Devorguilla (Dearbhfhorghaill) of Galloway

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Devorguilla (Dearbhfhorghaill) of Galloway

Also Known As: "Devorgilla", "Dearbhfhorghaill", "Derborgaill", "Dearbhorghil/de/"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Fotheringhay Castle, Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland
Death: Died in Bedfordshire, England
Place of Burial: New Abbey, Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway and Margaret (le Scot) of Huntington
Wife of <private> de Balliol; John de Baliol and John Lord of Dirleton De Vaux, Dirleton
Mother of <private> de Balliol; Hugh de Baliol; Ada de Bailleul; Eleanor de Baliol, Princess of Scotland; John de Balliol, King of Scots and 6 others
Sister of Helen "Elena" (fitzAlan) de Galloway; Christina of Galloway and Marian Galloway
Half sister of Thomas "of Huntingdon" of Galloway

Occupation: -1289, Countess of Huntingdon and Lady of Fotheringhay Castle
Managed by: Noah Gregory Tutak
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Devorguilla (Dearbhfhorghaill) of Galloway

Dervorguilla of Galloway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

19th century portrait of Dervorguilla.

Sweetheart Abbey, nr Dumfries

Sculpture in the River Nith

Dervorguilla of Galloway (c. 1210 – January 28, 1290) was a 'lady of substance' during the 13th century, wife from 1223 of John, 5th Baron de Balliol, and mother of the future king John I of Scotland. The name Dervorguilla or Devorgilla was a Latinization of the Gaelic Dearbhfhorghaill (alternative spellings, Derborgaill or Dearbhorghil). She was a daughter and heiress of the Gaelic prince Alan, Lord of Galloway and his second wife Margaret of Huntingdon.

Through her mother, she was a descendant of King David I of Scotland. Born in or around 1210, she was a granddaughter of Maud of Chester, and of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, himself the youngest brother to two Kings of Scotland, Malcolm IV and William the Lion, Dervorguilla's mother Margaret being the couple's eldest daughter.

As her father died in 1234 without a legitimate son (he had an illegitimate son named Thomas), according to both Anglo-Norman feudal laws and to ancient Gaelic customs, she was one of his heiresses, her two sisters Helen and Christina being older and therefore senior. This might be considered an unusual practice in England, but it was more common in Scotland and in Western feudal tradition. Because of this, Dervorguilla bequeathed lands in Galloway to her descendants, the Baliol and the Comyns. Dervorguilla's son John of Scotland was briefly a King of Scots too, known as Toom Tabard (Scots: 'puppet king' literally "empty coat").

Life

The Balliol family into which Dervorguilla married was based at Barnard Castle in County Durham, England. Although the date of her birth is uncertain, her apparent age of 13 was by no means unusually early for betrothal and marriage at the time.

In 1263, her husband Sir John was required to make penance after a land dispute with Walter Kirkham, Bishop of Durham. Part of this took the very expensive form of founding a College for the poor at the University of Oxford. Sir John's own finances were less substantial than those of his wife, however, and long after his death it fell to Dervorguilla to confirm the foundation, with the blessing of the same Bishop as well as the University hierarchy. She established a permanent endowment for the College in 1282, as well as its first formal Statutes. The college still retains the name Balliol College, and the history students' society is called the Dervorguilla society. While a Requiem Mass in Latin was sung at Balliol for the 700th anniversary of her death, it is believed that this was sung as a one-off, rather than having been marked in previous centuries.

Dervorguilla founded a Cistercian Abbey 7 miles south of Dumfries in South West Scotland, in April 1273. It still stands as a picturesque ruin of red sandstone.

When Sir John died in 1269, Dervorguilla had his heart embalmed and kept in a casket of ivory bound with silver. The casket travelled with her for the rest of her life.

In her last years, the main line of the royal House of Scotland was threatened by a lack of male heirs, and Dervorguilla, who died just before the young heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway, might, if she had outlived her, have been one of the claimants to her throne. Dervorguilla was buried beside her husband at New Abbey, which was christened 'Sweetheart Abbey', the name which it retains to this day. The depredations suffered by the Abbey in subsequent periods have caused both graves to be lost.

Successors

Dervorguilla and John de Balliol had issue:

   * Sir Hugh de Balliol, who died without issue before April 10, 1271.[1]
   * Alan de Balliol, who died without issue.[1]
   * Sir Alexander de Balliol, who died without issue before November 13, 1278.[1][2]
   * King John of Scotland, successful competitor for the Crown in 1292.[1]
   * Cecilia de Balliol, who died unmarried.[1]
   * Ada de Balliol, who married in 1266, William Lindsay, of Lamberton.[1][3]
   * Alianora de Balliol, who married John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch.[1][4]
   * Matilda (or Maud), who married Sir Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan, of Bedale, Knt., (d. June 1, 1306),[5][6][7] who succeeded the Earl of Surrey as Guardian and Keeper of Scotland for Edward I of England.

Owing to the deaths of her elder two sons, both of whom were childless, Dervorguilla's third and youngest surviving son John of Scotland asserted a claim to the crown in 1290 when queen Margaret died. He won in arbitration against the rival Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale in 1292, and subsequently was king of Scotland for four years (1292-96).

[edit] See also

   * Lambroughton - Devorgilla and her Scottish connections

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g SCOTTISH ROYAL LINEAGE - THE HOUSE OF ATHOLL Part 2 of 6 Burkes Peerage. Retrieved on 2007-11-01
  2. ^ Burke, Sir Bernard, CB., LL.D., Ulster King of Arms, The Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire, London, 1883, p.21.
  3. ^ Burke, Sir Bernard (1883), p.21.
  4. ^ Dunbar, Sir Archibald H., Bt., Scottish Kings, a Revised Chronology of Scottish History, 1005 - 1625, Edinburgh, 1899, p.43.
  5. ^ Norcliffe, Charles Best, of Langton, MA., editor, The Visitation of Yorkshire made in 1563-64, by William Flower, Esq., Norroy King of Arms, London, 1881, p.295, where it is stated that Sir Gilbert Stapleton's wife's mother was daughter of John Baliol and Devorguil of Galloway.
  6. ^ Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford, 1904, for her husband's entry and where she is named Matilda.
  7. ^ Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.554, where she is named as "his second wife, Maud".

Sources

   * This article originated with the 'Sweetheart Abbey' guidebook, by J S Richardson HRSA, LLD, FSA Scot., published by the Ministry of Works in 1951.
   * Anderson, Rev. John, editor, Callendar of the Laing Charters A.D. 854 - 1837, Edinburgh, 1899, page 13, number 46, contains the Foundation Charter for Sweetheart Abbey by Devorguilla, daughter of the late Alan of Galloway, dated 10 April and confirmed by King David II on May 15, 1359 which gives relationships for this family.
   * Oram, Richard D., Devorgilla, The Balliols and Buittle in 'Transactions of the Dumfrieshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society', 1999, LXXIII. pp. 165–181.
   * Huyshe, Wentworth, Dervorguilla, Lady of Galloway, 1913, has been condemned as "romantic twaddle and error" by the historians of Balliol College.[citation needed]

External links

   * Balliol College named its 1989-90 fundraising campaign the Dervorguilla Campaign.
   * Information about the founders of Balliol College, Oxford, by the Fellow Archivist.
   * Dervorguilla Records was a record company founded by Balliol graduates, which from 1992-96 made recordings of Early Music, much of it dug out of the darker corners of the Bodleian Library in Oxford.
   * Find A Grave
   * History of the Baliol Family in Scotland
   * FMG on Devorguilla of Galloway

--------------------

Dervorguilla of Galloway (c.1210 - January 28, 1290 AD), was a 'lady of substance' during the 13th century, wife from 1223 of John, 5th Baron de Balliol, and mother of the future king John I of Scotland. The name Dervorguilla or Devorgilla was a Latinization of the Gaelic Dearbhfhorghaill (alternative spellings, Derborgaill or Dearbhorghil). She was a daughter and heiress of the Gaelic prince Alan, Lord of Galloway and his second wife Margaret of Huntingdon.

Through her mother, she was a descendant of King David I of Scotland. Born in or around 1210, she was a granddaughter of Maud of Chester, and of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, himself the youngest brother to two Kings of Scotland, Malcolm IV and William the Lion, Dervorguilla's mother Margaret being the couple's eldest daughter.

As her father died in 1234 without a legitimate son (he had an illegitimate son named Thomas), according to both Anglo-Norman feudal laws and to ancient Gaelic customs, she was one of his heiresses, her two sisters Helen and Christina being older and therefore senior. This might be considered an unusual practice in England, but it was more common in Scotland and in Western feudal tradition. Because of this, Dervorguilla bequeathed lands in Galloway to her descendants, the Baliol and the Comyns. Dervorguilla's son John of Scotland was briefly a King of Scots too, known as Toom Tabard (Scots: 'puppet king' literally "empty coat").

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dervorguilla -------------------- Devorguilla of Galloway1

F, d. 28 January 1289/90, #2734

Father Alan of Galloway2,3,4 b. circa 1170, d. 1234

Mother Margaret of Huntingdon2,5,4 d. Epiphany 1233

Pop-up Pedigree

Reference 3229

Arms* Her arms were Sealed: 1. A lion rampant (Galloway). Impaling an orle (Balliol). 2. Three garbs (Chester). 3. Two Piles (Huntingdon).6

Marriage* Devorguilla of Galloway married Sir John de Baliol, son of Hugh de Baliol and Cicely de Fontaines, in 1233.1,2,7,4

Marriage* She married John de Vaux.2

Feudal* She held She was overlord at Offeleye, Hertfordshire on 9 December 1276.6

Feudal She held Has her scutage in Herts., Lincs., Bucks., Rut., Leic., Cambs., Hunts., Ess., Beds., Northants., and Yorks. (S.R.) in 1286.8

Death* She died on 28 January 1289/90.1,2,9,4

Burial* She was buried (with the heart of her husband) at New Abbey, Galloway, Scotland.4

Family 1 John de Vaux d. after 1306

Marriage* She married John de Vaux.2

Child

Thomas de Vaux d. 1346

Family 2 Sir John de Baliol d. 27 October 1268

Marriage* She married Sir John de Baliol, son of Hugh de Baliol and Cicely de Fontaines, in 1233.1,2,7,4

Children

Eleanor de Baliol

Cecily de Baliol d. b 1273

Sir Hugh Baliol d. b 10 Apr 1271

Alan Baliol

Ada Baliol

William Balliol, Sir d. 1313

John Baliol b. c 1249, d. 4 Jan 1314/15

Sir Alexander Baliol b. c 1251, d. b 13 Nov 1278

Last Edited 26 Jan 2005

Citations

[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 95-28.

[S218] Marlyn Lewis, Ancestry of Elizabeth of York.

[S233] Frederick Lewis Weis, Magna Charta Sureties, 140-1.

[S301] Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Robert Abell, p. 12.

[S168] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots, 94-27.

[S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, p. 36.

[S233] Frederick Lewis Weis, Magna Charta Sureties, 141-2.

[S325] Rev. C. Moor, Knights of Edward I, p. 37.

[S233] Frederick Lewis Weis, Magna Charta Sureties, 140-2.

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Devorguilla (Dearbhfhorghaill) of Galloway's Timeline

1218
1218
Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland
1233
1233
Age 15
Galloway, Wigtownshire, , Scotland
1234
1234
Age 16
Barnard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England
1235
1235
Age 17
1241
1241
Age 23
1246
1246
Age 28
Bernard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England
1249
1249
Age 31
Bernard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England
1250
1250
Age 32
Bernard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England
1259
1259
Age 41
Barnard Castle, Gainford, Durham, England