Flavius Constantius ., III (c.360 - 421)

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Birthplace: Naissus (present Niš), Dacia Mediterranea (present Serbia), Daciae, Roman Empire
Death: Died in Ravenna, Flaminia et Picenum, Italia Annonaria (Present Italy), Roman Empire
Occupation: General, Politician, Roman Emperor 395-421 (7 months, as co-emperor in the west with Honorius)
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About Flavius Constantius ., III

Flavius Constantius (died 2 September 421), whose name is traditionally anglicised as Constantius III, was a late Roman general, politician, and emperor. He was the power behind the throne for much of the 410s, and in 421 briefly became co-emperor of the Western Empire with Honorius.

Constantius was born in Naissus (modern-day Niš, Serbia) and was probably a career soldier. As a magister militum under Honorius, he gained note by his successful campaigns in defense of the Western Roman Empire, in which he pushed back barbarian invasions and ended the revolt of the usurper Constantine III. As a result, he was given the title of Patrician, and began to exert more and more influence over the weak Honorius. In 417 he married Honorius' sister, Galla Placidia, and on February 8, 421, was elevated to co-Emperor. At this point, he effectively ruled the West. Notably, Constantius reportedly complained about the loss of personal freedom and privacy that came with the imperial office.

Honorius' nephew, the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II refused to recognize Constantius' imperial status. Constantius reportedly intended to launch a campaign against the Eastern Empire to force recognition of his rights, but before anything could come of these plans, he died suddenly on September 2 after less than seven months as emperor.

Constantius and Galla Placida had a son Valentinian III, who became Emperor, and a strong-willed daughter, Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius' success in rising from head of the dwindling Roman army to Imperial rank obviously influenced the actions of later holders of the patrician office, a list that includes Flavius Aëtius and Ricimer; however, only Petronius Maximus ever made the same leap, and his reign was even shorter than that of Constantius.

External links

   * Wikimedia Commons logo Media related to Constantius III at Wikimedia Commons

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Constantius was a very competent Roman general who first makes his appearance in history during the early Fifth Century. Like many of the Roman empire's most illustrious military men, he had been born in Illyria. It is most likely that he had attained the rank of Master of Soldiers and Cavalry in the service of the Roman emperor Honorius by the year A. D. 411. He swiftly ended the rebellion and usurpation of Constantine III by trapping him in the city of Arelate. Constantine III held out for three months, then surrendered the city after the besiegers promised to spare his life. Honorius refused to honor the promise of clemency and had the ex emperor and his son executed thirty miles outside the city of Ravenna where Honorius maintained his residence.

During these troubled times, The weak Roman government in the West had to deal with a seemingly endless succession of rebels, illegitimate emperors, and barbarian invaders. Alaric and his Visigothic army had forced his way into Rome in 410, spending three days looting and pillaging the city. He left with his army and an enormous amount of treasure and headed South, raiding farms and villas throughout the central Italian countryside for supplies to feed his army. Alaric planned to take his army and his stolen booty and sail to Africa but his ships were destroyed by storms. Alaric suddenly died before he could make any further plans and his brother Athaulf became King of the Visigoths.

The Visigoths had taken the Honorius’ half-sister Galla Placidia captive when they left Rome. Constantius was deeply in love with her, and brought pressure on the Visigoths to release her. Instead, Athaulf married her. She was finally returned to the Romans in 416 and reluctantly agreed to marry Constantius on January I, A. D. 417.

Since Honorius was either unable or unwilling to have children, Constantius and Placidia were the most likely to produce a royal heir. Placidia had two children by Constantius, Valentinian and Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius was proclaimed augustus on February 8, 421 and became the Roman emperor Constantius III. He did not live to enjoy a long reign, though. Constantius III died of pleurisy seven months later on the second of September.

If Constantius III had lived longer, many historians believe that the history of the Roman Empire in the West would have been much different. He was an excellent general and had shown that he could effectively keep the barbarians at bay. He was also a talented administrator. This was the precise combination of qualities the empire needed in these times of crisis, and he may have been able to forestall the collapse of the West for another 50 years if he had lived another ten years or so. Honorius died two years later also and the government of the West without any solid leadership.

The family that Constantius left behind earned itself a place in folklore and legend. After a brief period during which the usurper Johannes reigned in the West, the government passed into the hands of Galla Placidia and her four year old son, Emperor Valentinian III. Galla Placidia acted as regent for the weak Valentinian for over twenty years during which she managed to play one powerful general off against another while still making use of their services in keeping the barbarians at bay. Valentinian III was most well known for being a Roman Emperor who enjoyed a reign of thirty years without ever really doing anything significant. Luckily, his strong mother and the gifted general Flavius Aetius dealt with the multitude of crises faced by the Western Roman Empire during these critical years.

There is a curious legend concerning Justa Grata Honoria, Daughter of Constantius and Placidia and sister of Valentinian III. People have been having secret love affairs ever since the dawn of history but when a member of the royal family has an illicit relationship, it can be politically dangerous. It seems that Honoria was feeling lonely and neglected and decided to remedy that situation by taking up with the manager of the royal estates. Whether the couple really intended to depose Valentinian and seize power was never really established but her brother believed they were conspiring against him. The lover was executed and Honoria had her titles taken away and was married to an old but perfectly safe senator. Of course, she resented this turn of events and wrote a secret letter to Attila, the Hun warlord who was currently ravaging the countryside around Constantinople. Attila acted on this flimsy excuse and demanded half the Western Empire as dowry! Valentinian wanted to execute his rebellious sister but his aged though still powerful mother forbade the act of revenge.

--------------------

ID: I11598

Name: Constantine III Gratianus of Rome

Prefix: Emperor

Given Name: Constantine III Gratianus

Surname: of Rome

Sex: M

_UID: D23E33CA201FD811BE490080C8C142CC53CE

Change Date: 11 Jun 2005

Birth: ABT 361

Death: 421

Father: Flavius Julius Constantius II of Rome b: 3 OCT 317

Mother: Fausta b: ABT 327

Marriage 1 Galla Placida of Rome b: ABT 363

Children

Julia Gratia Honoria
Flavius Valentinian III of Rome b: 2 JUL 419 in Ravenna, Italy
Flavius Julius II

Marriage 2 Spouse Unknown

Children

Helen of Hosts

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I11598

--------------------

Constantius was a very competent Roman general who first makes his appearance in history during the early Fifth Century. Like many of the Roman empire's most illustrious military men, he had been born in Illyria. It is most likely that he had attained the rank of Master of Soldiers and Cavalry in the service of the Roman emperor Honorius by the year A. D. 411. He swiftly ended the rebellion and usurpation of Constantine III by trapping him in the city of Arelate. Constantine III held out for three months, then surrendered the city after the besiegers promised to spare his life. Honorius refused to honor the promise of clemency and had the ex emperor and his son executed thirty miles outside the city of Ravenna where Honorius maintained his residence.

During these troubled times, The weak Roman government in the West had to deal with a seemingly endless succession of rebels, illegitimate emperors, and barbarian invaders. Alaric and his Visigothic army had forced his way into Rome in 410, spending three days looting and pillaging the city. He left with his army and an enormous amount of treasure and headed South, raiding farms and villas throughout the central Italian countryside for supplies to feed his army. Alaric planned to take his army and his stolen booty and sail to Africa but his ships were destroyed by storms. Alaric suddenly died before he could make any further plans and his brother Athaulf became King of the Visigoths.

The Visigoths had taken the Honorius’ half-sister Galla Placidia captive when they left Rome. Constantius was deeply in love with her, and brought pressure on the Visigoths to release her. Instead, Athaulf married her. She was finally returned to the Romans in 416 and reluctantly agreed to marry Constantius on January I, A. D. 417.

Since Honorius was either unable or unwilling to have children, Constantius and Placidia were the most likely to produce a royal heir. Placidia had two children by Constantius, Valentinian and Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius was proclaimed augustus on February 8, 421 and became the Roman emperor Constantius III. He did not live to enjoy a long reign, though. Constantius III died of pleurisy seven months later on the second of September.

If Constantius III had lived longer, many historians believe that the history of the Roman Empire in the West would have been much different. He was an excellent general and had shown that he could effectively keep the barbarians at bay. He was also a talented administrator. This was the precise combination of qualities the empire needed in these times of crisis, and he may have been able to forestall the collapse of the West for another 50 years if he had lived another ten years or so. Honorius died two years later also and the government of the West without any solid leadership.

The family that Constantius left behind earned itself a place in folklore and legend. After a brief period during which the usurper Johannes reigned in the West, the government passed into the hands of Galla Placidia and her four year old son, Emperor Valentinian III. Galla Placidia acted as regent for the weak Valentinian for over twenty years during which she managed to play one powerful general off against another while still making use of their services in keeping the barbarians at bay. Valentinian III was most well known for being a Roman Emperor who enjoyed a reign of thirty years without ever really doing anything significant. Luckily, his strong mother and the gifted general Flavius Aetius dealt with the multitude of crises faced by the Western Roman Empire during these critical years.

There is a curious legend concerning Justa Grata Honoria, Daughter of Constantius and Placidia and sister of Valentinian III. People have been having secret love affairs ever since the dawn of history but when a member of the royal family has an illicit relationship, it can be politically dangerous. It seems that Honoria was feeling lonely and neglected and decided to remedy that situation by taking up with the manager of the royal estates. Whether the couple really intended to depose Valentinian and seize power was never really established but her brother believed they were conspiring against him. The lover was executed and Honoria had her titles taken away and was married to an old but perfectly safe senator. Of course, she resented this turn of events and wrote a secret letter to Attila, the Hun warlord who was currently ravaging the countryside around Constantinople. Attila acted on this flimsy excuse and demanded half the Western Empire as dowry! Valentinian wanted to execute his rebellious sister but his aged though still powerful mother forbade the act of revenge.

Spouses

1Aelia Galla Placidia

Birthabt 390

Death27 Nov 450

FatherTheodosius I "The Great" (347-395)

MotherGalla (~365-394)

ChildrenValentinian III (419-455)

--------------------

'Constantius III'

Flavius Constantius

(died AD 421)

Constantius III was a Roman citizen born at Naissus at an unknown date.

As the 'Master of Soldiers' to Honorius he effectively became ruler of the western empire in AD 411.

His rise to power came at a time of desperate weakness by the western empire. Alaric had just sacked Rome in AD 410.


His brother-in-law Athaulf still remained in southern Italy at the head of the Visigoths.

The break-away emperor Constantine III had proclaimed himself and his son Constans Augusti in Gaul. Meanwhile their general Gerontius had broken his allegiance to them and set up his own puppet emperor, Maximus, in Spain.

When Gerontius moved into Gaul, killed Constans and laid siege to Constantine III in Arelate (Arles), Constantius III marched into Gaul himself and drove Gerontius back into Spain, laid siege to Arelate himself and captured the city with Constantine III, who was executed shortly after. Gerontius troops mutinied in Spain and murdered their leader, with the puppet emperor Maximus being deposed and exiled in Spain.

After this Constantius III moved back down into Italy and drove Athaulf and his Visigoths out of the peninsula into Gaul in AD 412.

Thereafter in AD 413 he dealt with the rebellion of Heraclianus who had mutinied in Africa and sailed for Italy.

Meanwhile a deal was struck with Athaulf who defeated a new would-be emperor in Gaul named Jovinus.

In AD 414 though Athaulf at Narbo (Narbonne) married Galla Placidia, the half-sister of Honorius whom Alaric had taken hostage during his sack of Rome in AD 410. This angered Constantius III who had had his own designs on Placidia. Furthermore Athaulf now set up a puppet emperor of his own in Gaul, Priscus Attalus who had already been a puppet emperor for Alaric in Italy.

Constantius III marched into Gaul and forced the Visigoths into Spain and captured Attalus who was paraded through Rome. Athaulf then was murdered and his brother and successor, Wallia, handed Placidia back to Constantius III whom she reluctantly married on 1 January AD 417.

Under Wallia the Visigoths agreed to wage war against other German tribes (Vandals, Alans, Sueves) in Spain for the Romans and were in AD 418 granted the status as federates (independent allies within the empire) and settled in Aquitania.

Constantius III had in effect brought back the western empire from the very brink of disaster. He had governed the western empire for ten years and been Honorius' brother-in-law for four, when in AD 421 Honorius was persuaded (much against his will supposedly) to reward him by raising him to the rank of co-Augustus of the west. His wife, Aelia Galla Placidia, also received the rank of Augusta.

Theodosius II, emperor of the east, though refused to accept these promotions.

Constantius III was truly outraged at this display of contempt from the east and for a while even threatened war.

But after only seven months of rule as emperor, Constantius III, suffering from a decline in health, died in AD 421. -------------------- http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~/james/f005.htm#I326X1

3. Constantius III, Emperor in 421, married in 417 as her second husband and against her will, Galla Placida, daughter of Theodosius I., Theodosius the Great, Emperor (379-395) and his wife, Galla. Galla, the mother, was the daughter of Valentinian I., Emperor (364-375), and his wife, Justina. Galla Placida married in 414 (1) Ataulph, Visigothic King (410-415). Theodosius I. was the son of Theodosius and his wife, Thermanis. They were the first of the House of Theodosius. He died early in 395, the last ruler of a united Roman Empire, as great in extent as that left by Augustus. He died in 421. She died about 450, after being exiled after the death of Constantius III. They had a son and daughter. See John Fines, "Who's Who in the Middle Ages", (1970), pp. 175-177, for details of Galla Placida. She was a half-sister of Honorius, the Emperor under whom Britain was finally lost to Rome.

-------------------- Flavius Constantius (died 2 September 421), whose name is traditionally anglicized as Constantius III, was a late Roman general, politician, and emperor. He was the power behind the throne for much of the 410s, and in 421 briefly became co-emperor of the Western Empire with Honorius.

Constantius was born in Naissus (modern-day Niš, Serbia) and was probably a career soldier. As a magister militum under Honorius, he gained note by his successful campaigns in defense of the Western Roman Empire, in which he pushed back barbarian invasions and ended the revolt of the usurper Constantine III. As a result, he was given the title of Patrician, and began to exert more and more influence over the weak Honorius. In 417 he married Honorius' sister, Galla Placidia, and on February 8, 421, was elevated to co-Emperor. At this point, he effectively ruled the West. Notably, Constantius reportedly complained about the loss of personal freedom and privacy that came with the imperial office.

Honorius' nephew, the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II refused to recognize Constantius' imperial status. Constantius reportedly intended to launch a campaign against the Eastern Empire to force recognition of his rights, but before anything could come of these plans, he died suddenly on September 2 after less than seven months as emperor.

Constantius and Galla Placida had a son Valentinian III, who became Emperor, and a strong-willed daughter, Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius' success in rising from head of the dwindling Roman army to Imperial rank obviously influenced the actions of later holders of the patrician office, a list that includes Flavius Aëtius and Ricimer; however, only Petronius Maximus ever made the same leap, and his reign was even shorter than that of Constantius.

-------------------- Constantius was a very competent Roman general who first makes his appearance in history during the early Fifth Century. Like many of the Roman empire's most illustrious military men, he had been born in Illyria. It is most likely that he had attained the rank of Master of Soldiers and Cavalry in the service of the Roman emperor Honorius by the year A. D. 411. He swiftly ended the rebellion and usurpation of Constantine III by trapping him in the city of Arelate. Constantine III held out for three months, then surrendered the city after the besiegers promised to spare his life. Honorius refused to honor the promise of clemency and had the ex emperor and his son executed thirty miles outside the city of Ravenna where Honorius maintained his residence.

During these troubled times, The weak Roman government in the West had to deal with a seemingly endless succession of rebels, illegitimate emperors, and barbarian invaders. Alaric and his Visigothic army had forced his way into Rome in 410, spending three days looting and pillaging the city. He left with his army and an enormous amount of treasure and headed South, raiding farms and villas throughout the central Italian countryside for supplies to feed his army. Alaric planned to take his army and his stolen booty and sail to Africa but his ships were destroyed by storms. Alaric suddenly died before he could make any further plans and his brother Athaulf became King of the Visigoths.

The Visigoths had taken the Honorius’ half-sister Galla Placidia captive when they left Rome. Constantius was deeply in love with her, and brought pressure on the Visigoths to release her. Instead, Athaulf married her. She was finally returned to the Romans in 416 and reluctantly agreed to marry Constantius on January I, A. D. 417.

Since Honorius was either unable or unwilling to have children, Constantius and Placidia were the most likely to produce a royal heir. Placidia had two children by Constantius, Valentinian and Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius was proclaimed augustus on February 8, 421 and became the Roman emperor Constantius III. He did not live to enjoy a long reign, though. Constantius III died of pleurisy seven months later on the second of September.

If Constantius III had lived longer, many historians believe that the history of the Roman Empire in the West would have been much different. He was an excellent general and had shown that he could effectively keep the barbarians at bay. He was also a talented administrator. This was the precise combination of qualities the empire needed in these times of crisis, and he may have been able to forestall the collapse of the West for another 50 years if he had lived another ten years or so. Honorius died two years later also and the government of the West without any solid leadership.

The family that Constantius left behind earned itself a place in folklore and legend. After a brief period during which the usurper Johannes reigned in the West, the government passed into the hands of Galla Placidia and her four year old son, Emperor Valentinian III. Galla Placidia acted as regent for the weak Valentinian for over twenty years during which she managed to play one powerful general off against another while still making use of their services in keeping the barbarians at bay. Valentinian III was most well known for being a Roman Emperor who enjoyed a reign of thirty years without ever really doing anything significant. Luckily, his strong mother and the gifted general Flavius Aetius dealt with the multitude of crises faced by the Western Roman Empire during these critical years.

There is a curious legend concerning Justa Grata Honoria, Daughter of Constantius and Placidia and sister of Valentinian III. People have been having secret love affairs ever since the dawn of history but when a member of the royal family has an illicit relationship, it can be politically dangerous. It seems that Honoria was feeling lonely and neglected and decided to remedy that situation by taking up with the manager of the royal estates. Whether the couple really intended to depose Valentinian and seize power was never really established but her brother believed they were conspiring against him. The lover was executed and Honoria had her titles taken away and was married to an old but perfectly safe senator. Of course, she resented this turn of events and wrote a secret letter to Attila, the Hun warlord who was currently ravaging the countryside around Constantinople. Attila acted on this flimsy excuse and demanded half the Western Empire as dowry! Valentinian wanted to execute his rebellious sister but his aged though still powerful mother forbade the act of revenge. -------------------- Reference: http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: . , Dalmatia [now in Croatia]

d. Sept. 2, 421, Ravenna [Italy]

Roman emperor in 421.

Constantius came from Naissus (modern Nis, Yugos.) in the province of Moesia. In 411, as magister militum ("master of the soldiers") under the western Roman emperor Flavius Honorius (reigned 393-423), Constantius helped to overthrow the usurping emperor Constantine (Flavius Claudius Constantinus) at Arelate (modern Arles, Fr.). He drove the Visigoths from southern Gaul into Spain in 415 but later recalled the tribe and settled it in southwestern Gaul. In 417 he married the emperor's half sister Galla Placidia. Appointed coemperor of the West by Honorius, with the title augustus, on Feb. 8, 421, Constantius died without having been recognized by the eastern emperor, Theodosius II. Constantius' son by Placidia ruled the West as the emperor Valentinian III from 425 to 455.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

History: Constantius III (died 421), Western Roman emperor (421). A general in the service of the Western emperor Honorius, Constantius became virtual ruler of the western provinces in 414, when he forced the Visigoths out of Gaul into Spain. In 417 he married Honorius's sister, Galla Placidia. The next year he recalled the Visigoths from Spain and established a kingdom for them in southern Gaul under their ruler Wallia (reigned 415-19). During the last year of his life, Constantius was officially recognized by Honorius as co-emperor.

History: Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. -------------------- He was Emperor of Rome (421). He was a common soldier who rose to the rank of Emperor. He defeated Gerontius and Constantine III in Gaul in 411, expelled Athaulf and the Visigoths from Italy in 412. He took custody of the Roman usurper Attalus in 415. In 417 he married the half-sister of the Emperor Honorius, and in 421 became Augustus of the West. -------------------- Empereur de Byzantium & Empereur de Rome (395-421) -

Keizer van Byzantium & Keizer van Rome (395-421) -

Emperor of Byzantium & Emperor of Rome (395-421)

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Constantius III, Roman Emperor's Timeline

360
360
Naissus (present Niš), Dacia Mediterranea (present Serbia), Daciae, Roman Empire
416
April 7, 416
Age 56
Ravenna, Italy
417
417
Age 57
Rome, Lazio, Italy
419
July 2, 419
Age 59
Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
421
September 2, 421
Age 61
Ravenna, Flaminia et Picenum, Italia Annonaria (Present Italy), Roman Empire
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father, Emperor
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father, Emperor
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