th century. The Crafford name seems to disappear altogether, probably because any male children did not survive and the female children married. By the 1760’s several counties west of Hanover, such as Goochland, Louisa, and Albemarle had established courthouses and local governments; familiar names suddenly appear on the new vestry and militia lists there—Poindexter, Meriwether and Crafford (by now Crawford). The Crawfords even moved out of Virginia, to South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia, where George W. Crawford was governor (1843-47).

The plantation house at Assassquin burned about 1740 (reference only in archeological context) and this large acreage was soon subdivided. New names such as Braxton, Syme, Tomlin, and Blakey appear on the rolls of planter elite by the early 19th century. Although adjacent to the large holdings of 19th century agronomist Edmund Ruffin, site 44Hn254 was not actually part of his tract in Hanover County. This "river field" and another, now called the "middle field," appear to have been subdivided among six families in the mid-19th century. County records reveal that Rowland Broaddus, grandfather of the present owner, purchased all these river-front farmlands from all six owners about 1890.

It is impossible to say when or even if the old home site was pilfered for useable materials. There has been a strange lack of brick, particularly whole bricks, on the site. This is especially puzzling in light of the presence of three subterranean footings for chimneys, and one of these being a 17’ wide fireplace / oven hearth. Also, we have recovered to date (after excavating the entire interior of the house) only a few hinges and other door / window hardware. Quite possibly, William Meriwether sent some servants over to his grandfather’s old ruins to confiscate any salvageable materials to incorporate into his home in Newcastle. More clearly, the house site became part of the cultivated landscape by the early 19th century. The "marl pits," from which Ruffin’s slaves excavated shell marl to spread on his fields, are less than a half mile from the Crafford / Poindexter / Meriwether homestead. In the process of sifting the topsoil on the site, we have recovered over two dozen Miocene-era sharks’ teeth that undoubtedly were part of the wagonloads of shell marl added to the topsoil by Ruffin and his neighbors.

Old roads in Broaddus Flats are difficult, at best, to trace. There were, of course, no wide, hard-surfaced highways like State Rt. 360, which slices Broaddus Flats in half today. One has to, therefore, go back to the earliest reference to roads, i.e. parish records and Patent Book No. 7, showing land transactions in the mid to late 17th century for this part of the colony. The parish records for St. Paul actually predate the establishment of Hanover County (1721); clearly one of the duties of the vestry was to allocate part of the tithing money and hire men to build new roads as well as repair the old. By the 1680’s work had begun on the "olde river roade," which in the 18th century stretched from Hanover Courthouse eastward to Old Church via the south side of the Pamunkey River. Today this road is State Rt. 605; it dead-ends now at State Rt. 360, and it is paved except for a two-mile stretch from old Hanovertown over to Rt. 360. There are but faint traces of this road on the eastern side of Rt. 360—a line of old trees and cultivated fields for a distance of about a mile leading finally to the site of old Newcastle. There are also a few references in Patent Book No. 7 to the "… Wading place where the gr. roade crosseth, etc." (probably Piping Tree Ferry landing later) and to property whose boundary is "…neere the horse road." The location of this road is a mystery, however, I recently saw an aerial photograph of Broaddus Flats taken in the 1950’s in preparation for the first quadrangle maps completed by the USGS in the 1960’s. This map clearly shows a dirt road cutting off the River Road (Rt. 605) and heading northward through the adjacent dairy farm and the "middle field" and on into the "river field," where Assassquin house is located. Traces of this road have long since disappeared under the plow, however, infrared photography may bring it to light again. Meade Broaddus, brother of the present owner, changed the road bed in the 1970’s when the Old Church Hunt Club was organized. This new road skirts the fields in its northward (and downward!) march past 44Hn254, into the swamp of "Poindexter’s Neck," and on to a modern boat ramp. The author recently spied an angular depression in the narrow tree line between the site and the Pamunkey River—a low area that could have been the terminus of a road leading down to a ferry or dock.

---------------------

NOTE: Brokaw's, Julia Penn, Papers of the Virginia Society, Colonial Dames of America, no. 2166 David Crawford, Burgess of New Kent Co., Va., 1692 states : "Dominicus de Crawford is said to have been the fifth great-grandfather of Margaret de Crawford, the mother of Sir William Wallace. Her brother, Sir Reginald de Crawford, is claimed to have been the direct ancestor of the Crawfords who settled in Virginia from 'Crawfordonia'." Margaret de Crawford married Sir Malcolm Wallace, they were the parents of Sir William Wallace (1272 - 1305)

Source1: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=monkeys&id=I13304 Source2: http://books.google.com/books?id=wa2-kNd99s4C&lpg=PA146&ots=Q99LxmVaPa&dq=david%20crawford%201704&pg=PA146#v=onepage&q=david%20crawford%201704&f=true

____________________________

From the Poindexter Descendants Association:

DAVID CRAWFORD

David was born circa 1625 in Kilbirnie, Ayreshire, Scotland. David was the son of John Crawford "The Immigrant." John was born in Scotland about 1600, married, the after the death of his wife came to Jamestown VA abt. 1643, bringing son David with him. John was killed in Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.

David married Jane abt. 1649 in James City Co., VA. Planter of "Asequin Plantation" on the Pamunkey River near Newcaste in Hanover Co, VA. David was a member of the House of Burgesses of VA. (See Journals of the House of Burgess of VA, 1659, 1660, 1693).

In 1667, David had 86 acres of land located in the parish of Martyn's Hundred in James City County granted by Sir William Berkeley, the Governor of the Colony of Virginia. The second grant of land to David was in 1672 for 1000 acres of land as "lying in ye branches of Mattadegun Creeke, in New Kent County" for having brought into the colony twenty persons. He acquired other lands: 1,350, 375, 1,300, 277, and 196 acres, most in St. Paul's Parish and St Peter's Parish in New Kent County or Hanover County. It is said that his land holding included acreage for the City of Richmond.

"David Crawford belonged to the slave-holding aristocacy of the Old Dominion which so closely resembled the feudal nobility of earlier times." He certaintly had Indian servants whom he said he had purchased. The way of life in Virginia at this period became very gracious for those who could afford it. Almost from one generation to the next, this class went from primitive shelters to homes built of brick. Mostly constructed of two stories, these homes had large rooms and high ceilings, large windows with glass to take care of the heat in summer. The kitchen and any other areas which were considered other than living areas were separated. So was born the southern tradition of the 'main' house surrounded by smaller buildings for cooking, washing, and dairy products."


Mary Callaway Jones, in her extensive research of the Crafford family, reports that David Crafford was born in 1625 in Ayrshire, Scotland, immigrated to Virginia in 1643. He was married in James City County in 1654, built Assassquin Plantation sometime after 1685, served for a time as a Burgess from New Kent County, and was ‘killed by the Pamunkey Indians’ in 1710.

Reference: "The Meriwethers and Their Connections" by Nelson Heath Meriweather, Chapter III Nicholas Meriwether II (1667-1744) p 55, This Crawford History is taken from Mrs. Frank Armstrong (Crawford) Vanderbilt's "Laurus Crawfordiana: Memorials of that branch of the Crawford family which comprises the descendants of John Crawford, of Virginia, 1660-1883" (New York, privately printed, 1883), "Statutes at Large; A Collection of all the Laws of Virginia" Volume V, by William Waller Hening p. 257 September 1744 18th George II Chap. XXIV.

view all 21

Col. David Crawford's Timeline

1625
1625
Kilbirnie, North Ayrshire, Scotland
1654
1654
Age 29
James City, , Virginia, USA
1658
1658
Age 33
Assaquin, New Kent, Virginia
1660
April, 1660
Age 35
Assaquin, New Kent, Virginia, United States
1662
1662
Age 37
New Kent, Virginia
1664
October 1, 1664
Age 39
New Kent, Virginia
1672
1672
Age 47
Assasquin, New Kent, Virginia
1698
December 13, 1698
Age 73
New Kent, Virginia

Killed by Indians.

1931
December 7, 1931
Age 73
December 7, 1931
Age 73