|Nicknames:||"Techichpotzin", "Tecupuitzin", "Isabel de Moctezuma 1500 - Dec 9", "1550 (Geni Tree Match) Tecupuitzin Tecuichpo MOCTEZUMA (Ixlaxochitl) de Cortes. Aztec princess Tecuichpotzin (baptized Isabel)", "born in Tenochtitlan."|
|Birthplace:||Probably México-Tenochtitlan, Mexica|
|Death:||Died in Reino de Nueva España|
Daughter of Moctezuma II, 9th Aztec Emperor and Teotlaco de Tacuba
|Managed by:||Private User|
About Tecuichpo Ixcaxochitzin
Summary of Isabel de Moctezuma:
- Father: Motecuhzoma (or Moctezuma II)
- Mother: Tecalco (or Teotlalco, or Tayhualcan)
- 2. Axayacatl (murdered by Cuauhtemoc, likely to prevent division among the Mexica leadership, some of whom wanted to continue to cede concessions to the Spanish).
Numerous half-siblings (considering there were anything from 600-3000 concubines of her father, sources vary on the number, their actual number is probably too numerous to exhaustively count or list).
Husbands and partners:
- First Husband: Atlixcatzin (according to Juan Ecuatlatoa, witness in her 1548 suit), before 1519
- Second Husband: Cuitlahuac, 10th tlahtoani of México-Tenochtitlan, after July 1, 1520.
- Third Husband: Cuauhtemoc, 11th tlahtoani of México-Tenochtitlan, after Sept. 18, 1520
- Fourth Husband: Alonso de Grado, visitador general de indios, June 1526 (he dies 1527 "a natural death")
- Probable partner: Hernán Cortés, Conquistador (impregnated during her second long-term stay at his home in Coyoacan, present southern Mexico City, following Alonso de Grado's death)
- Fifth Husband: Pedro Gallego de Andrade (she gave birth about 5 or 6 months after the wedding), circa 1528. (He died April 15, 1531)
- Sixth Husband: Juan Cano de Saavedra (later in 1531)
Possibly with Hernán Cortés (only one, out of wedlock):
- 1. Leonor Cortés Moctezuma (m. Juan de Tolosa), b. c1528, may have been baptized under the name "de Andrade Moctezuma" (Lived separate from her mother, transferred to the home of Juan Altamirano after birth.)
With Pedro Gallego de Andrade
- 1. Juan de Andrade Moctezuma, b. 1529, baptized by Bishop Juan de Zumárraga.
With Juan Cano de Saavedra
- 1. Pedro Cano de Moctezuma,
- 2. Gonzalo Cano de Moctezuma,
- 3. Juan Cano de Moctezuma,
- 4. Isabel de Moctezuma (the Minor)
- 5. Catalina de Moctezuma.
- Birth: Either during the reign of Ahuitzotl (according to Miguel Tulnahuacatl in court testimony) before 1502, or July 1510 (according to 19th century Mexican historian Alfredo Chavero, who assigned the date probably based on testimony by Juan Cano de Saavedra, who was reportedly eager to explain why Isabel never formally succeeded Moctezuma, if she was in fact his rightful heir).
- Baptism: Likely November 1519, as she and her half-sisters Maria and Leonor, who were given as ransom to Cortes, were recorded by their baptismal names in contemporaneous records. But could be any time between November 1519 and June 30, 1520, during captivity under Cortes, or after Aug. 13, 1521, while in Cortes' custody again.
- Marriages and liaisons: Listed with husbands and partners.
- Death: July 11, 1550, according to researcher Amada López de Meneses
- Burial: Unknown.
- c1466" Birth of father Moctezuma II
- 1486-1502: Reign of Ahuilzotl
- 1519 November: Given with Maria and Leonor (baptismal names) as hostages. Reportedly adolescent "maidens" at the time of being taken hostage, though Juan Ecuatlatoa testified in 1548 that she was in fact married).
- 1520 June 30: Moctezuma, her father, dies after being pelted by projectiles while trying to calm his people following Cortes' return to Tenochitlan. Legend says that at deathbed, Moctezuma asks Cortes to be sure that his "favorite" daughter ("main and legitimate heir" according to Cortes in 1526) is well-cared for.
- 1520 July 1: After the Noche Triste, when much of Cortes' men (and many of Moctezuma's children, taken as hostages during the flight) are killed trying to escape Tenochitlan, Isabel, or Tecuichpo, is freed of Spanish captivity, and married shortly after to Cuitlahuac, who claims succession of Mexica. He rules for 80 days.
- 1520 Sept 18: Likely death date of Cuitlahuac, 80 days after the death of Moctezuma. Cuauhtemoc, Tecuichpo's uncle, establishes his succession after killing Isabel's brother, Axayacatl, who was apparently attempting to make peace with the Spanish near Tlaxcala (possibly as a collaboration to gain supremacy in what would have been a civil war in Mexica).
- 1521 Aug. 13: Captured with her husband Cuauhtemoc on one of the causeways out of Tenochitlan by men from a Spanish brigantine patrolling Lake Texcoco. Held captive in Cortes' new home in Coyoacan, now in southern Mexico City, separate from her ill-fated husband.
- 1522: Catalina Juárez Marcaida, first wife of Hernan Cortes, dies in Coyoacan.
- 1524, June: In search of the supposed treasure of Moctezuma, Cortes takes Cuauhtemoc from Coyoacan.
- 1525, Feb. 28: In present Honduras, Cuauhtemoc is summarily tried for attempting to foment a rebellion against Cortes and hung in the forests near Hubieras. (It is possible that La Malinche, or Marina, Cortes' translator and mistress, died in the journey south. In any case, her whereabouts are no longer traced after Cortes' return to Coyoacan.)
- 1526, June: After returning to Coyoacan, Cortes marries Isabel to Alonso de Grado, his appointive visitador general de indios. She receives a dowry of "1,220 houses” in Tlacopan and its dependent towns, villages and communities (in the end, this is reduced to 120 houses, though she always considered the entire town to be hers).
- 1526, July 5: Cortes is removed from office as ruler of New Spain by royal decree presented by Luis Ponce de Leon, who takes office from him in Ciudad de Mexico and begins his investigation.
- 1526, July 16: Ponce de Leon becomes deathly ill, and hands over governorship and the case against Cortes to Marcos de Aguilar (who was sent to investigate violations of religious doctrine by Cortes). Ponce de Leon dies 4 days later. Aguilar delegates duties to several other men, but retains Cortes as Captain-General (a move that by December he regrets).
- 1527, March 1: Marco de Aguilar dies in office. His successor, Alonso de Estrada, charges Cortes with poisoning his two predecessors.
- 1527: Alonso de Grado dies "a natural death" and Isabel returns to Cortes' custody at Coyoacan. During her time there, she becomes impregnated, many (including the daughter-to-come) suspect by Cortes himself.
- 1528: Terrified of further scandal while being politically persecuted by Estrada, Cortes has Isabel married off immediately to Pedro Gallegos de Andrade.
- 1528, March: After Estrada orders Cortes exiled from his home in Coyoacan and New Spain in general, Cortes sails with his son Martin back to Spain.
- 1528, between June and November: About 5-6 months after Cortes marries her to Pedro Gallegos de Andrade, Isabel gives birth to Leonor. She immediately has the child taken away to Juan Altamirano, Cortes close confidante.
- 1529, late: Gives birth to Juan de Andrade Moctezuma. The boy is baptized by Bishop Juan de Zumárraga, the highest member of the Catholic Church in Mexico.
- 1530: Estrada deprives Isabel of her former dowry of Tlacopan as part of the continuing prosecution against Cortes. Gallego uses all the family fortune in countersuits against Estrada.
- 1530, late: Cortes returns to Ciudad de Mexico and restores Tlacopan to Isabel, but does little further to assist her as he is in difficult straights himself (even with new titles and honors). Estrada orchestrates a final coup against him, an attempted prosecution for allegedly murdering Catalina Juárez Marcaida, his first wife, in 1522. The prosecution fails, but prevents Cortes from returning to power.
- 1531, April 15: Pedro de Gallego de Andrade dies, leaving Isabel and toddler Juan behind. Desperate to survive, Isabel marries shortly after Juan Cano de Saavedra, an ambitious rival of Cortes. He immediately begins a campaign to restore Isabel to power as the "rightful heir of Moctezuma".
- 1532, April: Juan Cano commissions an anonymous Franciscan monk to produce a genealogy of Mexica lords showing Isabel's ancestry and a list of their private land holdings. These are presented in the Relation Concerning the Genealogy and Lineage of the Lords, who have governed this Land of New Spain, and the Origin of the Mexicans.
- 1535, April 17: Antonio de Mendoza, the first Viceroy of New Spain, arrives in Ciudad de Mexico. Cortes retires to Cuernavaca, where he prepares for his final exploration of the Pacific coast of Mexico, which he sets out for the following year. Cortes is effectively out of her life by this point. (He would return to Spain in 1541, never to return to the New World.)
- 1542: Juan Cano sets sail for Spain to attempt to assert Isabel's rights as heiress of Moctezuma.
- 1542, September: Juan Cano spreads word of the inheritance rights he will be seeking in Madrid while visiting friends in Santo Domingo.
- 1544: Juan Cano returns to New Spain, but without achieving the recognition that he was seeking on behalf of Isabel.
- 1546: Juan Cano sends a petition to Crown Prince Felipe II to restore lands and towns taken from Isabel. The prince orders a judicial investigation.
- 1548, November: Juan Cano presents to the Audiencia Real in Ciudad Mexico a new petition listing towns and lands held by Isabel's parents.
- 1549, January 4: Juan Cano presents a second petition with a detailed list of 117 of those lands, settlements, and buildings belonging to Moctezuma and Isabel's mother, listed as principal wife (the list of her holdings had increased from 10 to 39 over the original petition that Juan Cano took to Spain in 1532).
- 1550, July 11: Isabel dies. Her suit is continued on behalf of her heirs by Juan Cano.
- 1556, October: The Audiencia Real confirms Isabel's right of inheritance, but observes that since the lands are already held in possession of others, and since their restoration would cause great discontent, it regretfully noted that enforcement of this decision would be impossible.
Las hijas de Moctezuma, que el Emperador de los Mexica dejó encomendadas a Hernán Cortés, estando en trance de muerte, eran tres. Al menos así lo expresa Cortés en el acta de donación: La mayor su legítima heredera Doña Isabel. A Isabel le asignó, con el título de "Señora de Tacuba", el pueblo de Tacuba, con sus habitantes, así como Yetepec, Chimalpan, Jilocingo y Ecatepec, más otras estancias, sumando en total mil doscientas casas (cfr. J. Miralles, Hernán Cortés, inventor de México, Tusquets, México 2002, p. 434). El documento está firmado el 27 de junio de 1526.
"Doña Isabel de Moctezuma: the emperor’s favourite daughter?" by Anastasia Kalyuta, ethnohistorian with the Russian Museum of Ethnography, St. Petersburg
- Part 1: http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/index.php?one=azt&two=moc&id=456
- Part 2: http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/index.php?one=azt&two=moc&id=459&typ=reg
For this article, she carried out extensive research on Isabel’s life at the General Archive of the Indies in Seville, Spain. The article is under expressed copyright and not within public domain (hopefully the links above remain durable for a lengthy period), but the bibilography provides excellent resources for the start of continued research, and are preserved as follows:
- Alvarado Tezozomoc, Hernando, 1975, Crónica Mexicayotl, Mexico: UNAM.
- Chavero, Alfredo, 1953, Historia Antigua y de la Conquista en México a través de los Siglos vol.1, Mexico: Editorial Cumbre.
- Chimalpahin, D.F. 2003 Diario: Las Ocho Relaciones y el Memorial de Colhuacan 3 vols, Mexico: CONACULTA.
- 1980 Códice Aubin: Manuscrito Azteca de la Biblioteca Real de Berlin. Anales en Mexicano y Jeroglifos desde Salida de las Tribus de Aztlan hasta la Muerte de Cuauhtemoc, México: Editorial Inovación.
- 1994 Códice Cozcatzin. 2 vols, Mexico: INAH.
- 1992 Códice Techialoyan García Granados, Toluca: Gobierno del Estado de México, Secretaría de Finanzas y Planeación.
- Corominas y Pascual Juan, 1954 Diccionario Crítico Etimológico de la Lengua Castellana 4 vols, Bern: Editorial Franke.
- Díaz del Castillo Bernal, 1975 Historia Verdadera de la Conquista de la Nueva España. Barcelona: Editorial Ramón Sopena.
- Gibson, Charles, 1964 The Aztecs under Spanish Rule. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
- Icazbalceta García Joaquín ed. 1941 Relación de la Genealogía y Linaje de los Señores que han señoreado Esta Tierra de Nueva España in Nueva Colección de Documentos para la Historia de México. Mexico: Chávez Hayhoe. Pp 263-281
- — Orígen de los Mexicanos, México: Chávez Hayhoe. Pp.281-308.
- Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de Alva, 1848 Historia Chichimeca in Antiquities of Mexico, ed. Kingsborough E.K. Vol. 9.205-316. London.
- López de Meneses, Amada, 1948 Tecuichpochtzin, Hija de Moteczuma (1510?-1550) Revista de Indias (9):31-47.
- Martínez, José L., ed. 1990-91 Documentos Cortesianos: Primera y Segunda Seccion. 3 vols Mexico: UNAM, Fondo de Cultura Económica.
- Oviedo y Valdés, Gonzalo Fernández de, 1995, Diálogo del Alcaide de la Fortaleza de la Cuidad de Santo Domingo de la Isla Española Autor y Cronista de Estas Historias, de Una Parte e de la Otra, Un Caballero Vecino de la Gran Cuidad de México llamado Juan Cano in Sucesos y Diálogos de la Nueva España: prológo y selección Edmundo O’Gorman Mexico: UNAM P.117-128.
- Pérez Rocha, Emma, Tena Rafael ed. 2000 La Nobleza Indígena del Centro de México Después de la Conquista. México: INAH.
- Sahagún, Bernardino, 1950-82 Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Santa Fe: University Press of Utah.
- Zavala, Silvio y colaboradores ed. 1939-42 Epistolario de la Nueva España 1505-1818. Recopilación por Paso y Troncoso Francisco, 16 vols México: Antigua Libreria Robredo de José Porrúa e Hijos.
- Zorita, Alonso, 1891 Breve y Sumaria Relación sobre Señores de Nueva Espana in Nueva Colección de Documentos para la Historia de México publicados, por J. García Icazbalceta, México: Vol.3. Pp. 69-205.
Doña Isabel Moctezuma (b. 1509 or 1510 – d. 1550 or 1551) (born Techichipotzin) was a daughter of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II.
She was the consort of the Aztec emperors Cuitláhuac and Cuauhtemoc and as such the last Aztec empress. After the Spanish conquest, Doña Isabel was recognized as Moctezuma's legitimate heir, and became one of the Mexican Indians granted an encomienda. Among the others were her half-sister Leonor (or Mariana) Moctezuma, and Juan Sánchez, an Indian governor in Oaxaca.
Family and early marriages
Doña Isabel's mother was Princess Teotlalco and her birth name was Tecuich(po)tzin, translated as "lord's daughter" in Nahuatl. Teotlalco was Moctezuma's principal wife and, thus, among Moctezuma's daughters Tecuichpotzin had primacy.
As a small child, Tecuichpotzin was married to Atlixcatzin, who died by 1520. After her father was killed, either by his own people or the Spanish, she was quickly married to her uncle Cuitláhuac who became emperor after Moctezuma's death. Cuitlahuac died of smallpox after only sixty days of rule and Cuauhtemoc became emperor and married Tecuichpotzin. She was only about eleven or twelve years old at the time of her third marriage.
Doña Isabel and the Conquest of Tenochtitlan
Hernan Cortés and his Spanish army entered Tenochitlan on November 8, 1519, and quickly took Moctezuma as a hostage. He was murdered by the Spanish.
However, when the Aztecs revolted and expelled Cortés and his army from Tenochitlan (La Noche Triste, June 30, 1520), Tecuichpotzin was left behind in the city by the Spanish. Aztec leaders quickly married her to Cuitlahuac, the new emperor, and, after he died, to Cuauhtemoc. Cortés returned in 1521 with a large army of Spaniards and Indian allies, mostly from Tlaxcala, to assault Tenochitlan. The Aztecs, their numbers and morale depleted by a smallpox epidemic, were defeated. Cuahtemoc and his court attempted to flee Tenochitlan by boat, but they were captured by the Spanish. On surrendering, Cuahtemoc asked the Spanish to respect the ladies of his court, including his young wife Tecuichpotzin.
In 1525, Cortés executed Cuauhtemoc and Tecuichpotzin was widowed for the third time.
Conversion to Christianity and marriage to a Spaniard
Cortés valued Tecuichpotzin as a symbol of what he wished to portray as the continuity of rule between the Aztecs and the Spanish. She was instructed in Christianity, converted to Catholicism, probably in 1526, and baptized as Isabel, the name by which she would thereafter be known. Every indication is that Doña Isabel, the former Aztec princess Tecuichpotzin, was devout in her new religion. She gave generously in alms to the Augustinians, to the point that she was asked to stop. Isabel’s education as a Christian did not include teaching her to read and she remained illiterate.
Cortés arranged the marriage of Doña Isabel to his close colleague Alonso de Grado in June 1526. Part of the marriage arrangement was the granting of a large encomienda to Doña Isabel. The encomienda consisted of the city of Tacuba (about five miles west of Tenochitlan (now called Mexico City) and was the largest encomienda in the Valley of Mexico, an indicator of the importance Cortés gave to Isabel. The encomienda of Doña Isabel endured for centuries. The Spanish and, later, Mexican governments, paid royalties in the form of a pension to the descendants of Doña Isabel until 1933 and a Count of Miravalle, the descendants of Moctezuma, still exists in Spain.
Cortés, an unwanted child, and two more marriages
Doña Isabel was described as “very beautiful” and “a very pretty woman for an Indian.” Her fourth husband, Alonso de Grado, died shortly and Isabel, about 17 years old, was widowed for a fourth time.
Cortes took her into his household and shortly she became pregnant. He quickly married her to another associate, Pedro Gallego de Andrade, and the child, christened Leonor Cortes Moctezuma, was born a few months later. She apparently refused to recognize the child who was placed in the care of Juan Gutierrez de Altamirano, another close associate of Cortés. Cortés however accepted the child as his own and ensured that she was brought up well and received an inheritance from his and Doña Isabel’s estate.
Isabel’s marriage to Gallego produced a son, Juan de Andrade Gallego Moctezuma, born in 1530. However, Gallego died shortly thereafter.
In 1532 she married her sixth husband, Juan Cano de Saavedra, by whom she had three sons and two daughters: Pedro, Gonzalo, Juan, Isabel, and Catalina Cano de Moctezuma. Isabel and Catalina became nuns at the first convent in the Americas, El Convento de la Conception de la Madre de Dios. Both daughters were well-educated, as presumably were her sons.
Death and inheritance
Doña Isabel died in 1550 or 1551 (July 11, 1550, according to researcher Amada López de Meneses). Her estate was large, consisting not only of the encomienda, but also personal possessions she had acquired during her marriage with the Spaniards. Previous to those marriages she had been an Aztec princess who owned nothing except her distinguished name.
Her will is one of the few existing indicators of her personality. She directed that her Indian slaves be set free, ordered that one-fifth of the estate be given to the Catholic Church, and that all her outstanding debts, including wages owed to servants, be paid. She had acquired jewelry and other luxury items and requested that many of these be given to her daughters and that other property be sold and one-third of the proceeds go to her daughters.
As a deathbed wish, 20 percent of her estate was to be given to Leonor, her out of wedlock child by Cortés. This was apparently a dowry as Leonor was married, or soon to be married, to Juan de Tolosa in Zacatecas.
Isabel willed the majority of her encomienda to her eldest son, Juan de Andrade, but his inheritance of her encomienda was disputed by her widower, Juan Cano, and Diego Arias de Sotelo, son-in-law of Leonor (Mariana) Moctezuma, whom he claimed was Moctezuma's true heir. The result after years of litigation was that Arias de Sotelo's claim was dismissed, and Tacuba was divided between Cano and Andrade.
The Miravalle line of Spanish royalty began with Isabel's son, Juan de Andrade. Her sons, Pedro and Gonzalo Cano, became prominent citizens of Mexico City. Her son, Juan Cano Moctezuma, married into a prominent family in Cáceres, Spain where the Palacio de Toledo-Moctezuma still exists. Isabel's last husband, Juan Cano, died in Seville in 1572. Importance
We know very little about Doña Isabel beyond a few facts of her life. She seems to have been more than a mere pawn in the hands of Aztec royalty and Spanish conquerors. Her will reveals her to have been a decisive and strong woman who was generous and thoughtful. She seems to have made the transition from Aztec princess to Spanish Doña successfully.
Her descendants were the most prominent example of her day of mestizaje – the mixture of Spanish and Indian ancestries – that would characterize the future of Mexico. The Spanish wished to inculcate in the Indians "the economic, religious, and cultural orientation of Spain." Isabel, whether by desire or necessity, was the first great success of the assimilation of Spanish and Indian.
- 1. Himmerich y Valencia located only three Indians in his analysis of 506 encomenderos in the secondary literature. He was unable to determine the background of another eighty-four. Himmerich y Valencia (1991), 27; Chipman, Donald E. Moctezuma's Children Austin: U of TX Press, 2005, p. 24
- 2. Chipman (2005), pp. 40-41, 60
- 3. Kennedy, Macy. "New exhibition challenges view of Aztec emperor Moctezuma as traitor. British museum claims leader of lost civilisation died at hands of Spanish explorers, not his own followers." Guardian 7 Apr 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2009/apr/07/montezuma-exhibition-british-museum-moctezuma, accessed 5 Apr 2012
- 4. Sagaon Infante, Raquel. Testamento de Isabel Moctezuma http://www.juridicas.unam.mx/publica/librev/rev/hisder/cont/10/cnt/cnt35.pdf, accessed Dec 30, 2010
- 5. Sagaon Infante.http://www.juridicas.unam.mx/publica/librev/rev/hisder/cont/10/cnt/cnt35.pdf, accessed Dec 30, 2010
- 6. Gibson, Charles. The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810. Stanford, CA: Stanford U Press, 1964, p. 124
- 7. Kalyuta, Anastasya. “The Household and Estate of a Mexica Lord: ‘Información de Doña Isabel de Moctezuma’’’ http://www.famsi.org/reports/06045/06045Kalyuta01.pdf, accessed Dec 30, 2010
- 8. Sagaon Infante, Raquel. "Testamento de Isabel Moctezuma" http://www.juridicas.unam.mx/publica/librev/rev/hisder/cont/10/cnt/cnt35.pdf, accessed Dec 30, 2010
- 9. Gonzalez Acosta, Alejandro. “Los Herederos de Moctezuma.” http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=1458325, accessed Dec 30, 2010
- 10. Chipman (2005), 50
- 11. Sagaon Infante, Raquel, “Testamento de Isabel Moctezuma.” http://www.juridicas.unam.mx/publica/librev/rev/hisder/cont/10/cnt/cnt35.pdf, accessed Dec 25, 2010
- 12. Chipman (2005), 68; Sagaon Infante, Raquel, “Testamento de Isabel Moctezuma.” http://www.juridicas.unam.mx/publica/librev/rev/hisder/cont/10/cnt/cnt35.pdf, accessed Dec 25, 2010
- 13. Chipman (2005), pp. 64-68
- 14. Gibson : pp. 423–424; Chipman 70-73.
- 15. Sagaon Infante, Raquel. "Testamento de Isabel Moctezuma" http://www.juridicas.unam.mx/publica/librev/rev/hisder/cont/10/cnt/cnt35.pdf, accessed Dec 30, 2010
- 16. Chipman (2005), 59
Chipman, Donald E. (1981). "Isabel Moctezuma: Pioneer of Mestizaje". In David G. Sweet & Gary B. Nash. Struggle and Survival in Colonial America. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04110-0. OCLC 6250866.
Chipman, Donald E. (2005). Moctezuma's Children: Aztec Royalty Under Spanish Rule, 1520–1700. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70628-6. OCLC 57134288.
García Granados, Rafael (1995) . "4744 Moctezuma, doña Isabel". Diccionario biográfico de historia antigua de Méjico. Mexico City: UNAM. vol. 3, pp. 148–150. ISBN 968-36-4291-8. OCLC 33992435. (Spanish)
Gibson, Charles (1983) . The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0912-2.
Himmerich y Valencia, Robert (1996) . The Encomenderos of New Spain, 1521–1555. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73108-6. OCLC 36279278.
Doña Isabel de Moctezuma's Timeline
Probably México-Tenochtitlan, Mexica
Reino de Nueva España
Probably Cuidad de Mexico, Reino de México, Reino de Nueva España
Reino de Nueva España
Ciudad de Mexico, Nueva España
Reino de Nueva España
July 11, 1550
Reino de Nueva España